We present a protocol for measuring in vivo aortic stiffness in mice using high-resolution ultrasound imaging. Aortic diameter is measured by ultrasound and aortic blood pressure is measured invasively with a solid-state pressure catheter. Blood pressure is raised then lowered incrementally by intravenous infusion of vasoactive drugs phenylephrine and sodium nitroprusside. Aortic diameter is measured for each pressure step to characterize the pressure-diameter relationship of the ascending aorta. Stiffness indices derived from the pressure-diameter relationship can be calculated from the data collected. Calculation of arterial compliance is described in this protocol.
This technique can be used to investigate mechanisms underlying increased aortic stiffness associated with cardiovascular disease and aging. The technique produces a physiologically relevant measure of stiffness compared to ex vivo approaches because physiological influences on aortic stiffness are incorporated in the measurement. The primary limitation of this technique is the measurement error introduced from the movement of the aorta during the cardiac cycle. This motion can be compensated by adjusting the location of the probe with the aortic movement as well as making multiple measurements of the aortic pressure-diameter relationship and expanding the experimental group size.
21 Related JoVE Articles!
Non-invasive Assessment of Microvascular and Endothelial Function
Institutions: Thomas Jefferson University , Thomas Jefferson University, Thomas Jefferson University .
The authors have utilized capillaroscopy and forearm blood flow techniques to investigate the role of microvascular dysfunction in pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Capillaroscopy is a non-invasive, relatively inexpensive methodology for directly visualizing the microcirculation. Percent capillary recruitment is assessed by dividing the increase in capillary density induced by postocclusive reactive hyperemia (postocclusive reactive hyperemia capillary density minus baseline capillary density), by the maximal capillary density (observed during passive venous occlusion). Percent perfused capillaries represents the proportion of all capillaries present that are perfused (functionally active), and is calculated by dividing postocclusive reactive hyperemia capillary density by the maximal capillary density. Both percent capillary recruitment and percent perfused capillaries reflect the number of functional capillaries. The forearm blood flow (FBF) technique provides accepted non-invasive measures of endothelial function: The ratio FBFmax
is computed as an estimate of vasodilation, by dividing the mean of the four FBFmax
values by the mean of the four FBFbase
values. Forearm vascular resistance at maximal vasodilation (FVRmax
) is calculated as the mean arterial pressure (MAP) divided by FBFmax
. Both the capillaroscopy and forearm techniques are readily acceptable to patients and can be learned quickly.
The microvascular and endothelial function measures obtained using the methodologies described in this paper may have future utility in clinical patient cardiovascular risk-reduction strategies. As we have published reports demonstrating that microvascular and endothelial dysfunction are found in initial stages of hypertension including prehypertension, microvascular and endothelial function measures may eventually aid in early identification, risk-stratification and prevention of end-stage vascular pathology, with its potentially fatal consequences.
Medicine, Issue 71, Anatomy, Physiology, Immunology, Pharmacology, Hematology, Diseases, Health Care, Life sciences, Microcirculation, endothelial dysfunction, capillary density, microvascular function, blood vessels, capillaries, capillary, venous occlusion, circulation, experimental therapeutics, capillaroscopy
Investigation of Macrophage Polarization Using Bone Marrow Derived Macrophages
Institutions: Texas A&M University, Texas A&M University, Texas A&M University.
The article describes a readily easy adaptive in vitro model to investigate macrophage polarization. In the presence of GM-CSF/M-CSF, hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells from the bone marrow are directed into monocytic differentiation, followed by M1 or M2 stimulation. The activation status can be tracked by changes in cell surface antigens, gene expression and cell signaling pathways.
Immunology, Issue 76, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Medicine, Genetics, Biomedical Engineering, biology (general), genetics (animal and plant), immunology, life sciences, Life Sciences (General), macrophage polarization, bone marrow derived macrophage, flow cytometry, PCR, animal model
Assessing Murine Resistance Artery Function Using Pressure Myography
Institutions: Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School.
Pressure myograph systems are exquisitely useful in the functional assessment of small arteries, pressurized to a suitable transmural pressure. The near physiological condition achieved in pressure myography permits in-depth characterization of intrinsic responses to pharmacological and physiological stimuli, which can be extrapolated to the in vivo
behavior of the vascular bed. Pressure myograph has several advantages over conventional wire myographs. For example, smaller resistance vessels can be studied at tightly controlled and physiologically relevant intraluminal pressures. Here, we study the ability of 3rd
order mesenteric arteries (3-4 mm long), preconstricted with phenylephrine, to vaso-relax in response to acetylcholine. Mesenteric arteries are mounted on two cannulas connected to a pressurized and sealed system that is maintained at constant pressure of 60 mmHg. The lumen and outer diameter of the vessel are continuously recorded using a video camera, allowing real time quantification of the vasoconstriction and vasorelaxation in response to phenylephrine and acetylcholine, respectively.
To demonstrate the applicability of pressure myography to study the etiology of cardiovascular disease, we assessed endothelium-dependent vascular function in a murine model of systemic hypertension. Mice deficient in the α1
subunit of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGCα1-/-
) are hypertensive when on a 129S6 (S6) background (sGCα1-/-S6
) but not when on a C57BL/6 (B6) background (sGCα1-/-B6
). Using pressure myography, we demonstrate that sGCα1
-deficiency results in impaired endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. The vascular dysfunction is more pronounced in sGCα1-/-S6
than in sGCα1-/-B6
mice, likely contributing to the higher blood pressure in sGCα1-/-S6
than in sGCα1-/-B6
Pressure myography is a relatively simple, but sensitive and mechanistically useful technique that can be used to assess the effect of various stimuli on vascular contraction and relaxation, thereby augmenting our insight into the mechanisms underlying cardiovascular disease.
Physiology, Issue 76, Biomedical Engineering, Medicine, Biophysics, Bioengineering, Anatomy, Cardiology, Hematology, Vascular Diseases, Cardiovascular System, mice, resistance arteries, pressure myography, myography, myograph, NO-cGMP signaling, signaling, animal model
Laser-Induced Chronic Ocular Hypertension Model on SD Rats
Institutions: The University of Hong Kong - HKU.
Glaucoma is one of the major causes of blindness in the world. Elevated intraocular pressure is a major risk factor. Laser photocoagulation induced ocular hypertension is one of the well established animal models. This video demonstrates how to induce ocular hypertension by Argon laser photocoagulation in rat.
Neuroscience, Issue 10, glaucoma, ocular hypertension, rat
Intravascular Perfusion of Carbon Black Ink Allows Reliable Visualization of Cerebral Vessels
Institutions: University of Duisburg-Essen Medical School.
The anatomical structure of cerebral vessels is a key determinant for brain hemodynamics as well as the severity of injury following ischemic insults. The cerebral vasculature dynamically responds to various pathophysiological states and it exhibits considerable differences between strains and under conditions of genetic manipulations. Essentially, a reliable technique for intracranial vessel staining is essential in order to study the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke. Until recently, a set of different techniques has been employed to visualize the cerebral vasculature including injection of low viscosity resin, araldite F, gelatin mixed with various dyes1
carmine red, India ink) or latex with2
carbon black. Perfusion of white latex compound through the ascending aorta has been first reported by Coyle and Jokelainen3
. Maeda et al.2
have modified the protocol by adding carbon black ink to the latex compound for improved contrast visualization of the vessels after saline perfusion of the brain. However, inefficient perfusion and inadequate filling of the vessels are frequently experienced due to high viscosity of the latex compound4
. Therefore, we have described a simple and cost-effective technique using a mixture of two commercially available carbon black inks (CB1 and CB2) to visualize the cerebral vasculature in a reproducible manner5
. We have shown that perfusion with CB1+CB2 in mice results in staining of significantly smaller cerebral vessels at a higher density in comparison to latex perfusion5
. Here, we describe our protocol to identify the anastomotic points between the anterior (ACA) and middle cerebral arteries (MCA) to study vessel variations in mice with different genetic backgrounds. Finally, we demonstrate the feasibility of our technique in a transient focal cerebral ischemia model in mice by combining CB1+CB2-mediated vessel staining with TTC staining in various degrees of ischemic injuries.
Neuroscience, Issue 71, Neurobiology, Medicine, Anatomy, Physiology, Cellular Biology, Immunology, Neurology, Cerebral vascular anatomy, colored latex, carbon black, ink, stroke, vascular territories, brain, vessels, imaging, animal model
A Model of Chronic Nutrient Infusion in the Rat
Institutions: CRCHUM, University of Montreal.
Chronic exposure to excessive levels of nutrients is postulated to affect the function of several organs and tissues and to contribute to the development of the many complications associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome, including type 2 diabetes. To study the mechanisms by which excessive levels of glucose and fatty acids affect the pancreatic beta-cell and the secretion of insulin, we have established a chronic nutrient infusion model in the rat. The procedure consists of catheterizing the right jugular vein and left carotid artery under general anesthesia; allowing a 7-day recuperation period; connecting the catheters to the pumps using a swivel and counterweight system that enables the animal to move freely in the cage; and infusing glucose and/or Intralipid (a soybean oil emulsion which generates a mixture of approximately 80% unsaturated/20% saturated fatty acids when infused with heparin) for 72 hr. This model offers several advantages, including the possibility to finely modulate the target levels of circulating glucose and fatty acids; the option to co-infuse pharmacological compounds; and the relatively short time frame as opposed to dietary models. It can be used to examine the mechanisms of nutrient-induced dysfunction in a variety of organs and to test the effectiveness of drugs in this context.
Biomedical Engineering, Issue 78, Medicine, Anatomy, Physiology, Basic Protocols, Surgery, Metabolic Diseases, Infusions, Intravenous, Infusion Pumps, Glucolipotoxicity, Rat, Infusion, Glucose, Intralipid, Catheter, canulation, canula, diabetes, animal model
Imaging Leukocyte Adhesion to the Vascular Endothelium at High Intraluminal Pressure
Institutions: Monash University.
Worldwide, hypertension is reported to be in approximately a quarter of the population and is the leading biomedical risk factor for mortality worldwide. In the vasculature hypertension is associated with endothelial dysfunction and increased inflammation leading to atherosclerosis and various disease states such as chronic kidney disease2
and heart failure4
. An initial step in vascular inflammation leading to atherogenesis is the adhesion cascade which involves the rolling, tethering, adherence and subsequent transmigration of leukocytes through the endothelium. Recruitment and accumulation of leukocytes to the endothelium is mediated by an upregulation of adhesion molecules such as vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and E-selectin as well as increases in cytokine and chemokine release and an upregulation of reactive oxygen species5
. In vitro
methods such as static adhesion assays help to determine mechanisms involved in cell-to-cell adhesion as well as the analysis of cell adhesion molecules. Methods employed in previous in vitro
studies have demonstrated that acute increases in pressure on the endothelium can lead to monocyte adhesion, an upregulation of adhesion molecules and inflammatory markers6
however, similar to many in vitro
assays, these findings have not been performed in real time under physiological flow conditions, nor with whole blood. Therefore, in vivo
assays are increasingly utilised in animal models to demonstrate vascular inflammation and plaque development. Intravital microscopy is now widely used to assess leukocyte adhesion, rolling, migration and transmigration7-9
. When combining the effects of pressure on leukocyte to endothelial adhesion the in vivo
studies are less extensive. One such study examines the real time effects of flow and shear on arterial growth and remodelling but inflammatory markers were only assessed via immunohistochemistry10
. Here we present a model for recording leukocyte adhesion in real time in intact pressurised blood vessels using whole blood perfusion. The methodology is a modification of an ex vivo
vessel chamber perfusion model9
which enables real-time analysis of leukocyte -endothelial adhesive interactions in intact vessels. Our modification enables the manipulation of the intraluminal pressure up to 200 mmHg allowing for study not only under physiological flow conditions but also pressure conditions. While pressure myography systems have been previously demonstrated to observe vessel wall and lumen diameter11
as well as vessel contraction this is the first time demonstrating leukocyte-endothelial interactions in real time. Here we demonstrate the technique using carotid arteries harvested from rats and cannulated to a custom-made flow chamber coupled to a fluorescent microscope. The vessel chamber is equipped with a large bottom coverglass allowing a large diameter objective lens with short working distance to image the vessel. Furthermore, selected agonist and/or antagonists can be utilized to further investigate the mechanisms controlling cell adhesion. Advantages of this method over intravital microscopy include no involvement of invasive surgery and therefore a higher throughput can be obtained. This method also enables the use of localised inhibitor treatment to the desired vessel whereas intravital only enables systemic inhibitor treatment.
Immunology, Issue 54, Leukocyte adhesion, intraluminal pressure, endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, hypertension
Assessing Myogenic Response and Vasoactivity In Resistance Mesenteric Arteries Using Pressure Myography
Institutions: Georgia Regents University, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Georgia Regents University.
Small resistance arteries constrict and dilate respectively in response to increased or decreased intraluminal pressure; this phenomenon known as myogenic response is a key regulator of local blood flow. In isobaric conditions small resistance arteries develop sustained constriction known as myogenic tone (MT), which is a major determinant of systemic vascular resistance (SVR). Hence, ex vivo
pressurized preparations of small resistance arteries are major tools to study microvascular function in near-physiological states. To achieve this, a freshly isolated intact segment of a small resistance artery (diameter ~260 μm) is mounted onto two small glass cannulas and pressurized. These arterial preparations retain most in vivo
characteristics and permit assessment of vascular tone in real-time. Here we provide a detailed protocol for assessing vasoactivity in pressurized small resistance mesenteric arteries from rats; these arteries develop sustained vasoconstriction - approximately 25% of maximal diameter - when pressurized at 70 mmHg. These arterial preparations may be used to study the effect of investigational compounds on relationship between intra-arterial pressure and vasoactivity and determine changes in microvascular function in animal models of various diseases.
Medicine, Issue 101, Mesenteric Artery, Superior, Arterioles, Muscle, Smooth, Vascular, Hypertension, Hypotension, Pressure myography, myogenic tone, myogenic response, resistance arteries
Mesenteric Artery Contraction and Relaxation Studies Using Automated Wire Myography
Institutions: North Carolina Central University, Durham, North Carolina Central University, Durham, Wake Forest University School of Medicine.
Proximal resistance vessels, such as the mesenteric arteries, contribute substantially to the peripheral resistance. These small vessels of between 100-400 μm in diameter function primarily in directing blood flow to various organs according to the overall requirements of the body. The rat mesenteric artery has a diameter greater than 100 μm. The myography technique, first described by Mulvay and Halpern1
, was based on the method proposed by Bevan and Osher2
. The technique provides information about small vessels under isometric conditions, where substantial shortening of the muscle preparation is prevented. Since force production and sensitivity of vessels to different agonists is dependent on the extent of stretch, according to active tension-length relation, it is essential to conduct contraction studies under isometric conditions to prevent compliance of the mounting wires. Stainless steel wires are preferred to tungsten wires because of oxidation of the latter, which affects recorded responses3
.The technique allows for the comparison of agonist-induced contractions of mounted vessels to obtain evidence for normal function of vascular smooth muscle cell receptors.
We have shown in several studies that isolated mesenteric arteries that are contracted with phenylyephrine relax upon addition of cumulative concentrations of extracellular calcium (Ca2+e
). The findings led us to conclude that perivascular sensory nerves, which express the G protein-coupled Ca2+
-sensing receptor (CaR), mediate this vasorelaxation response. Using an automated wire myography method, we show here that mesenteric arteries from Wistar, Dahl salt-sensitive(DS) and Dahl salt-resistant (DR) rats respond differently to Ca2+e
. Tissues from Wistar rats showed higher Ca2+
-sensitivity compared to those from DR and DS. Reduced CaR expression in mesenteric arteries from DS rats correlates with reduced Ca2+e
-induced relaxation of isolated, pre-contracted arteries. The data suggest that the CaR is required for relaxation of mesenteric arteries under increased adrenergic tone, as occurs in hypertension, and indicate an inherent defect in the CaR signaling pathway in Dahl animals, which is much more severe in DS.
The method is useful in determining vascular reactivity ex vivo
in mesenteric resistance arteries and similar small blood vessels and comparisons between different agonists and/or antagonists can be easily and consistently assessed side-by-side6,7,8
Medicine, Issue 55, cardiovascular, resistant arteries, contraction, relaxation, myography
Isolation and Quantitative Immunocytochemical Characterization of Primary Myogenic Cells and Fibroblasts from Human Skeletal Muscle
Institutions: King's College London, Cambridge Stem Cell Institute.
The repair and regeneration of skeletal muscle requires the action of satellite cells, which are the resident muscle stem cells. These can be isolated from human muscle biopsy samples using enzymatic digestion and their myogenic properties studied in culture. Quantitatively, the two main adherent cell types obtained from enzymatic digestion are: (i) the satellite cells (termed myogenic cells or muscle precursor cells), identified initially as CD56+
and later as CD56+
cells and (ii) muscle-derived fibroblasts, identified as CD56–
. Fibroblasts proliferate very efficiently in culture and in mixed cell populations these cells may overrun myogenic cells to dominate the culture. The isolation and purification of different cell types from human muscle is thus an important methodological consideration when trying to investigate the innate behavior of either cell type in culture. Here we describe a system of sorting based on the gentle enzymatic digestion of cells using collagenase and dispase followed by magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) which gives both a high purity (>95% myogenic cells) and good yield (~2.8 x 106
± 8.87 x 105
cells/g tissue after 7 days in vitro
) for experiments in culture. This approach is based on incubating the mixed muscle-derived cell population with magnetic microbeads beads conjugated to an antibody against CD56 and then passing cells though a magnetic field. CD56+
cells bound to microbeads are retained by the field whereas CD56–
cells pass unimpeded through the column. Cell suspensions from any stage of the sorting process can be plated and cultured. Following a given intervention, cell morphology, and the expression and localization of proteins including nuclear transcription factors can be quantified using immunofluorescent labeling with specific antibodies and an image processing and analysis package.
Developmental Biology, Issue 95, Stem cell Biology, Tissue Engineering, Stem Cells, Satellite Cells, Skeletal Muscle, Adipocytes, Myogenic Cells, Myoblasts, Fibroblasts, Magnetic Activated Cell Sorting, Image Analysis
A Method for Mouse Pancreatic Islet Isolation and Intracellular cAMP Determination
Institutions: University of Wisconsin-Madison, University of Wisconsin-Madison, University of Waterloo.
Uncontrolled glycemia is a hallmark of diabetes mellitus and promotes morbidities like neuropathy, nephropathy, and retinopathy. With the increasing prevalence of diabetes, both immune-mediated type 1 and obesity-linked type 2, studies aimed at delineating diabetes pathophysiology and therapeutic mechanisms are of critical importance. The β-cells of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans are responsible for appropriately secreting insulin in response to elevated blood glucose concentrations. In addition to glucose and other nutrients, the β-cells are also stimulated by specific hormones, termed incretins, which are secreted from the gut in response to a meal and act on β-cell receptors that increase the production of intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Decreased β-cell function, mass, and incretin responsiveness are well-understood to contribute to the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes, and are also being increasingly linked with type 1 diabetes. The present mouse islet isolation and cAMP determination protocol can be a tool to help delineate mechanisms promoting disease progression and therapeutic interventions, particularly those that are mediated by the incretin receptors or related receptors that act through modulation of intracellular cAMP production. While only cAMP measurements will be described, the described islet isolation protocol creates a clean preparation that also allows for many other downstream applications, including glucose stimulated insulin secretion, [3H
]-thymidine incorporation, protein abundance, and mRNA expression.
Physiology, Issue 88, islet, isolation, insulin secretion, β-cell, diabetes, cAMP production, mouse
Setting-up an In Vitro Model of Rat Blood-brain Barrier (BBB): A Focus on BBB Impermeability and Receptor-mediated Transport
Institutions: VECT-HORUS SAS, CNRS, NICN UMR 7259.
The blood brain barrier (BBB) specifically regulates molecular and cellular flux between the blood and the nervous tissue. Our aim was to develop and characterize a highly reproducible rat syngeneic in vitro
model of the BBB using co-cultures of primary rat brain endothelial cells (RBEC) and astrocytes to study receptors involved in transcytosis across the endothelial cell monolayer. Astrocytes were isolated by mechanical dissection following trypsin digestion and were frozen for later co-culture. RBEC were isolated from 5-week-old rat cortices. The brains were cleaned of meninges and white matter, and mechanically dissociated following enzymatic digestion. Thereafter, the tissue homogenate was centrifuged in bovine serum albumin to separate vessel fragments from nervous tissue. The vessel fragments underwent a second enzymatic digestion to free endothelial cells from their extracellular matrix. The remaining contaminating cells such as pericytes were further eliminated by plating the microvessel fragments in puromycin-containing medium. They were then passaged onto filters for co-culture with astrocytes grown on the bottom of the wells. RBEC expressed high levels of tight junction (TJ) proteins such as occludin, claudin-5 and ZO-1 with a typical localization at the cell borders. The transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) of brain endothelial monolayers, indicating the tightness of TJs reached 300 ohm·cm2
on average. The endothelial permeability coefficients (Pe) for lucifer yellow (LY) was highly reproducible with an average of 0.26 ± 0.11 x 10-3
cm/min. Brain endothelial cells organized in monolayers expressed the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), showed a polarized transport of rhodamine 123, a ligand for P-gp, and showed specific transport of transferrin-Cy3 and DiILDL across the endothelial cell monolayer. In conclusion, we provide a protocol for setting up an in vitro
BBB model that is highly reproducible due to the quality assurance methods, and that is suitable for research on BBB transporters and receptors.
Medicine, Issue 88, rat brain endothelial cells (RBEC), mouse, spinal cord, tight junction (TJ), receptor-mediated transport (RMT), low density lipoprotein (LDL), LDLR, transferrin, TfR, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER),
Ultrasound Assessment of Endothelial-Dependent Flow-Mediated Vasodilation of the Brachial Artery in Clinical Research
Institutions: University of California, San Francisco, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco.
The vascular endothelium is a monolayer of cells that cover the interior of blood vessels and provide both structural and functional roles. The endothelium acts as a barrier, preventing leukocyte adhesion and aggregation, as well as controlling permeability to plasma components. Functionally, the endothelium affects vessel tone.
Endothelial dysfunction is an imbalance between the chemical species which regulate vessel tone, thombroresistance, cellular proliferation and mitosis. It is the first step in atherosclerosis and is associated with coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, heart failure, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia.
The first demonstration of endothelial dysfunction involved direct infusion of acetylcholine and quantitative coronary angiography. Acetylcholine binds to muscarinic receptors on the endothelial cell surface, leading to an increase of intracellular calcium and increased nitric oxide (NO) production. In subjects with an intact endothelium, vasodilation was observed while subjects with endothelial damage experienced paradoxical vasoconstriction.
There exists a non-invasive, in vivo
method for measuring endothelial function in peripheral arteries using high-resolution B-mode ultrasound. The endothelial function of peripheral arteries is closely related to coronary artery function. This technique measures the percent diameter change in the brachial artery during a period of reactive hyperemia following limb ischemia.
This technique, known as endothelium-dependent, flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) has value in clinical research settings. However, a number of physiological and technical issues can affect the accuracy of the results and appropriate guidelines for the technique have been published. Despite the guidelines, FMD remains heavily operator dependent and presents a steep learning curve. This article presents a standardized method for measuring FMD in the brachial artery on the upper arm and offers suggestions to reduce intra-operator variability.
Medicine, Issue 92, endothelial function, endothelial dysfunction, brachial artery, peripheral artery disease, ultrasound, vascular, endothelium, cardiovascular disease.
A Methodological Approach to Non-invasive Assessments of Vascular Function and Morphology
Institutions: Bangor University, Russells Hall Hospital, University of Manchester.
The endothelium is the innermost lining of the vasculature and is involved in the maintenance of vascular homeostasis. Damage to the endothelium may predispose the vessel to atherosclerosis and increase the risk for cardiovascular disease. Assessments of peripheral endothelial function are good indicators of early abnormalities in the vascular wall and correlate well with assessments of coronary endothelial function. The present manuscript details the important methodological steps necessary for the assessment of microvascular endothelial function using laser Doppler imaging with iontophoresis, large vessel endothelial function using flow-mediated dilatation, and carotid atherosclerosis using carotid artery ultrasound. A discussion on the methodological considerations for each of the techniques is also presented, and recommendations are made for future research.
Medicine, Issue 96, Endothelium, Cardiovascular, Flow-mediated dilatation, Carotid intima-media thickness, Atherosclerosis, Nitric oxide, Microvasculature, Laser Doppler Imaging
A Rat Model of Ventricular Fibrillation and Resuscitation by Conventional Closed-chest Technique
Institutions: Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science.
A rat model of electrically-induced ventricular fibrillation followed by cardiac resuscitation using a closed chest technique that incorporates the basic components of cardiopulmonary resuscitation in humans is herein described. The model was developed in 1988 and has been used in approximately 70 peer-reviewed publications examining a myriad of resuscitation aspects including its physiology and pathophysiology, determinants of resuscitability, pharmacologic interventions, and even the effects of cell therapies. The model featured in this presentation includes: (1) vascular catheterization to measure aortic and right atrial pressures, to measure cardiac output by thermodilution, and to electrically induce ventricular fibrillation; and (2) tracheal intubation for positive pressure ventilation with oxygen enriched gas and assessment of the end-tidal CO2
. A typical sequence of intervention entails: (1) electrical induction of ventricular fibrillation, (2) chest compression using a mechanical piston device concomitantly with positive pressure ventilation delivering oxygen-enriched gas, (3) electrical shocks to terminate ventricular fibrillation and reestablish cardiac activity, (4) assessment of post-resuscitation hemodynamic and metabolic function, and (5) assessment of survival and recovery of organ function. A robust inventory of measurements is available that includes – but is not limited to – hemodynamic, metabolic, and tissue measurements. The model has been highly effective in developing new resuscitation concepts and examining novel therapeutic interventions before their testing in larger and translationally more relevant animal models of cardiac arrest and resuscitation.
Medicine, Issue 98, Cardiopulmonary resuscitation, Hemodynamics, Myocardial ischemia, Rats, Reperfusion, Ventilation, Ventricular fibrillation, Ventricular function, Translational medical research
Assessment of Vascular Function in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease
Institutions: University of Colorado, Denver, University of Colorado, Boulder.
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have significantly increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared to the general population, and this is only partially explained by traditional CVD risk factors. Vascular dysfunction is an important non-traditional risk factor, characterized by vascular endothelial dysfunction (most commonly assessed as impaired endothelium-dependent dilation [EDD]) and stiffening of the large elastic arteries. While various techniques exist to assess EDD and large elastic artery stiffness, the most commonly used are brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMDBA
) and aortic pulse-wave velocity (aPWV), respectively. Both of these noninvasive measures of vascular dysfunction are independent predictors of future cardiovascular events in patients with and without kidney disease. Patients with CKD demonstrate both impaired FMDBA
, and increased aPWV. While the exact mechanisms by which vascular dysfunction develops in CKD are incompletely understood, increased oxidative stress and a subsequent reduction in nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability are important contributors. Cellular changes in oxidative stress can be assessed by collecting vascular endothelial cells from the antecubital vein and measuring protein expression of markers of oxidative stress using immunofluorescence. We provide here a discussion of these methods to measure FMDBA
, aPWV, and vascular endothelial cell protein expression.
Medicine, Issue 88, chronic kidney disease, endothelial cells, flow-mediated dilation, immunofluorescence, oxidative stress, pulse-wave velocity
Isolation and Differentiation of Stromal Vascular Cells to Beige/Brite Cells
Institutions: University of California, San Francisco , University of Copenhagen, Denmark, National Institute of Nutrition and Seafood Research, Bergen, Norway.
Brown adipocytes have the ability to uncouple the respiratory chain in mitochondria and dissipate chemical energy as heat. Development of UCP1-positive brown adipocytes in white adipose tissues (so called beige or brite cells) is highly induced by a variety of environmental cues such as chronic cold exposure or by PPARγ agonists, therefore, this cell type has potential as a therapeutic target for obesity treatment. Although most immortalized adipocyte lines cannot recapitulate the process of "browning" of white fat in culture, primary adipocytes isolated from stromal vascular fraction in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT) provide a reliable cellular system to study the molecular control of beige/brite cell development. Here we describe a protocol for effective isolation of primary preadipocytes and for inducing differentiation to beige/brite cells in culture. The browning effect can be assessed by the expression of brown fat-selective markers such as UCP1.
Cellular Biology, Issue 73, Medicine, Anatomy, Physiology, Molecular Biology, Surgery, Adipose Tissue, Adipocytes, Transcription Factors, Cell Differentiation, Obesity, Diabetes, brown adipose tissue, beige/brite cells, primary adipocytes, stromal-vascular fraction, differentiation, uncoupling protein 1, rosiglitazone, differentiation, cells, isolation, fat, animal model
Focal Cerebral Ischemia Model by Endovascular Suture Occlusion of the Middle Cerebral Artery in the Rat
Institutions: University of Wisconsin-Madison.
Stroke is the leading cause of disability and the third leading cause of death in adults worldwide1
. In human stroke, there exists a highly variable clinical state; in the development of animal models of focal ischemia, however, achieving reproducibility of experimentally induced infarct volume is essential. The rat is a widely used animal model for stroke due to its relatively low animal husbandry costs and to the similarity of its cranial circulation to that of humans2,3
. In humans, the middle cerebral artery (MCA) is most commonly affected in stroke syndromes and multiple methods of MCA occlusion (MCAO) have been described to mimic this clinical syndrome in animal models. Because recanalization commonly occurs following an acute stroke in the human, reperfusion after a period of occlusion has been included in many of these models. In this video, we demonstrate the transient endovascular suture MCAO model in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). A filament with a silicon tip coating is placed intraluminally at the MCA origin for 60 minutes, followed by reperfusion. Note that the optimal occlusion period may vary in other rat strains, such as Wistar or Sprague-Dawley. Several behavioral indicators of stroke in the rat are shown. Focal ischemia is confirmed using T2-weighted magnetic resonance images and by staining brain sections with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) 24 hours after MCAO.
Neuroscience, Issue 48, Stroke, cerebral ischemia, middle cerebral artery occlusion, intraluminal filament, rat, magnetic resonance imaging, surgery, neuroscience, brain
Increasing Pulmonary Artery Pulsatile Flow Improves Hypoxic Pulmonary Hypertension in Piglets
Institutions: Laval University, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Physiologie clinique Explorations Fonctionnelles, INSERM U 965, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Tours.
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a disease affecting distal pulmonary arteries (PA). These arteries are deformed, leading to right ventricular failure. Current treatments are limited. Physiologically, pulsatile blood flow is detrimental to the vasculature. In response to sustained pulsatile stress, vessels release nitric oxide (NO) to induce vasodilation for self-protection. Based on this observation, this study developed a protocol to assess whether an artificial pulmonary pulsatile blood flow could induce an NO-dependent decrease in pulmonary artery pressure. One group of piglets was exposed to chronic hypoxia for 3 weeks and compared to a control group of piglets. Once a week, the piglets underwent echocardiography to assess PAH severity. At the end of hypoxia exposure, the piglets were subjected to a pulsatile protocol using a pulsatile catheter. After being anesthetized and prepared for surgery, the jugular vein of the piglet was isolated and the catheter was introduced through the right atrium, the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery, under radioscopic control. Pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) was measured before (T0), immediately after (T1) and 30 min after (T2) the pulsatile protocol. It was demonstrated that this pulsatile protocol is a safe and efficient method of inducing a significant reduction in mean PAP via an NO-dependent mechanism. These data open up new avenues for the clinical management of PAH.
Medicine, Issue 99, Piglets, pulmonary arterial hypertension, right heart catheterization, pulmonary artery pressure, vascular pulsatility, vasodilation, nitric oxide
Direct Imaging of ER Calcium with Targeted-Esterase Induced Dye Loading (TED)
Institutions: University of Wuerzburg, Max Planck Institute of Neurobiology, Martinsried, Ludwig-Maximilians University of Munich.
Visualization of calcium dynamics is important to understand the role of calcium in cell physiology. To examine calcium dynamics, synthetic fluorescent Ca2+
indictors have become popular. Here we demonstrate TED (= targeted-esterase induced dye loading), a method to improve the release of Ca2+
indicator dyes in the ER lumen of different cell types. To date, TED was used in cell lines, glial cells, and neurons in vitro
. TED bases on efficient, recombinant targeting of a high carboxylesterase activity to the ER lumen using vector-constructs that express Carboxylesterases (CES). The latest TED vectors contain a core element of CES2 fused to a red fluorescent protein, thus enabling simultaneous two-color imaging. The dynamics of free calcium in the ER are imaged in one color, while the corresponding ER structure appears in red. At the beginning of the procedure, cells are transduced with a lentivirus. Subsequently, the infected cells are seeded on coverslips to finally enable live cell imaging. Then, living cells are incubated with the acetoxymethyl ester (AM-ester) form of low-affinity Ca2+
indicators, for instance Fluo5N-AM, Mag-Fluo4-AM, or Mag-Fura2-AM. The esterase activity in the ER cleaves off hydrophobic side chains from the AM form of the Ca2+
indicator and a hydrophilic fluorescent dye/Ca2+
complex is formed and trapped in the ER lumen. After dye loading, the cells are analyzed at an inverted confocal laser scanning microscope. Cells are continuously perfused with Ringer-like solutions and the ER calcium dynamics are directly visualized by time-lapse imaging. Calcium release from the ER is identified by a decrease in fluorescence intensity in regions of interest, whereas the refilling of the ER calcium store produces an increase in fluorescence intensity. Finally, the change in fluorescent intensity over time is determined by calculation of ΔF/F0
Cellular Biology, Issue 75, Neurobiology, Neuroscience, Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, Virology, Medicine, Anatomy, Physiology, Surgery, Endoplasmic Reticulum, ER, Calcium Signaling, calcium store, calcium imaging, calcium indicator, metabotropic signaling, Ca2+, neurons, cells, mouse, animal model, cell culture, targeted esterase induced dye loading, imaging
Isolation of Pulmonary Artery Smooth Muscle Cells from Neonatal Mice
Institutions: Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine.
Pulmonary hypertension is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in infants. Historically, there has been significant study of the signaling pathways involved in vascular smooth muscle contraction in PASMC from fetal sheep. While sheep make an excellent model of term pulmonary hypertension, they are very expensive and lack the advantage of genetic manipulation found in mice. Conversely, the inability to isolate PASMC from mice was a significant limitation of that system. Here we described the isolation of primary cultures of mouse PASMC from P7, P14, and P21 mice using a variation of the previously described technique of Marshall et al.26
that was previously used to isolate rat PASMC. These murine PASMC represent a novel tool for the study of signaling pathways in the neonatal period. Briefly, a slurry of 0.5% (w/v) agarose + 0.5% iron particles in M199 media is infused into the pulmonary vascular bed via the right ventricle (RV). The iron particles are 0.2 μM in diameter and cannot pass through the pulmonary capillary bed. Thus, the iron lodges in the small pulmonary arteries (PA). The lungs are inflated with agarose, removed and dissociated. The iron-containing vessels are pulled down with a magnet. After collagenase (80 U/ml) treatment and further dissociation, the vessels are put into a tissue culture dish in M199 media containing 20% fetal bovine serum (FBS), and antibiotics (M199 complete media) to allow cell migration onto the culture dish. This initial plate of cells is a 50-50 mixture of fibroblasts and PASMC. Thus, the pull down procedure is repeated multiple times to achieve a more pure PASMC population and remove any residual iron. Smooth muscle cell identity is confirmed by immunostaining for smooth muscle myosin and desmin.
Basic Protocol, Issue 80, Muscle, Smooth, Vascular, Cardiovascular Abnormalities, Hypertension, Pulmonary, vascular smooth muscle, pulmonary hypertension, development, phosphodiesterases, cGMP, immunostaining