The importance of cell migration can be seen through the development of human life. When cells migrate, they generate forces and transfer these forces to their surrounding area, leading to cell movement and migration. In order to understand the mechanisms that can alter and/or affect cell migration, one can study these forces. In theory, understanding the fundamental mechanisms and forces underlying cell migration holds the promise of effective approaches for treating diseases and promoting cellular transplantation. Unfortunately, modern chemotaxis chambers that have been developed are usually restricted to two dimensions (2D) and have complex diffusion gradients that make the experiment difficult to interpret. To this end, we have developed, and describe in this paper, a direct-viewing chamber for chemotaxis studies, which allows one to overcome modern chemotaxis chamber obstacles able to measure cell forces and specific concentration within the chamber in a 3D environment to study cell 3D migration. More compelling, this approach allows one to successfully model diffusion through 3D collagen matrices and calculate the coefficient of diffusion of a chemoattractant through multiple different concentrations of collagen, while keeping the system simple and user friendly for traction force microscopy (TFM) and digital volume correlation (DVC) analysis.
22 Related JoVE Articles!
Creating Adhesive and Soluble Gradients for Imaging Cell Migration with Fluorescence Microscopy
Institutions: The University of New South Wales, The University of New South Wales.
Cells can sense and migrate towards higher concentrations of adhesive cues such as the glycoproteins of the extracellular matrix and soluble cues such as growth factors. Here, we outline a method to create opposing gradients of adhesive and soluble cues in a microfluidic chamber, which is compatible with live cell imaging. A copolymer of poly-L-lysine and polyethylene glycol (PLL-PEG) is employed to passivate glass coverslips and prevent non-specific adsorption of biomolecules and cells. Next, microcontact printing or dip pen lithography are used to create tracks of streptavidin on the passivated surfaces to serve as anchoring points for the biotinylated peptide arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) as the adhesive cue. A microfluidic device is placed onto the modified surface and used to create the gradient of adhesive cues (100% RGD to 0% RGD) on the streptavidin tracks. Finally, the same microfluidic device is used to create a gradient of a chemoattractant such as fetal bovine serum (FBS), as the soluble cue in the opposite direction of the gradient of adhesive cues.
Bioengineering, Issue 74, Microbiology, Cellular Biology, Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Biophysics, Cell migration, live cell imaging, soluble and adherent gradients, microcontact printing, dip pen lithography, microfluidics, RGD, PEG, biotin, streptavidin, chemotaxis, chemoattractant, imaging
Microfluidic Platform for Measuring Neutrophil Chemotaxis from Unprocessed Whole Blood
Institutions: Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Shriners Burns Hospital, Harvard University School of Engineering and Applied Sciences.
Neutrophils play an essential role in protection against infections and their numbers in the blood are frequently measured in the clinic. Higher neutrophil counts in the blood are usually an indicator of ongoing infections, while low neutrophil counts are a warning sign for higher risks for infections. To accomplish their functions, neutrophils also have to be able to move effectively from the blood where they spend most of their life, into tissues, where infections occur. Consequently, any defects in the ability of neutrophils to migrate can increase the risks for infections, even when neutrophils are present in appropriate numbers in the blood. However, measuring neutrophil migration ability in the clinic is a challenging task, which is time consuming, requires large volume of blood, and expert knowledge. To address these limitations, we designed a robust microfluidic assays for neutrophil migration, which requires a single droplet of unprocessed blood, circumvents the need for neutrophil separation, and is easy to quantify on a simple microscope. In this assay, neutrophils migrate directly from the blood droplet, through small channels, towards the source of chemoattractant. To prevent the granular flow of red blood cells through the same channels, we implemented mechanical filters with right angle turns that selectively block the advance of red blood cells. We validated the assay by comparing neutrophil migration from blood droplets collected from finger prick and venous blood. We also compared these whole blood (WB) sources with neutrophil migration from samples of purified neutrophils and found consistent speed and directionality between the three sources. This microfluidic platform will enable the study of human neutrophil migration in the clinic and the research setting to help advance our understanding of neutrophil functions in health and disease.
Bioengineering, Issue 88, chemotaxis, neutrophil, whole blood assay, microfluidic device, chemoattractant, migration, inflammation
Setting-up an In Vitro Model of Rat Blood-brain Barrier (BBB): A Focus on BBB Impermeability and Receptor-mediated Transport
Institutions: VECT-HORUS SAS, CNRS, NICN UMR 7259.
The blood brain barrier (BBB) specifically regulates molecular and cellular flux between the blood and the nervous tissue. Our aim was to develop and characterize a highly reproducible rat syngeneic in vitro
model of the BBB using co-cultures of primary rat brain endothelial cells (RBEC) and astrocytes to study receptors involved in transcytosis across the endothelial cell monolayer. Astrocytes were isolated by mechanical dissection following trypsin digestion and were frozen for later co-culture. RBEC were isolated from 5-week-old rat cortices. The brains were cleaned of meninges and white matter, and mechanically dissociated following enzymatic digestion. Thereafter, the tissue homogenate was centrifuged in bovine serum albumin to separate vessel fragments from nervous tissue. The vessel fragments underwent a second enzymatic digestion to free endothelial cells from their extracellular matrix. The remaining contaminating cells such as pericytes were further eliminated by plating the microvessel fragments in puromycin-containing medium. They were then passaged onto filters for co-culture with astrocytes grown on the bottom of the wells. RBEC expressed high levels of tight junction (TJ) proteins such as occludin, claudin-5 and ZO-1 with a typical localization at the cell borders. The transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) of brain endothelial monolayers, indicating the tightness of TJs reached 300 ohm·cm2
on average. The endothelial permeability coefficients (Pe) for lucifer yellow (LY) was highly reproducible with an average of 0.26 ± 0.11 x 10-3
cm/min. Brain endothelial cells organized in monolayers expressed the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), showed a polarized transport of rhodamine 123, a ligand for P-gp, and showed specific transport of transferrin-Cy3 and DiILDL across the endothelial cell monolayer. In conclusion, we provide a protocol for setting up an in vitro
BBB model that is highly reproducible due to the quality assurance methods, and that is suitable for research on BBB transporters and receptors.
Medicine, Issue 88, rat brain endothelial cells (RBEC), mouse, spinal cord, tight junction (TJ), receptor-mediated transport (RMT), low density lipoprotein (LDL), LDLR, transferrin, TfR, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER),
Polysome Fractionation and Analysis of Mammalian Translatomes on a Genome-wide Scale
Institutions: McGill University, Karolinska Institutet, McGill University.
mRNA translation plays a central role in the regulation of gene expression and represents the most energy consuming process in mammalian cells. Accordingly, dysregulation of mRNA translation is considered to play a major role in a variety of pathological states including cancer. Ribosomes also host chaperones, which facilitate folding of nascent polypeptides, thereby modulating function and stability of newly synthesized polypeptides. In addition, emerging data indicate that ribosomes serve as a platform for a repertoire of signaling molecules, which are implicated in a variety of post-translational modifications of newly synthesized polypeptides as they emerge from the ribosome, and/or components of translational machinery. Herein, a well-established method of ribosome fractionation using sucrose density gradient centrifugation is described. In conjunction with the in-house developed “anota” algorithm this method allows direct determination of differential translation of individual mRNAs on a genome-wide scale. Moreover, this versatile protocol can be used for a variety of biochemical studies aiming to dissect the function of ribosome-associated protein complexes, including those that play a central role in folding and degradation of newly synthesized polypeptides.
Biochemistry, Issue 87, Cells, Eukaryota, Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases, Neoplasms, Metabolic Phenomena, Cell Physiological Phenomena, mRNA translation, ribosomes,
protein synthesis, genome-wide analysis, translatome, mTOR, eIF4E, 4E-BP1
Alternative Cultures for Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Production, Maintenance, and Genetic Analysis
Institutions: National Institutes of Health, National Institutes of Health.
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) hold great promise for regenerative medicine and biopharmaceutical applications. Currently, optimal culture and efficient expansion of large amounts of clinical-grade hPSCs are critical issues in hPSC-based therapies. Conventionally, hPSCs are propagated as colonies on both feeder and feeder-free culture systems. However, these methods have several major limitations, including low cell yields and generation of heterogeneously differentiated cells. To improve current hPSC culture methods, we have recently developed a new method, which is based on non-colony type monolayer (NCM) culture of dissociated single cells. Here, we present detailed NCM protocols based on the Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) inhibitor Y-27632. We also provide new information regarding NCM culture with different small molecules such as Y-39983 (ROCK I inhibitor), phenylbenzodioxane (ROCK II inhibitor), and thiazovivin (a novel ROCK inhibitor). We further extend our basic protocol to cultivate hPSCs on defined extracellular proteins such as the laminin isoform 521 (LN-521) without the use of ROCK inhibitors. Moreover, based on NCM, we have demonstrated efficient transfection or transduction of plasmid DNAs, lentiviral particles, and oligonucleotide-based microRNAs into hPSCs in order to genetically modify these cells for molecular analyses and drug discovery. The NCM-based methods overcome the major shortcomings of colony-type culture, and thus may be suitable for producing large amounts of homogeneous hPSCs for future clinical therapies, stem cell research, and drug discovery.
Stem Cell Biology, Issue 89, Pluripotent stem cells, human embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, cell culture, non-colony type monolayer, single cell, plating efficiency, Rho-associated kinase, Y-27632, transfection, transduction
Analysis of Cell Migration within a Three-dimensional Collagen Matrix
Institutions: Witten/Herdecke University.
The ability to migrate is a hallmark of various cell types and plays a crucial role in several physiological processes, including embryonic development, wound healing, and immune responses. However, cell migration is also a key mechanism in cancer enabling these cancer cells to detach from the primary tumor to start metastatic spreading. Within the past years various cell migration assays have been developed to analyze the migratory behavior of different cell types. Because the locomotory behavior of cells markedly differs between a two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) environment it can be assumed that the analysis of the migration of cells that are embedded within a 3D environment would yield in more significant cell migration data. The advantage of the described 3D collagen matrix migration assay is that cells are embedded within a physiological 3D network of collagen fibers representing the major component of the extracellular matrix. Due to time-lapse video microscopy real cell migration is measured allowing the determination of several migration parameters as well as their alterations in response to pro-migratory factors or inhibitors. Various cell types could be analyzed using this technique, including lymphocytes/leukocytes, stem cells, and tumor cells. Likewise, also cell clusters or spheroids could be embedded within the collagen matrix concomitant with analysis of the emigration of single cells from the cell cluster/ spheroid into the collagen lattice. We conclude that the 3D collagen matrix migration assay is a versatile method to analyze the migration of cells within a physiological-like 3D environment.
Bioengineering, Issue 92, cell migration, 3D collagen matrix, cell tracking
Inhibitory Synapse Formation in a Co-culture Model Incorporating GABAergic Medium Spiny Neurons and HEK293 Cells Stably Expressing GABAA Receptors
Institutions: University College London.
Inhibitory neurons act in the central nervous system to regulate the dynamics and spatio-temporal co-ordination of neuronal networks. GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) is the predominant inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. It is released from the presynaptic terminals of inhibitory neurons within highly specialized intercellular junctions known as synapses, where it binds to GABAA
Rs) present at the plasma membrane of the synapse-receiving, postsynaptic neurons. Activation of these GABA-gated ion channels leads to influx of chloride resulting in postsynaptic potential changes that decrease the probability that these neurons will generate action potentials.
During development, diverse types of inhibitory neurons with distinct morphological, electrophysiological and neurochemical characteristics have the ability to recognize their target neurons and form synapses which incorporate specific GABAA
Rs subtypes. This principle of selective innervation of neuronal targets raises the question as to how the appropriate synaptic partners identify each other.
To elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms, a novel in vitro
co-culture model system was established, in which medium spiny GABAergic neurons, a highly homogenous population of neurons isolated from the embryonic striatum, were cultured with stably transfected HEK293 cell lines that express different GABAA
R subtypes. Synapses form rapidly, efficiently and selectively in this system, and are easily accessible for quantification. Our results indicate that various GABAA
R subtypes differ in their ability to promote synapse formation, suggesting that this reduced in vitro
model system can be used to reproduce, at least in part, the in vivo
conditions required for the recognition of the appropriate synaptic partners and formation of specific synapses. Here the protocols for culturing the medium spiny neurons and generating HEK293 cells lines expressing GABAA
Rs are first described, followed by detailed instructions on how to combine these two cell types in co-culture and analyze the formation of synaptic contacts.
Neuroscience, Issue 93, Developmental neuroscience, synaptogenesis, synaptic inhibition, co-culture, stable cell lines, GABAergic, medium spiny neurons, HEK 293 cell line
Rapid and Robust Analysis of Cellular and Molecular Polarization Induced by Chemokine Signaling
Institutions: Institut Cochin, Cnrs, UMR8104, Sorbonne Paris Cité.
Cells respond to chemokine stimulation by losing their round shape in a process called polarization, and by altering the subcellular localization of many proteins. Classic imaging techniques have been used to study these phenomena. However, they required the manual acquisition of many cells followed by time consuming quantification of the morphology and the co-localization of the staining of tens of cells. Here, a rapid and powerful method is described to study these phenomena on samples consisting of several thousands of cells using an imaging flow cytometry technology that combines the advantages of a microscope with those of a cytometer. Using T lymphocytes stimulated with CCL19 and staining for MHC Class I molecules and filamentous actin, a gating strategy is presented to measure simultaneously the degree of shape alterations and the extent of co-localization of markers that are affected by CCL19 signaling. Moreover, this gating strategy allowed us to observe the segregation of filamentous actin (at the front) and phosphorylated Ezrin-Radixin-Moesin (phospho-ERM) proteins (at the rear) in polarized T cells after CXCL12 stimulation. This technique was also useful to observe the blocking effect on polarization of two different elements: inhibition of actin polymerization by a pharmacological inhibitor and expression of mutants of the Par6/atypical PKC signaling pathway. Thus, evidence is shown that this technique is useful to analyze both morphological alterations and protein redistributions.
Immunology, Issue 94, Chemokine, T lymphocytes, morphology, protein redistribution, actin, polarization.
Radial Mobility and Cytotoxic Function of Retroviral Replicating Vector Transduced, Non-adherent Alloresponsive T Lymphocytes
Institutions: UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine, UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine.
We report a novel adaptation of the Radial Monolayer Cell Migration assay, first reported to measure the radial migration of adherent tumor cells on extracellular matrix proteins, for measuring the motility of fluorescently-labeled, non-adherent human or murine effector immune cells. This technique employs a stainless steel manifold and 10-well Teflon slide to focally deposit non-adherent T cells into wells prepared with either confluent tumor cell monolayers or extracellular matrix proteins. Light and/or multi-channel fluorescence microscopy is used to track the movement and behavior of the effector cells over time. Fluorescent dyes and/or viral vectors that code for fluorescent transgenes are used to differentially label the cell types for imaging. This method is distinct from similar-type in vitro
assays that track horizontal or vertical migration/invasion utilizing slide chambers, agar or transwell plates. The assay allows detailed imaging data to be collected with different cell types distinguished by specific fluorescent markers; even specific subpopulations of cells (i.e.
, transduced/nontransduced) can be monitored. Surface intensity fluorescence plots are generated using specific fluorescence channels that correspond to the migrating cell type. This allows for better visualization of the non-adherent immune cell mobility at specific times. It is possible to gather evidence of other effector cell functions, such as cytotoxicity or transfer of viral vectors from effector to target cells, as well. Thus, the method allows researchers to microscopically document cell-to-cell interactions of differentially-labeled, non-adherent with adherent cells of various types. Such information may be especially relevant in the assessment of biologically-manipulated or activated immune cell types, where visual proof of functionality is desired with tumor target cells before their use for cancer therapy.
Immunology, Issue 96, non-adherent cell migration, fluorescence microscopy, cell sedimentation manifold, allogeneic CTL, monolayer, T cell, extracellular matrix, gliom
Analyzing the Effects of Stromal Cells on the Recruitment of Leukocytes from Flow
Institutions: University of Birmingham, University of Birmingham, University of Birmingham.
Stromal cells regulate the recruitment of circulating leukocytes during inflammation through cross-talk with neighboring endothelial cells. Here we describe two in vitro
“vascular” models for studying the recruitment of circulating neutrophils from flow by inflamed endothelial cells. A major advantage of these models is the ability to analyze each step in the leukocyte adhesion cascade in order, as would occur in vivo
. We also describe how both models can be adapted to study the role of stromal cells, in this case mesenchymal stem cells (MSC), in regulating leukocyte recruitment.
Primary endothelial cells were cultured alone or together with human MSC in direct contact on Ibidi microslides or on opposite sides of a Transwell filter for 24 hr. Cultures were stimulated with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) for 4 hr and incorporated into a flow-based adhesion assay. A bolus of neutrophils was perfused over the endothelium for 4 min. The capture of flowing neutrophils and their interactions with the endothelium was visualized by phase-contrast microscopy.
In both models, cytokine-stimulation increased endothelial recruitment of flowing neutrophils in a dose-dependent manner. Analysis of the behavior of recruited neutrophils showed a dose-dependent decrease in rolling and a dose-dependent increase in transmigration through the endothelium. In co-culture, MSC suppressed neutrophil adhesion to TNFα-stimulated endothelium.
Our flow based-adhesion models mimic the initial phases of leukocyte recruitment from the circulation. In addition to leukocytes, they can be used to examine the recruitment of other cell types, such as therapeutically administered MSC or circulating tumor cells. Our multi-layered co-culture models have shown that MSC communicate with endothelium to modify their response to pro-inflammatory cytokines, altering the recruitment of neutrophils. Further research using such models is required to fully understand how stromal cells from different tissues and conditions (inflammatory disorders or cancer) influence the recruitment of leukocytes during inflammation.
Immunology, Issue 95, Endothelial cells, leukocytes, mesenchymal stromal cells, mesenchymal stem cells, co-culture, adhesion, inflammation, recruitment, flow based adhesion assay, Ibidi microslide, neutrophil
In vitro Cell Migration and Invasion Assays
Institutions: East Carolina University.
Migration is a key property of live cells and critical for normal development, immune response, and disease processes such as cancer metastasis and inflammation. Methods to examine cell migration are very useful and important for a wide range of biomedical research such as cancer biology, immunology, vascular biology, cell biology and developmental biology. Here we use tumor cell migration and invasion as an example and describe two related assays to illustrate the commonly used, easily accessible methods to measure these processes. The first method is the cell culture wound closure assay in which a scratch is generated on a confluent cell monolayer. The speed of wound closure and cell migration can be quantified by taking snapshot pictures with a regular inverted microscope at several time intervals. More detailed cell migratory behavior can be documented using the time-lapse microscopy system. The second method described in this paper is the transwell cell migration and invasion assay that measures the capacity of cell motility and invasiveness toward a chemo-attractant gradient. It is our goal to describe these methods in a highly accessible manner so that the procedures can be successfully performed in research laboratories even just with basic cell biology setup.
Bioengineering, Issue 88, Cell migration, cell invasion, chemotaxis, transwell assay, wound closure assay, time-lapse microscopy
In vitro Coculture Assay to Assess Pathogen Induced Neutrophil Trans-epithelial Migration
Institutions: Harvard Medical School, MGH for Children, Massachusetts General Hospital.
Mucosal surfaces serve as protective barriers against pathogenic organisms. Innate immune responses are activated upon sensing pathogen leading to the infiltration of tissues with migrating inflammatory cells, primarily neutrophils. This process has the potential to be destructive to tissues if excessive or held in an unresolved state. Cocultured in vitro
models can be utilized to study the unique molecular mechanisms involved in pathogen induced neutrophil trans-epithelial migration. This type of model provides versatility in experimental design with opportunity for controlled manipulation of the pathogen, epithelial barrier, or neutrophil. Pathogenic infection of the apical surface of polarized epithelial monolayers grown on permeable transwell filters instigates physiologically relevant basolateral to apical trans-epithelial migration of neutrophils applied to the basolateral surface. The in vitro
model described herein demonstrates the multiple steps necessary for demonstrating neutrophil migration across a polarized lung epithelial monolayer that has been infected with pathogenic P. aeruginosa
(PAO1). Seeding and culturing of permeable transwells with human derived lung epithelial cells is described, along with isolation of neutrophils from whole human blood and culturing of PAO1 and nonpathogenic K12 E. coli
(MC1000). The emigrational process and quantitative analysis of successfully migrated neutrophils that have been mobilized in response to pathogenic infection is shown with representative data, including positive and negative controls. This in vitro
model system can be manipulated and applied to other mucosal surfaces. Inflammatory responses that involve excessive neutrophil infiltration can be destructive to host tissues and can occur in the absence of pathogenic infections. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that promote neutrophil trans-epithelial migration through experimental manipulation of the in vitro
coculture assay system described herein has significant potential to identify novel therapeutic targets for a range of mucosal infectious as well as inflammatory diseases.
Infection, Issue 83, Cellular Biology, Epithelium, Neutrophils, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Respiratory Tract Diseases, Neutrophils, epithelial barriers, pathogens, transmigration
High-resolution Measurement of Odor-Driven Behavior in Drosophila Larvae
Institutions: Rockefeller University.
Olfactory responses in Drosophila larvae have been traditionally studied in Petri dishes comprising a single peripheral odor source. In this behavioral paradigm, the experimenter usually assumes that the rapid diffusion of odorant molecules from the source leads to the creation of a stable gradient in the dish. To establish a quantitative correlation between sensory inputs and behavioral responses, it is necessary to achieve a more thorough characterization of the odorant stimulus conditions. In this video article, we describe a new method allowing the construction of odorant gradients with stable and controllable geometries. We briefly illustrate how these gradients can be used to screen for olfactory defects (full and partial anosmia) and to study more subtle features of chemotaxis behavior.
Neuroscience, issue 11, odor, olfactory, Drosophila, behavior
A Microfluidic Device for Quantifying Bacterial Chemotaxis in Stable Concentration Gradients
Institutions: Texas A&M University, Texas A&M University, Texas A&M University.
Chemotaxis allows bacteria to approach sources of attractant chemicals or to avoid sources of repellent chemicals. Bacteria constantly monitor the concentration of specific chemoeffectors by comparing the current concentration to the concentration detected a few seconds earlier. This comparison determines the net direction of movement. Although multiple, competing gradients often coexist in nature, conventional approaches for investigating bacterial chemotaxis are suboptimal for quantifying migration in response to concentration gradients of attractants and repellents. Here, we describe the development of a microfluidic chemotaxis model for presenting precise and stable concentration gradients of chemoeffectors to bacteria and quantitatively investigating their response to the applied gradient. The device is versatile in that concentration gradients of any desired absolute concentration and gradient strength can be easily generated by diffusive mixing. The device is demonstrated using the response of Escherichia coli
RP437 to gradients of amino acids and nickel ions.
Microbiology, Issue 38, chemotaxis, microfluidics, gradients
C. elegans Positive Butanone Learning, Short-term, and Long-term Associative Memory Assays
Institutions: Princeton University, Princeton University.
The memory of experiences and learned information is critical for organisms to make choices that aid their survival. C. elegans
navigates its environment through neuron-specific detection of food and chemical odors1, 2
, and can associate nutritive states with chemical odors3
, and the pathogenicity of a food source5
Here, we describe assays of C. elegans
associative learning and short- and long-term associative memory. We modified an aversive olfactory learning paradigm6
to instead produce a positive response; the assay involves starving ~400 worms, then feeding the worms in the presence of the AWC neuron-sensed volatile chemoattractant butanone at a concentration that elicits a low chemotactic index (similar to Toroyama et al.7
). A standard population chemotaxis assay1 tests the worms' attraction to the odorant immediately or minutes to hours after conditioning.
After conditioning, wild-type animals' chemotaxis to butanone increases ~0.6 Chemotaxis Index units, its "Learning Index". Associative learning is dependent on the presence of both food and butanone during training. Pairing food and butanone for a single conditioning period ("massed training") produces short-term associative memory that lasts ~2 hours. Multiple conditioning periods with rest periods between ("spaced training") yields long-term associative memory (<40 hours), and is dependent on the cAMP Response Element Binding protein (CREB),6
a transcription factor required for long-term memory across species.8
Our protocol also includes image analysis methods for quick and accurate determination of chemotaxis indices. High-contrast images of animals on chemotaxis assay plates are captured and analyzed by worm counting software in MatLab. The software corrects for uneven background using a morphological tophat transformation.9
Otsu's method is then used to determine a threshold to separate worms from the background.10
Very small particles are removed automatically and larger non-worm regions (plate edges or agar punches) are removed by manual selection. The software then estimates the size of single worm by ignoring regions that are above a specified maximum size and taking the median size of the remaining regions. The number of worms is then estimated by dividing the total area identified as occupied by worms by the estimated size of a single worm.
We have found that learning and short- and long-term memory can be distinguished, and that these processes share similar key molecules with higher organisms.6,8
Our assays can quickly test novel candidate genes or molecules that affect learning and short- or long-term memory in C. elegans
that are relevant across species.
Neuroscience, Issue 49, memory, associative learning, C. elegans, chemotaxis, spaced training, behavior
Imaging G-protein Coupled Receptor (GPCR)-mediated Signaling Events that Control Chemotaxis of Dictyostelium Discoideum
Institutions: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health.
Many eukaryotic cells can detect gradients of chemical signals in their environments and migrate accordingly 1
. This guided cell migration is referred as chemotaxis, which is essential for various cells to carry out their functions such as trafficking of immune cells and patterning of neuronal cells 2, 3
. A large family of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) detects variable small peptides, known as chemokines, to direct cell migration in vivo 4
. The final goal of chemotaxis research is to understand how a GPCR machinery senses chemokine gradients and controls signaling events leading to chemotaxis. To this end, we use imaging techniques to monitor, in real time, spatiotemporal concentrations of chemoattractants, cell movement in a gradient of chemoattractant, GPCR mediated activation of heterotrimeric G-protein, and intracellular signaling events involved in chemotaxis of eukaryotic cells 5-8
. The simple eukaryotic organism, Dictyostelium discoideum
, displays chemotaxic behaviors that are similar to those of leukocytes, and D. discoideum
is a key model system for studying eukaryotic chemotaxis. As free-living amoebae, D. discoideum
cells divide in rich medium. Upon starvation, cells enter a developmental program in which they aggregate through cAMP-mediated chemotaxis to form multicullular structures. Many components involved in chemotaxis to cAMP have been identified in D. discoideum
. The binding of cAMP to a GPCR (cAR1) induces dissociation of heterotrimeric G-proteins into Gγ and Gβγ subunits 7, 9, 10
. Gβγ subunits activate Ras, which in turn activates PI3K, converting PIP2
on the cell membrane 11-13
serve as binding sites for proteins with pleckstrin Homology (PH) domains, thus recruiting these proteins to the membrane 14, 15
. Activation of cAR1 receptors also controls the membrane associations of PTEN, which dephosphorylates PIP3
to PIP2 16, 17
. The molecular mechanisms are evolutionarily conserved in chemokine GPCR-mediated chemotaxis of human cells such as neutrophils 18
. We present following methods for studying chemotaxis of D. discoideum cells
. 1. Preparation of chemotactic component cells. 2. Imaging chemotaxis of cells in a cAMP gradient. 3. Monitoring a GPCR induced activation of heterotrimeric G-protein in single live cells. 4. Imaging chemoattractant-triggered dynamic PIP3
responses in single live cells in real time. Our developed imaging methods can be applied to study chemotaxis of human leukocytes.
Molecular Biology, Issue 55, Chemotaxis, directional sensing, GPCR, PCR, G-proteins, signal transduction, Dictyostelium discoideum
Bilaminar Co-culture of Primary Rat Cortical Neurons and Glia
Institutions: Drexel University College of Medicine.
This video will guide you through the process of culturing rat cortical neurons in the presence of a glial feeder layer, a system known as a bilaminar or co-culture model. This system is suitable for a variety of experimental needs requiring either a glass or plastic growth substrate and can also be used for culture of other types of neurons.
Rat cortical neurons obtained from the late embryonic stage (E17) are plated on glass coverslips or tissue culture dishes facing a feeder layer of glia grown on dishes or plastic coverslips (known as Thermanox
), respectively. The choice between the two configurations depends on the specific experimental technique used, which may require, or not, that neurons are grown on glass (e.g. calcium imaging versus Western blot). The glial feeder layer, an astroglia-enriched secondary culture of mixed glia, is separately prepared from the cortices of newborn rat pups (P2-4) prior to the neuronal dissection.
A major advantage of this culture system as compared to a culture of neurons only is the support of neuronal growth, survival, and differentiation provided by trophic factors secreted from the glial feeder layer, which more accurately resembles the brain environment in vivo
. Furthermore, the co-culture can be used to study neuronal-glial interactions1
At the same time, glia contamination in the neuronal layer is prevented by different means (low density culture, addition of mitotic inhibitors, lack of serum and use of optimized culture medium) leading to a virtually pure neuronal layer, comparable to other established methods1-3
. Neurons can be easily separated from the glial layer at any time during culture and used for different experimental applications ranging from electrophysiology4
, cellular and molecular biology5-8
, imaging and microscopy4,6,7,9,10
. The primary neurons extend axons and dendrites to form functional synapses11
, a process which is not observed in neuronal cell lines, although some cell lines do extend processes.
A detailed protocol of culturing rat hippocampal neurons using this co-culture system has been described previously4,12,13
. Here we detail a modified protocol suited for cortical neurons. As approximately 20x106
cells are recovered from each rat embryo, this method is particularly useful for experiments requiring large numbers of neurons (but not concerned about a highly homogenous neuronal population). The preparation of neurons and glia needs to be planned in a time-specific manner. We will provide the step-by-step protocol for culturing rat cortical neurons as well as culturing glial cells to support the neurons.
Neuroscience, Issue 57, neuron, rat, brain, co-culture, cortex, glia, glial cells
Measurement of Cellular Chemotaxis with ECIS/Taxis
Institutions: University of Connecticut, University of Connecticut.
Cellular movement in response to external stimuli is fundamental to many cellular processes including wound healing, inflammation and the response to infection. A common method to measure chemotaxis is the Boyden chamber assay, in which cells and chemoattractant are separated by a porous membrane. As cells migrate through the membrane toward the chemoattractant, they adhere to the underside of the membrane, or fall into the underlying media, and are subsequently stained and visually counted 1
. In this method, cells are exposed to a steep and transient chemoattractant gradient, which is thought to be a poor representation of gradients found in tissues 2
Another assay system, the under-agarose chemotaxis assay, 3, 4
measures cell movement across a solid substrate in a thin aqueous film that forms under the agarose layer. The gradient that develops in the agarose is shallow and is thought to be an appropriate representation of naturally occurring gradients. Chemotaxis can be evaluated by microscopic imaging of the distance traveled. Both the Boyden chamber assay and the under-agarose assay are usually configured as endpoint assays.
The automated ECIS/Taxis system combines the under-agarose approach with Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS) 5, 6
. In this assay, target electrodes are located in each of 8 chambers. A large counter-electrode runs through each of the 8 chambers (Figure 2
). Each chamber is filled with agarose and two small wells are the cut in the agarose on either side of the target electrode. One well is filled with the test cell population, while the other holds the sources of diffusing chemoattractant (Figure 3
). Current passed through the system can be used to determine the change in resistance that occurs as cells pass over the target electrode. Cells on the target electrode increase the resistance of the system 6
. In addition, rapid fluctuations in the resistance represent changes in the interactions of cells with the electrode surface and are indicative of ongoing cellular shape changes. The ECIS/Taxis system can measure movement of the cell population in real-time over extended periods of time, but is also sensitive enough to detect the arrival of a single cell at the target electrode.
is known to migrate in the presence of a folate gradient 7, 8
and its chemotactic response can be accurately measured by ECIS/Taxis 9
. Leukocyte chemotaxis, in response to SDF1α and to chemotaxis antagonists has also been measured with ECIS/Taxis 10, 11
. An example of the leukocyte response to SDF1α is shown in Figure 1
Cellular Biology, Issue 62, Electric Cell- substrate Impedance Sensing, ECIS, ECIS/Taxis, Chemotaxis
Sampling Human Indigenous Saliva Peptidome Using a Lollipop-Like Ultrafiltration Probe: Simplify and Enhance Peptide Detection for Clinical Mass Spectrometry
Institutions: Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, University of California, San Diego , VA San Diego Healthcare Center, University of California, San Diego .
Although human saliva proteome and peptidome have been revealed 1-2
they were majorly identified from tryptic digests of saliva proteins. Identification of indigenous peptidome of human saliva without prior digestion with exogenous enzymes becomes imperative, since native peptides in human saliva provide potential values for diagnosing disease, predicting disease progression, and monitoring therapeutic efficacy. Appropriate sampling is a critical step for enhancement of identification of human indigenous saliva peptidome. Traditional methods of sampling human saliva involving centrifugation to remove debris 3-4
may be too time-consuming to be applicable for clinical use. Furthermore, debris removal by centrifugation may be unable to clean most of the infected pathogens and remove the high abundance proteins that often hinder the identification of low abundance peptidome.
Conventional proteomic approaches that primarily utilize two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) gels in conjugation with in-gel digestion are capable of identifying many saliva proteins 5-6
. However, this approach is generally not sufficiently sensitive to detect low abundance peptides/proteins. Liquid chromatography-Mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based proteomics is an alternative that can identify proteins without prior 2-DE separation. Although this approach provides higher sensitivity, it generally needs prior sample pre-fractionation 7
and pre-digestion with trypsin, which makes it difficult for clinical use.
To circumvent the hindrance in mass spectrometry due to sample preparation, we have developed a technique called capillary ultrafiltration (CUF) probes 8-11
. Data from our laboratory demonstrated that the CUF probes are capable of capturing proteins in vivo
from various microenvironments in animals in a dynamic and minimally invasive manner 8-11
. No centrifugation is needed since a negative pressure is created by simply syringe withdrawing during sample collection. The CUF probes combined with LC-MS have successfully identified tryptic-digested proteins 8-11
. In this study, we upgraded the ultrafiltration sampling technique by creating a lollipop-like ultrafiltration (LLUF) probe that can easily fit in the human oral cavity. The direct analysis by LC-MS without trypsin digestion showed that human saliva indigenously contains many peptide fragments derived from various proteins. Sampling saliva with LLUF probes avoided centrifugation but effectively removed many larger and high abundance proteins. Our mass spectrometric results illustrated that many low abundance peptides became detectable after filtering out larger proteins with LLUF probes. Detection of low abundance saliva peptides was independent of multiple-step sample separation with chromatography. For clinical application, the LLUF probes incorporated with LC-MS could potentially be used in the future to monitor disease progression from saliva.
Medicine, Issue 66, Molecular Biology, Genetics, Sampling, Saliva, Peptidome, Ultrafiltration, Mass spectrometry
Peptide-based Identification of Functional Motifs and their Binding Partners
Institutions: Morehouse School of Medicine, Institute for Systems Biology, Universiti Sains Malaysia.
Specific short peptides derived from motifs found in full-length proteins, in our case HIV-1 Nef, not only retain their biological function, but can also competitively inhibit the function of the full-length protein. A set of 20 Nef scanning peptides, 20 amino acids in length with each overlapping 10 amino acids of its neighbor, were used to identify motifs in Nef responsible for its induction of apoptosis. Peptides containing these apoptotic motifs induced apoptosis at levels comparable to the full-length Nef protein. A second peptide, derived from the Secretion Modification Region (SMR) of Nef, retained the ability to interact with cellular proteins involved in Nef's secretion in exosomes (exNef). This SMRwt peptide was used as the "bait" protein in co-immunoprecipitation experiments to isolate cellular proteins that bind specifically to Nef's SMR motif. Protein transfection and antibody inhibition was used to physically disrupt the interaction between Nef and mortalin, one of the isolated SMR-binding proteins, and the effect was measured with a fluorescent-based exNef secretion assay. The SMRwt peptide's ability to outcompete full-length Nef for cellular proteins that bind the SMR motif, make it the first inhibitor of exNef secretion. Thus, by employing the techniques described here, which utilize the unique properties of specific short peptides derived from motifs found in full-length proteins, one may accelerate the identification of functional motifs in proteins and the development of peptide-based inhibitors of pathogenic functions.
Virology, Issue 76, Biochemistry, Immunology, Infection, Infectious Diseases, Molecular Biology, Medicine, Genetics, Microbiology, Genomics, Proteins, Exosomes, HIV, Peptides, Exocytosis, protein trafficking, secretion, HIV-1, Nef, Secretion Modification Region, SMR, peptide, AIDS, assay
Protein WISDOM: A Workbench for In silico De novo Design of BioMolecules
Institutions: Princeton University.
The aim of de novo
protein design is to find the amino acid sequences that will fold into a desired 3-dimensional structure with improvements in specific properties, such as binding affinity, agonist or antagonist behavior, or stability, relative to the native sequence. Protein design lies at the center of current advances drug design and discovery. Not only does protein design provide predictions for potentially useful drug targets, but it also enhances our understanding of the protein folding process and protein-protein interactions. Experimental methods such as directed evolution have shown success in protein design. However, such methods are restricted by the limited sequence space that can be searched tractably. In contrast, computational design strategies allow for the screening of a much larger set of sequences covering a wide variety of properties and functionality. We have developed a range of computational de novo
protein design methods capable of tackling several important areas of protein design. These include the design of monomeric proteins for increased stability and complexes for increased binding affinity.
To disseminate these methods for broader use we present Protein WISDOM (http://www.proteinwisdom.org), a tool that provides automated methods for a variety of protein design problems. Structural templates are submitted to initialize the design process. The first stage of design is an optimization sequence selection stage that aims at improving stability through minimization of potential energy in the sequence space. Selected sequences are then run through a fold specificity stage and a binding affinity stage. A rank-ordered list of the sequences for each step of the process, along with relevant designed structures, provides the user with a comprehensive quantitative assessment of the design. Here we provide the details of each design method, as well as several notable experimental successes attained through the use of the methods.
Genetics, Issue 77, Molecular Biology, Bioengineering, Biochemistry, Biomedical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Computational Biology, Genomics, Proteomics, Protein, Protein Binding, Computational Biology, Drug Design, optimization (mathematics), Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins, De novo protein and peptide design, Drug design, In silico sequence selection, Optimization, Fold specificity, Binding affinity, sequencing
A Gradient-generating Microfluidic Device for Cell Biology
Institutions: Brigham and Women's Hospital.
The fabrication and operation of a gradient-generating microfluidic device for studying cellular behavior is described. A microfluidic platform is an enabling experimental tool, because it can precisely manipulate fluid flows, enable high-throughput experiments, and generate stable soluble concentration gradients. Compared to conventional gradient generators, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-based microfluidic devices can generate stable concentration gradients of growth factors with well-defined profiles. Here, we developed simple gradient-generating microfluidic devices with three separate inlets. Three microchannels combined into one microchannel to generate concentration gradients. The stability and shape of growth factor gradients were confirmed by fluorescein isothyiocyanate (FITC)-dextran with a molecular weight similar to epidermal growth factor (EGF). Using this microfluidic device, we demonstrated that fibroblasts exposed to concentration gradients of EGF migrated toward higher concentrations. The directional orientation of cell migration and motility of migrating cells were quantitatively assessed by cell tracking analysis. Thus, this gradient-generating microfluidic device might be useful for studying and analyzing the behavior of migrating cells.
Issue 7, Cell Biology, tissue engineering, microfluidic, cell migration, gradient