Ion channel proteins are universal devices for fast communication across biological membranes. The temporal signature of the ionic flux they generate depends on properties intrinsic to each channel protein as well as the mechanism by which it is generated and controlled and represents an important area of current research. Information about the operational dynamics of ion channel proteins can be obtained by observing long stretches of current produced by a single molecule. Described here is a protocol for obtaining one-channel cell-attached patch-clamp current recordings for a ligand gated ion channel, the NMDA receptor, expressed heterologously in HEK293 cells or natively in cortical neurons. Also provided are instructions on how to adapt the method to other ion channels of interest by presenting the example of the mechano-sensitive channel PIEZO1. This method can provide data regarding the channel’s conductance properties and the temporal sequence of open-closed conformations that make up the channel’s activation mechanism, thus helping to understand their functions in health and disease.
22 Related JoVE Articles!
Preparation of Artificial Bilayers for Electrophysiology Experiments
Institutions: Weill Cornell Medical College of Cornell University.
Planar lipid bilayers, also called artificial lipid bilayers, allow you to study ion-conducting channels in a well-defined environment. These bilayers can be used for many different studies, such as the characterization of membrane-active peptides, the reconstitution of ion channels or investigations on how changes in lipid bilayer properties alter the function of bilayer-spanning channels. Here, we show how to form a planar bilayer and how to isolate small patches from the bilayer, and in a second video will also demonstrate a procedure for using gramicidin channels to determine changes in lipid bilayer elastic properties. We also demonstrate the individual steps needed to prepare the bilayer chamber, the electrodes and how to test that the bilayer is suitable for single-channel measurements.
Cellular Biology, Issue 20, Springer Protocols, Artificial Bilayers, Bilayer Patch Experiments, Lipid Bilayers, Bilayer Punch Electrodes, Electrophysiology
The Xenopus Oocyte Cut-open Vaseline Gap Voltage-clamp Technique With Fluorometry
Institutions: Washington University in St. Louis.
The cut-open oocyte Vaseline gap (COVG) voltage clamp technique allows for analysis of electrophysiological and kinetic properties of heterologous ion channels in oocytes. Recordings from the cut-open setup are particularly useful for resolving low magnitude gating currents, rapid ionic current activation, and deactivation. The main benefits over the two-electrode voltage clamp (TEVC) technique include increased clamp speed, improved signal-to-noise ratio, and the ability to modulate the intracellular and extracellular milieu.
Here, we employ the human cardiac sodium channel (hNaV
1.5), expressed in Xenopus
oocytes, to demonstrate the cut-open setup and protocol as well as modifications that are required to add voltage clamp fluorometry capability.
The properties of fast activating ion channels, such as hNaV
1.5, cannot be fully resolved near room temperature using TEVC, in which the entirety of the oocyte membrane is clamped, making voltage control difficult. However, in the cut-open technique, isolation of only a small portion of the cell membrane allows for the rapid clamping required to accurately record fast kinetics while preventing channel run-down associated with patch clamp techniques.
In conjunction with the COVG technique, ion channel kinetics and electrophysiological properties can be further assayed by using voltage clamp fluorometry, where protein motion is tracked via cysteine conjugation of extracellularly applied fluorophores, insertion of genetically encoded fluorescent proteins, or the incorporation of unnatural amino acids into the region of interest1
. This additional data yields kinetic information about voltage-dependent conformational rearrangements of the protein via changes in the microenvironment surrounding the fluorescent molecule.
Developmental Biology, Issue 85, Voltage clamp, Cut-open, Oocyte, Voltage Clamp Fluorometry, Sodium Channels, Ionic Currents, Xenopus laevis
In Situ SIMS and IR Spectroscopy of Well-defined Surfaces Prepared by Soft Landing of Mass-selected Ions
Institutions: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
Soft landing of mass-selected ions onto surfaces is a powerful approach for the highly-controlled preparation of materials that are inaccessible using conventional synthesis techniques. Coupling soft landing with in situ
characterization using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) enables analysis of well-defined surfaces under clean vacuum conditions. The capabilities of three soft-landing instruments constructed in our laboratory are illustrated for the representative system of surface-bound organometallics prepared by soft landing of mass-selected ruthenium tris(bipyridine) dications, [Ru(bpy)3
(bpy = bipyridine), onto carboxylic acid terminated self-assembled monolayer surfaces on gold (COOH-SAMs). In situ
time-of-flight (TOF)-SIMS provides insight into the reactivity of the soft-landed ions. In addition, the kinetics of charge reduction, neutralization and desorption occurring on the COOH-SAM both during and after ion soft landing are studied using in situ
Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR)-SIMS measurements. In situ
IRRAS experiments provide insight into how the structure of organic ligands surrounding metal centers is perturbed through immobilization of organometallic ions on COOH-SAM surfaces by soft landing. Collectively, the three instruments provide complementary information about the chemical composition, reactivity and structure of well-defined species supported on surfaces.
Chemistry, Issue 88, soft landing, mass selected ions, electrospray, secondary ion mass spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, organometallic, catalysis
Bladder Smooth Muscle Strip Contractility as a Method to Evaluate Lower Urinary Tract Pharmacology
Institutions: University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine.
We describe an in vitro
method to measure bladder smooth muscle contractility, and its use for investigating physiological and pharmacological properties of the smooth muscle as well as changes induced by pathology. This method provides critical information for understanding bladder function while overcoming major methodological difficulties encountered in in vivo
experiments, such as surgical and pharmacological manipulations that affect stability and survival of the preparations, the use of human tissue, and/or the use of expensive chemicals. It also provides a way to investigate the properties of each bladder component (i.e.
smooth muscle, mucosa, nerves) in healthy and pathological conditions.
The urinary bladder is removed from an anesthetized animal, placed in Krebs solution and cut into strips. Strips are placed into a chamber filled with warm Krebs solution. One end is attached to an isometric tension transducer to measure contraction force, the other end is attached to a fixed rod. Tissue is stimulated by directly adding compounds to the bath or by electric field stimulation electrodes that activate nerves, similar to triggering bladder contractions in vivo
. We demonstrate the use of this method to evaluate spontaneous smooth muscle contractility during development and after an experimental spinal cord injury, the nature of neurotransmission (transmitters and receptors involved), factors involved in modulation of smooth muscle activity, the role of individual bladder components, and species and organ differences in response to pharmacological agents. Additionally, it could be used for investigating intracellular pathways involved in contraction and/or relaxation of the smooth muscle, drug structure-activity relationships and evaluation of transmitter release.
The in vitro
smooth muscle contractility method has been used extensively for over 50 years, and has provided data that significantly contributed to our understanding of bladder function as well as to pharmaceutical development of compounds currently used clinically for bladder management.
Medicine, Issue 90, Krebs, species differences, in vitro, smooth muscle contractility, neural stimulation
Acute Dissociation of Lamprey Reticulospinal Axons to Enable Recording from the Release Face Membrane of Individual Functional Presynaptic Terminals
Institutions: University of Illinois at Chicago.
Synaptic transmission is an extremely rapid process. Action potential driven influx of Ca2+
into the presynaptic terminal, through voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) located in the release face membrane, is the trigger for vesicle fusion and neurotransmitter release. Crucial to the rapidity of synaptic transmission is the spatial and temporal synchrony between the arrival of the action potential, VGCCs and the neurotransmitter release machinery. The ability to directly record Ca2+
currents from the release face membrane of individual presynaptic terminals is imperative for a precise understanding of the relationship between presynaptic Ca2+
and neurotransmitter release. Access to the presynaptic release face membrane for electrophysiological recording is not available in most preparations and presynaptic Ca2+
entry has been characterized using imaging techniques and macroscopic current measurements – techniques that do not have sufficient temporal resolution to visualize Ca2+
entry. The characterization of VGCCs directly at single presynaptic terminals has not been possible in central synapses and has thus far been successfully achieved only in the calyx-type synapse of the chick ciliary ganglion and in rat calyces. We have successfully addressed this problem in the giant reticulospinal synapse of the lamprey spinal cord by developing an acutely dissociated preparation of the spinal cord that yields isolated reticulospinal axons with functional presynaptic terminals devoid of postsynaptic structures. We can fluorescently label and identify individual presynaptic terminals and target them for recording. Using this preparation, we have characterized VGCCs directly at the release face of individual presynaptic terminals using immunohistochemistry and electrophysiology approaches. Ca2+
currents have been recorded directly at the release face membrane of individual presynaptic terminals, the first such recording to be carried out at central synapses.
Neuroscience, Issue 92, reticulospinal synapse, reticulospinal axons, presynaptic terminal, presynaptic calcium, voltage-gated calcium channels, vesicle fusion, synaptic transmission, neurotransmitter release, spinal cord, lamprey, synaptic vesicles, acute dissociation
Reconstitution of a Transmembrane Protein, the Voltage-gated Ion Channel, KvAP, into Giant Unilamellar Vesicles for Microscopy and Patch Clamp Studies
Institutions: Université Pierre et Marie Curie, University of California, San Diego, National Institute of Health.
Giant Unilamellar Vesicles (GUVs) are a popular biomimetic system for studying membrane associated phenomena. However, commonly used protocols to grow GUVs must be modified in order to form GUVs containing functional transmembrane proteins. This article describes two dehydration-rehydration methods — electroformation and gel-assisted swelling — to form GUVs containing the voltage-gated potassium channel, KvAP. In both methods, a solution of protein-containing small unilamellar vesicles is partially dehydrated to form a stack of membranes, which is then allowed to swell in a rehydration buffer. For the electroformation method, the film is deposited on platinum electrodes so that an AC field can be applied during film rehydration. In contrast, the gel-assisted swelling method uses an agarose gel substrate to enhance film rehydration. Both methods can produce GUVs in low (e.g.,
5 mM) and physiological (e.g.,
100 mM) salt concentrations. The resulting GUVs are characterized via fluorescence microscopy, and the function of reconstituted channels measured using the inside-out patch-clamp configuration. While swelling in the presence of an alternating electric field (electroformation) gives a high yield of defect-free GUVs, the gel-assisted swelling method produces a more homogeneous protein distribution and requires no special equipment.
Biochemistry, Issue 95, Biomimetic model system, Giant Unilamellar Vesicle, reconstitution, ion channel, transmembrane protein, KvAP, electroformation, gel assisted swelling, agarose, inside-out patch clamp, electrophysiology, fluorescence microscopy
A Proteoliposome-Based Efflux Assay to Determine Single-molecule Properties of Cl- Channels and Transporters
Institutions: Weill Cornell Medical College, Weill Cornell Medical College, Weill Cornell Medical College.
The last 15 years have been characterized by an explosion in the ability to overexpress and purify membrane proteins from prokaryotic organisms as well as from eukaryotes. This increase has been largely driven by the successful push to obtain structural information on membrane proteins. However, the ability to functionally interrogate these proteins has not advanced at the same rate and is often limited to qualitative assays of limited quantitative value, thereby limiting the mechanistic insights that they can provide. An assay to quantitatively investigate the transport activity of reconstituted Cl-
channels or transporters is described. The assay is based on the measure of the efflux rate of Cl-
from proteoliposomes following the addition of the K+
ionophore valinomycin to shunt the membrane potential. An ion sensitive electrode is used to follow the time-course of ion efflux from proteoliposomes reconstituted with the desired protein. The method is highly suited for mechanistic studies, as it allows for the quantitative determination of key properties of the reconstituted protein, such as its unitary transport rate, the fraction of active protein and the molecular mass of the functional unit. The assay can also be utilized to determine the effect of small molecule compounds that directly inhibit/activate the reconstituted protein, as well as to test the modulatory effects of the membrane composition or lipid-modifying reagents. Where possible, direct comparison between results obtained using this method were found to be in good agreement with those obtained using electrophysiological approaches. The technique is illustrated using CLC-ec1, a CLC-type H+
exchanger, as a model system. The efflux assay can be utilized to study any Cl-
conducting channel/transporter and, with minimal changes, can be adapted to study any ion-transporting protein.
Biochemistry, Issue 98, Membrane protein, purification, reconstitution, Poisson statistics, CLC, turnover rate
Functional Reconstitution and Channel Activity Measurements of Purified Wildtype and Mutant CFTR Protein
Institutions: Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, University of Toronto.
The Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) is a unique channel-forming member of the ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) superfamily of transporters. The phosphorylation and nucleotide dependent chloride channel activity of CFTR has been frequently studied in whole cell systems and as single channels in excised membrane patches. Many Cystic Fibrosis-causing mutations have been shown to alter this activity. While a small number of purification protocols have been published, a fast reconstitution method that retains channel activity and a suitable method for studying population channel activity in a purified system have been lacking. Here rapid methods are described for purification and functional reconstitution of the full-length CFTR protein into proteoliposomes of defined lipid composition that retains activity as a regulated halide channel. This reconstitution method together with a novel flux-based assay of channel activity is a suitable system for studying the population channel properties of wild type CFTR and the disease-causing mutants F508del- and G551D-CFTR. Specifically, the method has utility in studying the direct effects of phosphorylation, nucleotides and small molecules such as potentiators and inhibitors on CFTR channel activity. The methods are also amenable to the study of other membrane channels/transporters for anionic substrates.
Biochemistry, Issue 97, Cystic Fibrosis, CFTR, purification, reconstitution, chloride channel, channel function, iodide efflux, potentiation
Functional Characterization of Na+/H+ Exchangers of Intracellular Compartments Using Proton-killing Selection to Express Them at the Plasma Membrane
Institutions: Université Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Laboratoire de Physiomédecine Moléculaire, CNRS UMR7370, and Laboratories of Excellence Ion Channel Science and Therapeutics.
Endosomal acidification is critical for a wide range of processes, such as protein recycling and degradation, receptor desensitization, and neurotransmitter loading in synaptic vesicles. This acidification is described to be mediated by proton ATPases, coupled to ClC chloride transporters. Highly-conserved electroneutral protons transporters, the Na+
exchangers (NHE) 6, 7 and 9 are also expressed in these compartments. Mutations in their genes have been linked with human cognitive and neurodegenerative diseases. Paradoxically, their roles remain elusive, as their intracellular localization has prevented detailed functional characterization. This manuscript shows a method to solve this problem. This consists of the selection of mutant cell lines, capable of surviving acute cytosolic acidification by retaining intracellular NHEs at the plasma membrane. It then depicts two complementary protocols to measure the ion selectivity and activity of these exchangers: (i) one based on intracellular pH measurements using fluorescence video microscopy, and (ii) one based on the fast kinetics of lithium uptake. Such protocols can be extrapolated to measure other non-electrogenic transporters. Furthermore, the selection procedure presented here generates cells with an intracellular retention defective phenotype. Therefore these cells will also express other vesicular membrane proteins at the plasma membrane. The experimental strategy depicted here may therefore constitute a potentially powerful tool to study other intracellular proteins that will be then expressed at the plasma membrane together with the vesicular Na+
exchangers used for the selection.
Cellular Biology, Issue 97, Intracellular compartments, Somatic cell genetics, Na+/H+ exchangers. Intracellular pH measurements. Fast kinetics of ion flux. Kinetic parameters.
FtsZ Polymerization Assays: Simple Protocols and Considerations
Institutions: University of Groningen.
During bacterial cell division, the essential protein FtsZ assembles in the middle of the cell to form the so-called Z-ring. FtsZ polymerizes into long filaments in the presence of GTP in vitro
, and polymerization is regulated by several accessory proteins. FtsZ polymerization has been extensively studied in vitro
using basic methods including light scattering, sedimentation, GTP hydrolysis assays and electron microscopy. Buffer conditions influence both the polymerization properties of FtsZ, and the ability of FtsZ to interact with regulatory proteins. Here, we describe protocols for FtsZ polymerization studies and validate conditions and controls using Escherichia coli
and Bacillus subtilis
FtsZ as model proteins. A low speed sedimentation assay is introduced that allows the study of the interaction of FtsZ with proteins that bundle or tubulate FtsZ polymers. An improved GTPase assay protocol is described that allows testing of GTP hydrolysis over time using various conditions in a 96-well plate setup, with standardized incubation times that abolish variation in color development in the phosphate detection reaction. The preparation of samples for light scattering studies and electron microscopy is described. Several buffers are used to establish suitable buffer pH and salt concentration for FtsZ polymerization studies. A high concentration of KCl is the best for most of the experiments. Our methods provide a starting point for the in vitro
characterization of FtsZ, not only from E. coli
and B. subtilis
but from any other bacterium. As such, the methods can be used for studies of the interaction of FtsZ with regulatory proteins or the testing of antibacterial drugs which may affect FtsZ polymerization.
Basic Protocols, Issue 81, FtsZ, protein polymerization, cell division, GTPase, sedimentation assay, light scattering
Yeast Luminometric and Xenopus Oocyte Electrophysiological Examinations of the Molecular Mechanosensitivity of TRPV4
Institutions: University of Wisconsin – Madison, University of Wisconsin – Madison.
TRPV4 (Transient Receptor Potentials, vanilloid family, type 4) is widely expressed in vertebrate tissues and is activated by several stimuli, including by mechanical forces. Certain TRPV4 mutations cause complex hereditary bone or neuronal pathologies in human. Wild-type or mutant TRPV4 transgenes are commonly expressed in cultured mammalian cells and examined by Fura-2 fluorometry and by electrodes. In terms of the mechanism of mechanosensitivity and the molecular bases of the diseases, the current literature is confusing and controversial. To complement existing methods, we describe two additional methods to examine the molecular properties of TRPV4. (1) Rat TRPV4 and an aequorin transgene are transformed into budding yeast. A hypo-osmtic shock of the transformant population yields a luminometric signal due to the combination of aequorin with Ca2+
, released through the TRPV4 channel. Here TRPV4 is isolated from its usual mammalian partner proteins and reveals its own mechanosensitivity. (2) cRNA of TRPV4 is injected into Xenopus oocytes. After a suitable period of incubation, the macroscopic TRPV4 current is examined with a two-electrode voltage clamp. The current rise upon removal of inert osmoticum from the oocyte bath is indicative of mechanosensitivity. The microAmpere (10-6
A) currents from oocytes are much larger than the subnano- to nanoAmpere (10-10
A) currents from cultured cells, yielding clearer quantifications and more confident assessments. Microscopic currents reflecting the activities of individual channel proteins can also be directly registered under a patch clamp, in on-cell or excised mode. The same oocyte provides multiple patch samples, allowing better data replication. Suctions applied to the patches can activate TRPV4 to directly assess mechanosensitivity. These methods should also be useful in the study of other types of TRP channels.
Basic Protocol, Issue 82, Eukaryota, Archaea, Bacteria, Life Sciences (General), Mechanosensation, Ion channels, Lipids, patch clamp, Xenopus Oocytes, yeast, luminometry, force sensing, voltage clamp, TRPV4, electrophysiology
Reconstitution of a Kv Channel into Lipid Membranes for Structural and Functional Studies
Institutions: University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas.
To study the lipid-protein interaction in a reductionistic fashion, it is necessary to incorporate the membrane proteins into membranes of well-defined lipid composition. We are studying the lipid-dependent gating effects in a prototype voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channel, and have worked out detailed procedures to reconstitute the channels into different membrane systems. Our reconstitution procedures take consideration of both detergent-induced fusion of vesicles and the fusion of protein/detergent micelles with the lipid/detergent mixed micelles as well as the importance of reaching an equilibrium distribution of lipids among the protein/detergent/lipid and the detergent/lipid mixed micelles. Our data suggested that the insertion of the channels in the lipid vesicles is relatively random in orientations, and the reconstitution efficiency is so high that no detectable protein aggregates were seen in fractionation experiments. We have utilized the reconstituted channels to determine the conformational states of the channels in different lipids, record electrical activities of a small number of channels incorporated in planar lipid bilayers, screen for conformation-specific ligands from a phage-displayed peptide library, and support the growth of 2D crystals of the channels in membranes. The reconstitution procedures described here may be adapted for studying other membrane proteins in lipid bilayers, especially for the investigation of the lipid effects on the eukaryotic voltage-gated ion channels.
Molecular Biology, Issue 77, Biochemistry, Genetics, Cellular Biology, Structural Biology, Biophysics, Membrane Lipids, Phospholipids, Carrier Proteins, Membrane Proteins, Micelles, Molecular Motor Proteins, life sciences, biochemistry, Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins, lipid-protein interaction, channel reconstitution, lipid-dependent gating, voltage-gated ion channel, conformation-specific ligands, lipids
Mutagenesis and Functional Analysis of Ion Channels Heterologously Expressed in Mammalian Cells
Institutions: Salk Institute for Biological Studies.
We will demonstrate how to study the functional effects of introducing a point mutation in an ion channel. We study G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium (referred to as GIRK) channels, which are important for regulating the excitability of neurons. There are four different mammalian GIRK channel subunits (GIRK1-GIRK4) - we focus on GIRK2 because it forms a homotetramer. Stimulation of different types of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), such as the muscarinic receptor (M2R), leads to activation of GIRK channels. Alcohol also directly activates GIRK channels. We will show how to mutate one amino acid by specifically changing one or more nucleotides in the cDNA for the GIRK channel. This mutated cDNA sequence will be amplified in bacteria, purified, and the presence of the point mutation will be confirmed by DNA sequencing. The cDNAs for the mutated and wild-type GIRK channels will be transfected into human embryonic kidney HEK293T cells cultured in vitro
. Lastly, whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology will be used to study the macroscopic potassium currents through the ectopically expressed wild-type or mutated GIRK channels. In this experiment, we will examine the effect of a L257W mutation in GIRK2 channels on M2R-dependent and alcohol-dependent activation.
Cellular Biology, Issue 44, Ion channels, electrophysiology, patch-clamping, site-directed mutagenesis, biophysics, neuroscience
Patch Clamp and Perfusion Techniques for Studying Ion Channels Expressed in Xenopus oocytes
Institutions: Washington University in St. Louis, Washington University in St. Louis, Washington University in St. Louis.
The protocol presented here is designed to study the activation of the large conductance, voltage- and Ca2+
(BK) channels. The protocol may also be used to study the structure-function relationship for other ion channels and neurotransmitter receptors1
. BK channels are widely expressed in different tissues and have been implicated in many physiological functions, including regulation of smooth muscle contraction, frequency tuning of inner hair cells and regulation of neurotransmitter release2-6
. BK channels are activated by membrane depolarization and by intracellular Ca2+
and Mg2+ 6-9
. Therefore, the protocol is designed to control both the membrane voltage and the intracellular solution. In this protocol, messenger RNA of BK channels is injected into Xenopus laevis
oocytes (stage V-VI) followed by 2-5 days of incubation at 18°C10-13
. Membrane patches that contain single or multiple BK channels are excised with the inside-out configuration using patch clamp techniques10-13
. The intracellular side of the patch is perfused with desired solutions during recording so that the channel activation under different conditions can be examined. To summarize, the mRNA of BK channels is injected into Xenopus laevis
oocytes to express channel proteins on the oocyte membrane; patch clamp techniques are used to record currents flowing through the channels under controlled voltage and intracellular solutions.
Cellular Biology, Issue 47, patch clamp, ion channel, electrophysiology, biophysics, exogenous expression system, Xenopus oocyte, mRNA, transcription
Membrane Potentials, Synaptic Responses, Neuronal Circuitry, Neuromodulation and Muscle Histology Using the Crayfish: Student Laboratory Exercises
Institutions: University of Kentucky, University of Toronto.
The purpose of this report is to help develop an understanding of the effects caused by ion gradients across a biological membrane. Two aspects that influence a cell's membrane potential and which we address in these experiments are: (1) Ion concentration of K+
on the outside of the membrane, and (2) the permeability of the membrane to specific ions. The crayfish abdominal extensor muscles are in groupings with some being tonic (slow) and others phasic (fast) in their biochemical and physiological phenotypes, as well as in their structure; the motor neurons that innervate these muscles are correspondingly different in functional characteristics. We use these muscles as well as the superficial, tonic abdominal flexor muscle to demonstrate properties in synaptic transmission. In addition, we introduce a sensory-CNS-motor neuron-muscle circuit to demonstrate the effect of cuticular sensory stimulation as well as the influence of neuromodulators on certain aspects of the circuit. With the techniques obtained in this exercise, one can begin to answer many questions remaining in other experimental preparations as well as in physiological applications related to medicine and health. We have demonstrated the usefulness of model invertebrate preparations to address fundamental questions pertinent to all animals.
Neuroscience, Issue 47, Invertebrate, Crayfish, neurophysiology, muscle, anatomy, electrophysiology
Whole-Cell Recording of Calcium Release-Activated Calcium (CRAC) Currents in Human T Lymphocytes
Institutions: University of California, Davis.
In T lymphocytes, depletion of Ca2+
from the intracellular Ca2+
store leads to activation of plasmalemmal Ca2+
channels, called Calcium Release-Activated Calcium (CRAC) channels. CRAC channels play important role in regulation of T cell proliferation and gene expression. Abnormal CRAC channel function in T cells has been linked to severe combined immunodeficiency and autoimmune diseases 1, 2
. Studying CRAC channel function in human T cells may uncover new molecular mechanisms regulating normal immune responses and unravel the causes of related human diseases. Electrophysiological recordings of membrane currents provide the most accurate assessment of functional channel properties and their regulation. Electrophysiological assessment of CRAC channel currents in Jurkat T cells, a human leukemia T cell line, was first performed more than 20 years ago 3
, however, CRAC current measurements in normal human T cells remains a challenging task. The difficulties in recording CRAC channel currents in normal T cells are compounded by the fact that blood-derived T lymphocytes are much smaller in size than Jurkat T cells and, therefore, the endogenous whole-cell CRAC currents are very low in amplitude. Here, we give a step-by-step procedure that we routinely use to record the Ca2+
currents via CRAC channels in resting human T cells isolated from the peripheral blood of healthy volunteers. The method described here was adopted from the procedures used for recording the CRAC currents in Jurkat T cells and activated human T cells 4-8
Immunology, Issue 46, human T lymphocytes, CRAC channels, CRAC currents, patch-clamp
Recapitulation of an Ion Channel IV Curve Using Frequency Components
Institutions: University of Utah.
INTRODUCTION: Presently, there are no established methods to measure multiple ion channel types simultaneously and decompose the measured current into portions attributable to each channel type. This study demonstrates how impedance spectroscopy may be used to identify specific frequencies that highly correlate with the steady state current amplitude measured during voltage clamp experiments. The method involves inserting a noise function containing specific frequencies into the voltage step protocol. In the work presented, a model cell is used to demonstrate that no high correlations are introduced by the voltage clamp circuitry, and also that the noise function itself does not introduce any high correlations when no ion channels are present. This validation is necessary before the technique can be applied to preparations containing ion channels. The purpose of the protocol presented is to demonstrate how to characterize the frequency response of a single ion channel type to a noise function. Once specific frequencies have been identified in an individual channel type, they can be used to reproduce the steady state current voltage (IV) curve. Frequencies that highly correlate with one channel type and minimally correlate with other channel types may then be used to estimate the current contribution of multiple channel types measured simultaneously.
METHODS: Voltage clamp measurements were performed on a model cell using a standard voltage step protocol (-150 to +50 mV, 5mV steps). Noise functions containing equal magnitudes of 1-15 kHz frequencies (zero to peak amplitudes: 50 or 100mV) were inserted into each voltage step. The real component of the Fast Fourier transform (FFT) of the output signal was calculated with and without noise for each step potential. The magnitude of each frequency as a function of voltage step was correlated with the current amplitude at the corresponding voltages.
RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of noise (control), magnitudes of all frequencies except the DC component correlated poorly (|R|<0.5) with the IV curve, whereas the DC component had a correlation coefficient greater than 0.999 in all measurements. The quality of correlation between individual frequencies and the IV curve did not change when a noise function was added to the voltage step protocol. Likewise, increasing the amplitude of the noise function also did not increase the correlation. Control measurements demonstrate that the voltage clamp circuitry by itself does not cause any frequencies above 0 Hz to highly correlate with the steady-state IV curve. Likewise, measurements in the presence of the noise function demonstrate that the noise function does not cause any frequencies above 0 Hz to correlate with the steady-state IV curve when no ion channels are present. Based on this verification, the method can now be applied to preparations containing a single ion channel type with the intent of identifying frequencies whose amplitudes correlate specifically with that channel type.
Biophysics, Issue 48, Ion channel, Kir2.1, impedance spectroscopy, frequency response, voltage clamp, electrophysiology
GABA-activated Single-channel and Tonic Currents in Rat Brain Slices
Institutions: Uppsala University, Sweden.
channels are present in all neurons and are located both at synapses and outside of synapses where they generate phasic and tonic currents, respectively 4,5,6,7
channel is a pentameric GABA-gated chloride channel. The channel subunits are grouped into 8 families (α1-6, β1-3, γ1-3, δ, ε, θ, π and ρ). Two alphas, two betas and one 3rd
subunit form the functional channel 8
. By combining studies of sub-type specific GABA-activated single-channel molecules with studies including all populations of GABAA
channels in the neuron it becomes possible to understand the basic mechanism of neuronal inhibition and how it is modulated by pharmacological agents.
We use the patch-clamp technique 9,10
to study the functional properties of the GABAA
channels in alive neurons in hippocampal brain slices and record the single-channel and whole-cell currents. We further examine how the channels are affected by different GABA concentrations, other drugs and intra and extracellular factors. For detailed theoretical and practical description of the patch-clamp method please see The Single-Channel Recordings edited by B Sakman and E Neher 10
Neuroscience, Issue 53, brain, patch-clamp, ion channels, tonic current, slices, whole-cell current, single-channel current, GABAA, GABA
F1FO ATPase Vesicle Preparation and Technique for Performing Patch Clamp Recordings of Submitochondrial Vesicle Membranes
Institutions: Yale University.
Mitochondria are involved in many important cellular functions including metabolism, survival1
, development and, calcium signaling2
. Two of the most important mitochondrial functions are related to the efficient production of ATP, the energy currency of the cell, by oxidative phosphorylation, and the mediation of signals for programmed cell death3
The enzyme primarily responsible for the production of ATP is the F1FO-ATP synthase, also called ATP synthase4-5
. In recent years, the role of mitochondria in apoptotic and necrotic cell death has received considerable attention. In apoptotic cell death, BCL-2 family proteins such as Bax enter the mitochondrial outer membrane, oligomerize and permeabilize the outer membrane, releasing pro-apoptotic factors into the cytosol6
. In classic necrotic cell death, such as that produced by ischemia or excitotoxicity in neurons, a large, poorly regulated increase in matrix calcium contributes to the opening of an inner membrane pore, the mitochondrial permeability transition pore or mPTP. This depolarizes the inner membrane and causes osmotic shifts, contributing to outer membrane rupture, release of pro-apoptotic factors, and metabolic dysfunction. Many proteins including Bcl-xL7
interact with F1FO ATP synthase, modulating its function. Bcl-xL interacts directly with the beta subunit of F1FO ATP synthase, and this interaction decreases a leak conductance within the F1FOATPasecomplex, increasing the net transport of H+ by F1FO during F1FO ATPase activity8
and thereby increasing mitochondrial efficiency. To study the activity and modulation of the ATP synthase, we isolated from rodent brain submitochondrial vesicles (SMVs) containing F1FO ATPase. The SMVs retain the structural and functional integrity of the F1FO ATPase as shown in Alavian et al
. Here, we describe a method that we have used successfully for the isolation of SMVs from rat brain and we delineate the patch clamp technique to analyze channel activity (ion leak conductance) of the SMVs.
Neuroscience, Issue 75, Medicine, Biomedical Engineering, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Biochemistry, Neurobiology, Anatomy, Physiology, F1FO ATPase, mitochondria, patch clamp, electrophysiology, submitochondrial vesicles, Bcl-xL, cells, rat, animal model
Measuring Cation Transport by Na,K- and H,K-ATPase in Xenopus Oocytes by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry: An Alternative to Radioisotope Assays
Institutions: Technical University of Berlin, Oregon Health & Science University.
Whereas cation transport by the electrogenic membrane transporter Na+
-ATPase can be measured by electrophysiology, the electroneutrally operating gastric H+
-ATPase is more difficult to investigate. Many transport assays utilize radioisotopes to achieve a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio, however, the necessary security measures impose severe restrictions regarding human exposure or assay design. Furthermore, ion transport across cell membranes is critically influenced by the membrane potential, which is not straightforwardly controlled in cell culture or in proteoliposome preparations. Here, we make use of the outstanding sensitivity of atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) towards trace amounts of chemical elements to measure Rb+
transport by Na+
- or gastric H+
-ATPase in single cells. Using Xenopus
oocytes as expression system, we determine the amount of Rb+
) transported into the cells by measuring samples of single-oocyte homogenates in an AAS device equipped with a transversely heated graphite atomizer (THGA) furnace, which is loaded from an autosampler. Since the background of unspecific Rb+
uptake into control oocytes or during application of ATPase-specific inhibitors is very small, it is possible to implement complex kinetic assay schemes involving a large number of experimental conditions simultaneously, or to compare the transport capacity and kinetics of site-specifically mutated transporters with high precision. Furthermore, since cation uptake is determined on single cells, the flux experiments can be carried out in combination with two-electrode voltage-clamping (TEVC) to achieve accurate control of the membrane potential and current. This allowed e.g.
to quantitatively determine the 3Na+
transport stoichiometry of the Na+
-ATPase and enabled for the first time to investigate the voltage dependence of cation transport by the electroneutrally operating gastric H+
-ATPase. In principle, the assay is not limited to K+
-transporting membrane proteins, but it may work equally well to address the activity of heavy or transition metal transporters, or uptake of chemical elements by endocytotic processes.
Biochemistry, Issue 72, Chemistry, Biophysics, Bioengineering, Physiology, Molecular Biology, electrochemical processes, physical chemistry, spectrophotometry (application), spectroscopic chemical analysis (application), life sciences, temperature effects (biological, animal and plant), Life Sciences (General), Na+,K+-ATPase, H+,K+-ATPase, Cation Uptake, P-type ATPases, Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS), Two-Electrode Voltage-Clamp, Xenopus Oocytes, Rb+ Flux, Transversely Heated Graphite Atomizer (THGA) Furnace, electrophysiology, animal model
Implementing Dynamic Clamp with Synaptic and Artificial Conductances in Mouse Retinal Ganglion Cells
Institutions: University of Sydney , University of Western Sydney, University of Sydney .
Ganglion cells are the output neurons of the retina and their activity reflects the integration of multiple synaptic inputs arising from specific neural circuits. Patch clamp techniques, in voltage clamp and current clamp configurations, are commonly used to study the physiological properties of neurons and to characterize their synaptic inputs. Although the application of these techniques is highly informative, they pose various limitations. For example, it is difficult to quantify how the precise interactions of excitatory and inhibitory inputs determine response output. To address this issue, we used a modified current clamp technique, dynamic clamp, also called conductance clamp 1, 2, 3
and examined the impact of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs on neuronal excitability. This technique requires the injection of current into the cell and is dependent on the real-time feedback of its membrane potential at that time. The injected current is calculated from predetermined excitatory and inhibitory synaptic conductances, their reversal potentials and the cell's instantaneous membrane potential. Details on the experimental procedures, patch clamping cells to achieve a whole-cell configuration and employment of the dynamic clamp technique are illustrated in this video article. Here, we show the responses of mouse retinal ganglion cells to various conductance waveforms obtained from physiological experiments in control conditions or in the presence of drugs. Furthermore, we show the use of artificial excitatory and inhibitory conductances generated using alpha functions to investigate the responses of the cells.
Neuroscience, Issue 75, Neurobiology, Biomedical Engineering, Anatomy, Physiology, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Neurons, Retinal Neurons, Retinal Ganglion Cells, Eye, Retina, Neurosciences, retina, ganglion cells, synaptic conductance, artificial conductance, tetrodotoxin (TTX), patch clamp, dynamic clamp, conductance clamp, electrophysiology, mouse, animal model
Measurement of Extracellular Ion Fluxes Using the Ion-selective Self-referencing Microelectrode Technique
Institutions: University of California, Davis, Universidade do Minho, University of California, Davis Imaging of Dementia and Aging Laboratory, University of California, Davis.
Cells from animals, plants and single cells are enclosed by a barrier called the cell membrane that separates the cytoplasm from the outside. Cell layers such as epithelia also form a barrier that separates the inside from the outside or different compartments of multicellular organisms. A key feature of these barriers is the differential distribution of ions across cell membranes or cell layers. Two properties allow this distribution: 1) membranes and epithelia display selective permeability to specific ions; 2) ions are transported through pumps across cell membranes and cell layers. These properties play crucial roles in maintaining tissue physiology and act as signaling cues after damage, during repair, or under pathological condition. The ion-selective self-referencing microelectrode allows measurements of specific fluxes of ions such as calcium, potassium or sodium at single cell and tissue levels. The microelectrode contains an ionophore cocktail which is selectively permeable to a specific ion. The internal filling solution contains a set concentration of the ion of interest. The electric potential of the microelectrode is determined by the outside concentration of the ion. As the ion concentration varies, the potential of the microelectrode changes as a function of the log of the ion activity. When moved back and forth near a source or sink of the ion (i.e.
in a concentration gradient due to ion flux) the microelectrode potential fluctuates at an amplitude proportional to the ion flux/gradient. The amplifier amplifies the microelectrode signal and the output is recorded on computer. The ion flux can then be calculated by Fick’s law of diffusion using the electrode potential fluctuation, the excursion of microelectrode, and other parameters such as the specific ion mobility. In this paper, we describe in detail the methodology to measure extracellular ion fluxes using the ion-selective self-referencing microelectrode and present some representative results.
Cellular Biology, Issue 99, ion-selective, self-referencing, microelectrode, extracellular ion fluxes, in vivo measurements