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Characterization of Insertion Sequence ISSau2 in the Human and Livestock-Associated Staphylococcus aureus.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2015
Mobile genetic elements play important roles in evolution and diversification of bacterial genomes. ISSau2 is 1660bp in length with terminal 5'-TG and CA-3' dinucleotides and has two overlapping reading frames orfA and orfB. It has been found in a wide range of S. aureus, such as HA-MRSA252, LGA251, MRSA S0385 and ED133. To determine distribution of ISSau2, 164 S. aureus isolates from milk samples of mastitic cows from our laboratory and all the S. aureus strains from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database were screened for the presence of ISSau2. Next, in order to explore a potential relationship among S. aureus ISSau2-containing strains and isolates, a relationship among 10 ISSau2-positive S. aureus isolates and 27 ISSau2-positive S. aureus strains was investigated by a phylogenetic analysis. These ISSau2 isolates and strains could be classified into four groups (A, B, C and D). The strains or isolates in Group D were all isolated from mammary glands, suggesting tissue specificity. All strains in Group B had an identical ISSau2 derivative, termed ISSau21628, with 32bp deletion at the 3' terminus. ISSau21628 in strain ST398 from Group B was closely related to ISSau2 in strain LGA251 from Group D.
Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing is a very important molecular tool for understanding the epidemiology and clonal strain relatedness of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), particularly with the emerging outbreaks of community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) occurring on a worldwide basis. Traditional PCR typing schemes classify SCCmec by targeting and identifying the individual mec and ccr gene complex types, but require the use of many primer sets and multiple individual PCR experiments. We designed and published a simple multiplex PCR assay for quick-screening of major SCCmec types and subtypes I to V, and later updated it as new sequence information became available. This simple assay targets individual SCCmec types in a single reaction, is easy to interpret and has been extensively used worldwide. However, due to the sophisticated nature of the assay and the large number of primers present in the reaction, there is the potential for difficulties while adapting this assay to individual laboratories. To facilitate the process of establishing a MRSA SCCmec assay, here we demonstrate how to set up our multiplex PCR assay, and discuss some of the vital steps and procedural nuances that make it successful.
22 Related JoVE Articles!
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Biosensor for Detection of Antibiotic Resistant Staphylococcus Bacteria
Authors: Rajesh Guntupalli, Iryna Sorokulova, Eric Olsen, Ludmila Globa, Oleg Pustovyy, Vitaly Vodyanoy.
Institutions: Auburn University , Keesler Air Force Base.
A structurally transformed lytic bacteriophage having a broad host range of Staphylococcus aureus strains and a penicillin-binding protein (PBP 2a) antibody conjugated latex beads have been utilized to create a biosensor designed for discrimination of methicillin resistant (MRSA) and sensitive (MSSA) S. aureus species 1,2. The lytic phages have been converted into phage spheroids by contact with water-chloroform interface. Phage spheroid monolayers have been moved onto a biosensor surface by Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique 3. The created biosensors have been examined by a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation tracking (QCM-D) to evaluate bacteria-phage interactions. Bacteria-spheroid interactions led to reduced resonance frequency and a rise in dissipation energy for both MRSA and MSSA strains. After the bacterial binding, these sensors have been further exposed to the penicillin-binding protein antibody latex beads. Sensors analyzed with MRSA responded to PBP 2a antibody beads; although sensors inspected with MSSA gave no response. This experimental distinction determines an unambiguous discrimination between methicillin resistant and sensitive S. aureus strains. Equally bound and unbound bacteriophages suppress bacterial growth on surfaces and in water suspensions. Once lytic phages are changed into spheroids, they retain their strong lytic activity and show high bacterial capture capability. The phage and phage spheroids can be utilized for testing and sterilization of antibiotic resistant microorganisms. Other applications may include use in bacteriophage therapy and antimicrobial surfaces.
Bioengineering, Issue 75, Microbiology, Infectious Diseases, Infection, Medicine, Immunology, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Genetics, Anatomy, Physiology, Bacteria, Pharmacology, Staphylococcus, Bacteriophages, phage, Binding, Competitive, Biophysics, surface properties (nonmetallic materials), surface wave acoustic devices (electronic design), sensors, Lytic phage spheroids, QCM-D, Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) monolayers, MRSA, Staphylococcus aureus, assay
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Stress-induced Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing on a Chip
Authors: Maxim Kalashnikov, Jennifer Campbell, Jean C. Lee, Andre Sharon, Alexis F. Sauer-Budge.
Institutions: Fraunhofer USA Center for Manufacturing Innovation, Harvard Medical School, Boston University, Boston University.
We have developed a rapid microfluidic method for antibiotic susceptibility testing in a stress-based environment. Fluid is passed at high speeds over bacteria immobilized on the bottom of a microfluidic channel. In the presence of stress and antibiotic, susceptible strains of bacteria die rapidly. However, resistant bacteria survive these stressful conditions. The hypothesis behind this method is new: stress activation of biochemical pathways, which are targets of antibiotics, can accelerate antibiotic susceptibility testing. As compared to standard antibiotic susceptibility testing methods, the rate-limiting step - bacterial growth - is omitted during antibiotic application. The technical implementation of the method is in a combination of standard techniques and innovative approaches. The standard parts of the method include bacterial culture protocols, defining microfluidic channels in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), cell viability monitoring with fluorescence, and batch image processing for bacteria counting. Innovative parts of the method are in the use of culture media flow for mechanical stress application, use of enzymes to damage but not kill the bacteria, and use of microarray substrates for bacterial attachment. The developed platform can be used in antibiotic and nonantibiotic related drug development and testing. As compared to the standard bacterial suspension experiments, the effect of the drug can be turned on and off repeatedly over controlled time periods. Repetitive observation of the same bacterial population is possible over the course of the same experiment.
Bioengineering, Issue 83, antibiotic, susceptibility, resistance, microfluidics, microscopy, rapid, testing, stress, bacteria, fluorescence
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Using Coculture to Detect Chemically Mediated Interspecies Interactions
Authors: Elizabeth Anne Shank.
Institutions: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill .
In nature, bacteria rarely exist in isolation; they are instead surrounded by a diverse array of other microorganisms that alter the local environment by secreting metabolites. These metabolites have the potential to modulate the physiology and differentiation of their microbial neighbors and are likely important factors in the establishment and maintenance of complex microbial communities. We have developed a fluorescence-based coculture screen to identify such chemically mediated microbial interactions. The screen involves combining a fluorescent transcriptional reporter strain with environmental microbes on solid media and allowing the colonies to grow in coculture. The fluorescent transcriptional reporter is designed so that the chosen bacterial strain fluoresces when it is expressing a particular phenotype of interest (i.e. biofilm formation, sporulation, virulence factor production, etc.) Screening is performed under growth conditions where this phenotype is not expressed (and therefore the reporter strain is typically nonfluorescent). When an environmental microbe secretes a metabolite that activates this phenotype, it diffuses through the agar and activates the fluorescent reporter construct. This allows the inducing-metabolite-producing microbe to be detected: they are the nonfluorescent colonies most proximal to the fluorescent colonies. Thus, this screen allows the identification of environmental microbes that produce diffusible metabolites that activate a particular physiological response in a reporter strain. This publication discusses how to: a) select appropriate coculture screening conditions, b) prepare the reporter and environmental microbes for screening, c) perform the coculture screen, d) isolate putative inducing organisms, and e) confirm their activity in a secondary screen. We developed this method to screen for soil organisms that activate biofilm matrix-production in Bacillus subtilis; however, we also discuss considerations for applying this approach to other genetically tractable bacteria.
Microbiology, Issue 80, High-Throughput Screening Assays, Genes, Reporter, Microbial Interactions, Soil Microbiology, Coculture, microbial interactions, screen, fluorescent transcriptional reporters, Bacillus subtilis
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Following in Real Time the Impact of Pneumococcal Virulence Factors in an Acute Mouse Pneumonia Model Using Bioluminescent Bacteria
Authors: Malek Saleh, Mohammed R. Abdullah, Christian Schulz, Thomas Kohler, Thomas Pribyl, Inga Jensch, Sven Hammerschmidt.
Institutions: University of Greifswald.
Pneumonia is one of the major health care problems in developing and industrialized countries and is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Despite advances in knowledge of this illness, the availability of intensive care units (ICU), and the use of potent antimicrobial agents and effective vaccines, the mortality rates remain high1. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading pathogen of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and one of the most common causes of bacteremia in humans. This pathogen is equipped with an armamentarium of surface-exposed adhesins and virulence factors contributing to pneumonia and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). The assessment of the in vivo role of bacterial fitness or virulence factors is of utmost importance to unravel S. pneumoniae pathogenicity mechanisms. Murine models of pneumonia, bacteremia, and meningitis are being used to determine the impact of pneumococcal factors at different stages of the infection. Here we describe a protocol to monitor in real-time pneumococcal dissemination in mice after intranasal or intraperitoneal infections with bioluminescent bacteria. The results show the multiplication and dissemination of pneumococci in the lower respiratory tract and blood, which can be visualized and evaluated using an imaging system and the accompanying analysis software.
Infection, Issue 84, Gram-Positive Bacteria, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pneumonia, Bacterial, Respiratory Tract Infections, animal models, community-acquired pneumonia, invasive pneumococcal diseases, Pneumococci, bioimaging, virulence factor, dissemination, bioluminescence, IVIS Spectrum
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Super-resolution Imaging of the Cytokinetic Z Ring in Live Bacteria Using Fast 3D-Structured Illumination Microscopy (f3D-SIM)
Authors: Lynne Turnbull, Michael P. Strauss, Andrew T. F. Liew, Leigh G. Monahan, Cynthia B. Whitchurch, Elizabeth J. Harry.
Institutions: University of Technology, Sydney.
Imaging of biological samples using fluorescence microscopy has advanced substantially with new technologies to overcome the resolution barrier of the diffraction of light allowing super-resolution of live samples. There are currently three main types of super-resolution techniques – stimulated emission depletion (STED), single-molecule localization microscopy (including techniques such as PALM, STORM, and GDSIM), and structured illumination microscopy (SIM). While STED and single-molecule localization techniques show the largest increases in resolution, they have been slower to offer increased speeds of image acquisition. Three-dimensional SIM (3D-SIM) is a wide-field fluorescence microscopy technique that offers a number of advantages over both single-molecule localization and STED. Resolution is improved, with typical lateral and axial resolutions of 110 and 280 nm, respectively and depth of sampling of up to 30 µm from the coverslip, allowing for imaging of whole cells. Recent advancements (fast 3D-SIM) in the technology increasing the capture rate of raw images allows for fast capture of biological processes occurring in seconds, while significantly reducing photo-toxicity and photobleaching. Here we describe the use of one such method to image bacterial cells harboring the fluorescently-labelled cytokinetic FtsZ protein to show how cells are analyzed and the type of unique information that this technique can provide.
Molecular Biology, Issue 91, super-resolution microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, OMX, 3D-SIM, Blaze, cell division, bacteria, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, FtsZ, Z ring constriction
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A Restriction Enzyme Based Cloning Method to Assess the In vitro Replication Capacity of HIV-1 Subtype C Gag-MJ4 Chimeric Viruses
Authors: Daniel T. Claiborne, Jessica L. Prince, Eric Hunter.
Institutions: Emory University, Emory University.
The protective effect of many HLA class I alleles on HIV-1 pathogenesis and disease progression is, in part, attributed to their ability to target conserved portions of the HIV-1 genome that escape with difficulty. Sequence changes attributed to cellular immune pressure arise across the genome during infection, and if found within conserved regions of the genome such as Gag, can affect the ability of the virus to replicate in vitro. Transmission of HLA-linked polymorphisms in Gag to HLA-mismatched recipients has been associated with reduced set point viral loads. We hypothesized this may be due to a reduced replication capacity of the virus. Here we present a novel method for assessing the in vitro replication of HIV-1 as influenced by the gag gene isolated from acute time points from subtype C infected Zambians. This method uses restriction enzyme based cloning to insert the gag gene into a common subtype C HIV-1 proviral backbone, MJ4. This makes it more appropriate to the study of subtype C sequences than previous recombination based methods that have assessed the in vitro replication of chronically derived gag-pro sequences. Nevertheless, the protocol could be readily modified for studies of viruses from other subtypes. Moreover, this protocol details a robust and reproducible method for assessing the replication capacity of the Gag-MJ4 chimeric viruses on a CEM-based T cell line. This method was utilized for the study of Gag-MJ4 chimeric viruses derived from 149 subtype C acutely infected Zambians, and has allowed for the identification of residues in Gag that affect replication. More importantly, the implementation of this technique has facilitated a deeper understanding of how viral replication defines parameters of early HIV-1 pathogenesis such as set point viral load and longitudinal CD4+ T cell decline.
Infectious Diseases, Issue 90, HIV-1, Gag, viral replication, replication capacity, viral fitness, MJ4, CEM, GXR25
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Combined In vivo Optical and µCT Imaging to Monitor Infection, Inflammation, and Bone Anatomy in an Orthopaedic Implant Infection in Mice
Authors: Nicholas M. Bernthal, Brad N. Taylor, Jeffrey A. Meganck, Yu Wang, Jonathan H. Shahbazian, Jared A. Niska, Kevin P. Francis, Lloyd S. Miller.
Institutions: David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), PerkinElmer, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.
Multimodality imaging has emerged as a common technological approach used in both preclinical and clinical research. Advanced techniques that combine in vivo optical and μCT imaging allow the visualization of biological phenomena in an anatomical context. These imaging modalities may be especially useful to study conditions that impact bone. In particular, orthopaedic implant infections are an important problem in clinical orthopaedic surgery. These infections are difficult to treat because bacterial biofilms form on the foreign surgically implanted materials, leading to persistent inflammation, osteomyelitis and eventual osteolysis of the bone surrounding the implant, which ultimately results in implant loosening and failure. Here, a mouse model of an infected orthopaedic prosthetic implant was used that involved the surgical placement of a Kirschner-wire implant into an intramedullary canal in the femur in such a way that the end of the implant extended into the knee joint. In this model, LysEGFP mice, a mouse strain that has EGFP-fluorescent neutrophils, were employed in conjunction with a bioluminescent Staphylococcus aureus strain, which naturally emits light. The bacteria were inoculated into the knee joints of the mice prior to closing the surgical site. In vivo bioluminescent and fluorescent imaging was used to quantify the bacterial burden and neutrophil inflammatory response, respectively. In addition, μCT imaging was performed on the same mice so that the 3D location of the bioluminescent and fluorescent optical signals could be co-registered with the anatomical μCT images. To quantify the changes in the bone over time, the outer bone volume of the distal femurs were measured at specific time points using a semi-automated contour based segmentation process. Taken together, the combination of in vivo bioluminescent/fluorescent imaging with μCT imaging may be especially useful for the noninvasive monitoring of the infection, inflammatory response and anatomical changes in bone over time.
Infection, Issue 92, imaging, optical, CT, bioluminescence, fluorescence, staphylococcus, infection, inflammation, bone, orthopaedic, implant, biofilm
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Use of MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry and a Custom Database to Characterize Bacteria Indigenous to a Unique Cave Environment (Kartchner Caverns, AZ, USA)
Authors: Lin Zhang, Katleen Vranckx, Koen Janssens, Todd R. Sandrin.
Institutions: Arizona State University, Applied Maths NV.
MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry has been shown to be a rapid and reliable tool for identification of bacteria at the genus and species, and in some cases, strain levels. Commercially available and open source software tools have been developed to facilitate identification; however, no universal/standardized data analysis pipeline has been described in the literature. Here, we provide a comprehensive and detailed demonstration of bacterial identification procedures using a MALDI-TOF mass spectrometer. Mass spectra were collected from 15 diverse bacteria isolated from Kartchner Caverns, AZ, USA, and identified by 16S rDNA sequencing. Databases were constructed in BioNumerics 7.1. Follow-up analyses of mass spectra were performed, including cluster analyses, peak matching, and statistical analyses. Identification was performed using blind-coded samples randomly selected from these 15 bacteria. Two identification methods are presented: similarity coefficient-based and biomarker-based methods. Results show that both identification methods can identify the bacteria to the species level.
Environmental Sciences, Issue 95, Identification, environmental bacteria, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, BioNumerics, fingerprint, database, similarity coefficient, biomarker
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Fluorescence Based Primer Extension Technique to Determine Transcriptional Starting Points and Cleavage Sites of RNases In Vivo
Authors: Christopher F. Schuster, Ralph Bertram.
Institutions: University of Tübingen.
Fluorescence based primer extension (FPE) is a molecular method to determine transcriptional starting points or processing sites of RNA molecules. This is achieved by reverse transcription of the RNA of interest using specific fluorescently labeled primers and subsequent analysis of the resulting cDNA fragments by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Simultaneously, a traditional Sanger sequencing reaction is run on the gel to map the ends of the cDNA fragments to their exact corresponding bases. In contrast to 5'-RACE (Rapid Amplification of cDNA Ends), where the product must be cloned and multiple candidates sequenced, the bulk of cDNA fragments generated by primer extension can be simultaneously detected in one gel run. In addition, the whole procedure (from reverse transcription to final analysis of the results) can be completed in one working day. By using fluorescently labeled primers, the use of hazardous radioactive isotope labeled reagents can be avoided and processing times are reduced as products can be detected during the electrophoresis procedure. In the following protocol, we describe an in vivo fluorescent primer extension method to reliably and rapidly detect the 5' ends of RNAs to deduce transcriptional starting points and RNA processing sites (e.g., by toxin-antitoxin system components) in S. aureus, E. coli and other bacteria.
Molecular Biology, Issue 92, Primer extension, RNA mapping, 5' end, fluorescent primer, transcriptional starting point, TSP, RNase, toxin-antitoxin, cleavage site, gel electrophoresis, DNA isolation, RNA processing
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Growth-based Determination and Biochemical Confirmation of Genetic Requirements for Protein Degradation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Authors: Sheldon G. Watts, Justin J. Crowder, Samuel Z. Coffey, Eric M. Rubenstein.
Institutions: Ball State University, Cincinnati Children's Hospital.
Regulated protein degradation is crucial for virtually every cellular function. Much of what is known about the molecular mechanisms and genetic requirements for eukaryotic protein degradation was initially established in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Classical analyses of protein degradation have relied on biochemical pulse-chase and cycloheximide-chase methodologies. While these techniques provide sensitive means for observing protein degradation, they are laborious, time-consuming, and low-throughput. These approaches are not amenable to rapid or large-scale screening for mutations that prevent protein degradation. Here, a yeast growth-based assay for the facile identification of genetic requirements for protein degradation is described. In this assay, a reporter enzyme required for growth under specific selective conditions is fused to an unstable protein. Cells lacking the endogenous reporter enzyme but expressing the fusion protein can grow under selective conditions only when the fusion protein is stabilized (i.e. when protein degradation is compromised). In the growth assay described here, serial dilutions of wild-type and mutant yeast cells harboring a plasmid encoding a fusion protein are spotted onto selective and non-selective medium. Growth under selective conditions is consistent with degradation impairment by a given mutation. Increased protein abundance should be biochemically confirmed. A method for the rapid extraction of yeast proteins in a form suitable for electrophoresis and western blotting is also demonstrated. A growth-based readout for protein stability, combined with a simple protocol for protein extraction for biochemical analysis, facilitates rapid identification of genetic requirements for protein degradation. These techniques can be adapted to monitor degradation of a variety of short-lived proteins. In the example presented, the His3 enzyme, which is required for histidine biosynthesis, was fused to Deg1-Sec62. Deg1-Sec62 is targeted for degradation after it aberrantly engages the endoplasmic reticulum translocon. Cells harboring Deg1-Sec62-His3 were able to grow under selective conditions when the protein was stabilized.
Molecular Biology, Issue 96, Ubiquitin-proteasome system, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, budding yeast, growth assay, protein extracts, western blotting, yeast genetics, mutants, endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation, protein degradation
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Studying Interactions of Staphylococcus aureus with Neutrophils by Flow Cytometry and Time Lapse Microscopy
Authors: Bas G.J. Surewaard, Jos A.G. van Strijp, Reindert Nijland.
Institutions: University Medical Center Utrecht.
We present methods to study the effect of phenol soluble modulins (PSMs) and other toxins produced and secreted by Staphylococcus aureus on neutrophils. To study the effects of the PSMs on neutrophils we isolate fresh neutrophils using density gradient centrifugation. These neutrophils are loaded with a dye that fluoresces upon calcium mobilization. The activation of neutrophils by PSMs initiates a rapid and transient increase in the free intracellular calcium concentration. In a flow cytometry experiment this rapid mobilization can be measured by monitoring the fluorescence of a pre-loaded dye that reacts to the increased concentration of free Ca2+. Using this method we can determine the PSM concentration necessary to activate the neutrophil, and measure the effects of specific and general inhibitors of the neutrophil activation. To investigate the expression of the PSMs in the intracellular space, we have constructed reporter fusions of the promoter of the PSMα operon to GFP. When these reporter strains of S. aureus are phagocytosed by neutrophils, the induction of expression can be observed using fluorescence microscopy.
Infection, Issue 77, Immunology, Cellular Biology, Infectious Diseases, Microbiology, Genetics, Medicine, Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, Neutrophils, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacterial Toxins, Microscopy, Fluorescence, Time-Lapse Imaging, Phagocytosis, phenol soluble modulins, PSMs, Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils, PMNs, intracellular expression, time-lapse microscopy, flow cytometry, cell, isolation, cell culture
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The Use of Drip Flow and Rotating Disk Reactors for Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Analysis
Authors: Kelly Schwartz, Rachel Stephenson, Margarita Hernandez, Nicolays Jambang, Blaise R. Boles.
Institutions: University of Michigan.
Most microbes in nature are thought to exist as surface-associated communities in biofilms.1 Bacterial biofilms are encased within a matrix and attached to a surface.2 Biofilm formation and development are commonly studied in the laboratory using batch systems such as microtiter plates or flow systems, such as flow-cells. These methodologies are useful for screening mutant and chemical libraries (microtiter plates)3 or growing biofilms for visualization (flow cells)4. Here we present detailed protocols for growing Staphylococcus aureus in two additional types of flow system biofilms: the drip flow biofilm reactor and the rotating disk biofilm reactor. Drip flow biofilm reactors are designed for the study of biofilms grown under low shear conditions.5 The drip flow reactor consists of four parallel test channels, each capable of holding one standard glass microscope slide sized coupon, or a length of catheter or stint. The drip flow reactor is ideal for microsensor monitoring, general biofilm studies, biofilm cryosectioning samples, high biomass production, medical material evaluations, and indwelling medical device testing.6,7,8,9 The rotating disk reactor consists of a teflon disk containing recesses for removable coupons.10 The removable coupons can by made from any machinable material. The bottom of the rotating disk contains a bar magnet to allow disk rotation to create liquid surface shear across surface-flush coupons. The entire disk containing 18 coupons is placed in a 1000 mL glass side-arm reactor vessel. A liquid growth media is circulated through the vessel while the disk is rotated by a magnetic stirrer. The coupons are removed from the reactor vessel and then scraped to collect the biofilm sample for further study or microscopy imaging. Rotating disc reactors are designed for laboratory evaluations of biocide efficacy, biofilm removal, and performance of anti-fouling materials.9,11,12,13
Immunology, Issue 46, biofilm, drip flow reactor, rotating disk reactor, open system biofilm
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Subcutaneous Infection of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA)
Authors: Ching Wen Tseng, Marisel Sanchez-Martinez, Andrea Arruda, George Y. Liu.
Institutions: Cedars-Sinai Medical Center.
MRSA is a worldwide threat to public health, and MRSA skin and soft-tissue infections now account for more than half of all soft-tissue infections in the United States. Among soft-tissue infections, myositis, pyomyositis, and necrotizing fasciitis have been increasingly reported in association with MRSA arising from the community. To understand the interplay between MRSA and host immunity leading to more severe infection, the availability of animal models is critical, permitting the study of host and bacterial factors. Several infection models have been introduced to assess the pathogenesis of S. aureus during superficial skin infection. Here, we describe a subcutaneous infection model that examines the skin, subcutaneous, and muscle pathologies.
Infection, Issue 48, Subcutaneous infection, Staphylococcus aureus, MRSA
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Invasion of Human Cells by a Bacterial Pathogen
Authors: Andrew M. Edwards, Ruth C. Massey.
Institutions: University of Bath.
Here we will describe how we study the invasion of human endothelial cells by bacterial pathogen Staphylococcus aureus . The general protocol can be applied to the study of cell invasion by virtually any culturable bacterium. The stages at which specific aspects of invasion can be studied, such as the role of actin rearrangement or caveolae, will be highlighted. Host cells are grown in flasks and when ready for use are seeded into 24-well plates containing Thermanox coverslips. Using coverslips allows subsequent removal of the cells from the wells to reduce interference from serum proteins deposited onto the sides of the wells (to which S. aureus would attach). Bacteria are grown to the required density and washed to remove any secreted proteins (e.g. toxins). Coverslips with confluent layers of endothelial cells are transferred to new 24-well plates containing fresh culture medium before the addition of bacteria. Bacteria and cells are then incubated together for the required amount of time in 5% CO2 at 37°C. For S. aureus this is typically between 15-90 minutes. Thermanox coverslips are removed from each well and dip-washed in PBS to remove unattached bacteria. If total associated bacteria (adherent and internalised) are to be quantified, coverslips are then placed in a fresh well containing 0.5% Triton X-100 in PBS. Gentle pipetting leads to complete cell lysis and bacteria are enumerated by serial dilution and plating onto agar. If the number of bacteria that have invaded the cells is needed, coverslips are added to wells containing 500 μl tissue culture medium supplemented with gentamicin and incubation continued for 1 h, which will kill all external bacteria. Coverslips can then be washed, cells lysed and bacteria enumerated by plating onto agar as described above. If the experiment requires direct visualisation, coverslips can be fixed and stained for light, fluorescence or confocal microscopy or prepared for electron microscopy.
Infection, Issue 49, Bacterial pathogen, host cell invasion, Staphylococcus aureus, invasin
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Particle Agglutination Method for Poliovirus Identification
Authors: Minetaro Arita, Souji Masujima, Takaji Wakita, Hiroyuki Shimizu.
Institutions: National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fujirebio Inc..
In the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, laboratory diagnosis plays a critical role by isolating and identifying PV from the stool samples of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) cases. In the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Polio Laboratory Network, PV isolation and identification are currently being performed by using cell culture system and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. In the post-eradication era of PV, simple and rapid identification procedures would be helpful for rapid confirmation of polio cases at the national laboratories. In the present study, we will show the procedure of novel PA assay developed for PV identification. This PA assay utilizes interaction of PV receptor (PVR) molecule and virion that is specific and uniform affinity to all the serotypes of PV. The procedure is simple (one step procedure in reaction plates) and rapid (results can be obtained within 2 h of reaction), and the result is visually observed (observation of agglutination of gelatin particles).
Immunology, Issue 50, Poliovirus, identification, particle agglutination, virus receptor
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Aseptic Laboratory Techniques: Plating Methods
Authors: Erin R. Sanders.
Institutions: University of California, Los Angeles .
Microorganisms are present on all inanimate surfaces creating ubiquitous sources of possible contamination in the laboratory. Experimental success relies on the ability of a scientist to sterilize work surfaces and equipment as well as prevent contact of sterile instruments and solutions with non-sterile surfaces. Here we present the steps for several plating methods routinely used in the laboratory to isolate, propagate, or enumerate microorganisms such as bacteria and phage. All five methods incorporate aseptic technique, or procedures that maintain the sterility of experimental materials. Procedures described include (1) streak-plating bacterial cultures to isolate single colonies, (2) pour-plating and (3) spread-plating to enumerate viable bacterial colonies, (4) soft agar overlays to isolate phage and enumerate plaques, and (5) replica-plating to transfer cells from one plate to another in an identical spatial pattern. These procedures can be performed at the laboratory bench, provided they involve non-pathogenic strains of microorganisms (Biosafety Level 1, BSL-1). If working with BSL-2 organisms, then these manipulations must take place in a biosafety cabinet. Consult the most current edition of the Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories (BMBL) as well as Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for Infectious Substances to determine the biohazard classification as well as the safety precautions and containment facilities required for the microorganism in question. Bacterial strains and phage stocks can be obtained from research investigators, companies, and collections maintained by particular organizations such as the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). It is recommended that non-pathogenic strains be used when learning the various plating methods. By following the procedures described in this protocol, students should be able to: ● Perform plating procedures without contaminating media. ● Isolate single bacterial colonies by the streak-plating method. ● Use pour-plating and spread-plating methods to determine the concentration of bacteria. ● Perform soft agar overlays when working with phage. ● Transfer bacterial cells from one plate to another using the replica-plating procedure. ● Given an experimental task, select the appropriate plating method.
Basic Protocols, Issue 63, Streak plates, pour plates, soft agar overlays, spread plates, replica plates, bacteria, colonies, phage, plaques, dilutions
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One-day Workflow Scheme for Bacterial Pathogen Detection and Antimicrobial Resistance Testing from Blood Cultures
Authors: Wendy L.J. Hansen, Judith Beuving, Annelies Verbon, Petra. F.G. Wolffs.
Institutions: Maastricht University Medical Center, Erasmus Medical Center.
Bloodstream infections are associated with high mortality rates because of the probable manifestation of sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock1. Therefore, rapid administration of adequate antibiotic therapy is of foremost importance in the treatment of bloodstream infections. The critical element in this process is timing, heavily dependent on the results of bacterial identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing. Both of these parameters are routinely obtained by culture-based testing, which is time-consuming and takes on average 24-48 hours2, 4. The aim of the study was to develop DNA-based assays for rapid identification of bloodstream infections, as well as rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing. The first assay is a eubacterial 16S rDNA-based real-time PCR assay complemented with species- or genus-specific probes5. Using these probes, Gram-negative bacteria including Pseudomonas spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli as well as Gram-positive bacteria including Staphylococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus spp., Streptococcus spp., and Streptococcus pneumoniae could be distinguished. Using this multiprobe assay, a first identification of the causative micro-organism was given after 2 h. Secondly, we developed a semi-molecular assay for antibiotic susceptibility testing of S. aureus, Enterococcus spp. and (facultative) aerobe Gram-negative rods6. This assay was based on a study in which PCR was used to measure the growth of bacteria7. Bacteria harvested directly from blood cultures are incubated for 6 h with a selection of antibiotics, and following a Sybr Green-based real-time PCR assay determines inhibition of growth. The combination of these two methods could direct the choice of a suitable antibiotic therapy on the same day (Figure 1). In conclusion, molecular analysis of both identification and antibiotic susceptibility offers a faster alternative for pathogen detection and could improve the diagnosis of bloodstream infections.
Immunology, Issue 65, Infection, Medicine, Microbiology, Bacteria, real-time PCR, probes, pathogen detection, blood culture, 16S rDNA gene, antibiotic resistance, antibiotic susceptibility testing
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Experimental Endocarditis Model of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Rat
Authors: Wessam Abdel Hady, Arnold S. Bayer, Yan Q. Xiong.
Institutions: Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA.
Endovascular infections, including endocarditis, are life-threatening infectious syndromes1-3. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common world-wide cause of such syndromes with unacceptably high morbidity and mortality even with appropriate antimicrobial agent treatments4-6. The increase in infections due to methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), the high rates of vancomycin clinical treatment failures and growing problems of linezolid and daptomycin resistance have all further complicated the management of patients with such infections, and led to high healthcare costs7, 8. In addition, it should be emphasized that most recent studies with antibiotic treatment outcomes have been based in clinical settings, and thus might well be influenced by host factors varying from patient-to-patient. Therefore, a relevant animal model of endovascular infection in which host factors are similar from animal-to-animal is more crucial to investigate microbial pathogenesis, as well as the efficacy of novel antimicrobial agents. Endocarditis in rat is a well-established experimental animal model that closely approximates human native valve endocarditis. This model has been used to examine the role of particular staphylococcal virulence factors and the efficacy of antibiotic treatment regimens for staphylococcal endocarditis. In this report, we describe the experimental endocarditis model due to MRSA that could be used to investigate bacterial pathogenesis and response to antibiotic treatment.
Infection, Issue 64, Immunology, Staphylococcus aureus, endocarditis, animal model, methicillin resistance, MRSA, rat
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Purification and Visualization of Lipopolysaccharide from Gram-negative Bacteria by Hot Aqueous-phenol Extraction
Authors: Michael R. Davis, Jr., Joanna B. Goldberg.
Institutions: University of Virginia Health System.
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a major component of Gram-negative bacterial outer membranes. It is a tripartite molecule consisting of lipid A, which is embedded in the outer membrane, a core oligosaccharide and repeating O-antigen units that extend outward from the surface of the cell1, 2. LPS is an immunodominant molecule that is important for the virulence and pathogenesis of many bacterial species, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella species, and Escherichia coli3-5, and differences in LPS O-antigen composition form the basis for serotyping of strains. LPS is involved in attachment to host cells at the initiation of infection and provides protection from complement-mediated killing; strains that lack LPS can be attenuated for virulence6-8. For these reasons, it is important to visualize LPS, particularly from clinical isolates. Visualizing LPS banding patterns and recognition by specific antibodies can be useful tools to identify strain lineages and to characterize various mutants. In this report, we describe a hot aqueous-phenol method for the isolation and purification of LPS from Gram-negative bacterial cells. This protocol allows for the extraction of LPS away from nucleic acids and proteins that can interfere with visualization of LPS that occurs with shorter, less intensive extraction methods9. LPS prepared this way can be separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and directly stained using carbohydrate/glycoprotein stains or standard silver staining methods. Many anti-sera to LPS contain antibodies that cross-react with outer membrane proteins or other antigenic targets that can hinder reactivity observed following Western immunoblot of SDS-PAGE-separated crude cell lysates. Protease treatment of crude cell lysates alone is not always an effective way of removing this background using this or other visualization methods. Further, extensive protease treatment in an attempt to remove this background can lead to poor quality LPS that is not well resolved by any of the aforementioned methods. For these reasons, we believe that the following protocol, adapted from Westpahl and Jann10, is ideal for LPS extraction.
Immunology, Issue 63, Microbiology, Gram-negative, LPS, extraction, polysaccharide staining, Western immunoblot
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Mapping Bacterial Functional Networks and Pathways in Escherichia Coli using Synthetic Genetic Arrays
Authors: Alla Gagarinova, Mohan Babu, Jack Greenblatt, Andrew Emili.
Institutions: University of Toronto, University of Toronto, University of Regina.
Phenotypes are determined by a complex series of physical (e.g. protein-protein) and functional (e.g. gene-gene or genetic) interactions (GI)1. While physical interactions can indicate which bacterial proteins are associated as complexes, they do not necessarily reveal pathway-level functional relationships1. GI screens, in which the growth of double mutants bearing two deleted or inactivated genes is measured and compared to the corresponding single mutants, can illuminate epistatic dependencies between loci and hence provide a means to query and discover novel functional relationships2. Large-scale GI maps have been reported for eukaryotic organisms like yeast3-7, but GI information remains sparse for prokaryotes8, which hinders the functional annotation of bacterial genomes. To this end, we and others have developed high-throughput quantitative bacterial GI screening methods9, 10. Here, we present the key steps required to perform quantitative E. coli Synthetic Genetic Array (eSGA) screening procedure on a genome-scale9, using natural bacterial conjugation and homologous recombination to systemically generate and measure the fitness of large numbers of double mutants in a colony array format. Briefly, a robot is used to transfer, through conjugation, chloramphenicol (Cm) - marked mutant alleles from engineered Hfr (High frequency of recombination) 'donor strains' into an ordered array of kanamycin (Kan) - marked F- recipient strains. Typically, we use loss-of-function single mutants bearing non-essential gene deletions (e.g. the 'Keio' collection11) and essential gene hypomorphic mutations (i.e. alleles conferring reduced protein expression, stability, or activity9, 12, 13) to query the functional associations of non-essential and essential genes, respectively. After conjugation and ensuing genetic exchange mediated by homologous recombination, the resulting double mutants are selected on solid medium containing both antibiotics. After outgrowth, the plates are digitally imaged and colony sizes are quantitatively scored using an in-house automated image processing system14. GIs are revealed when the growth rate of a double mutant is either significantly better or worse than expected9. Aggravating (or negative) GIs often result between loss-of-function mutations in pairs of genes from compensatory pathways that impinge on the same essential process2. Here, the loss of a single gene is buffered, such that either single mutant is viable. However, the loss of both pathways is deleterious and results in synthetic lethality or sickness (i.e. slow growth). Conversely, alleviating (or positive) interactions can occur between genes in the same pathway or protein complex2 as the deletion of either gene alone is often sufficient to perturb the normal function of the pathway or complex such that additional perturbations do not reduce activity, and hence growth, further. Overall, systematically identifying and analyzing GI networks can provide unbiased, global maps of the functional relationships between large numbers of genes, from which pathway-level information missed by other approaches can be inferred9.
Genetics, Issue 69, Molecular Biology, Medicine, Biochemistry, Microbiology, Aggravating, alleviating, conjugation, double mutant, Escherichia coli, genetic interaction, Gram-negative bacteria, homologous recombination, network, synthetic lethality or sickness, suppression
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Staphylococcus aureus Growth using Human Hemoglobin as an Iron Source
Authors: Gleb Pishchany, Kathryn P. Haley, Eric P. Skaar.
Institutions: Vanderbilt University Medical School.
S. aureus is a pathogenic bacterium that requires iron to carry out vital metabolic functions and cause disease. The most abundant reservoir of iron inside the human host is heme, which is the cofactor of hemoglobin. To acquire iron from hemoglobin, S. aureus utilizes an elaborate system known as the iron-regulated surface determinant (Isd) system1. Components of the Isd system first bind host hemoglobin, then extract and import heme, and finally liberate iron from heme in the bacterial cytoplasm2,3. This pathway has been dissected through numerous in vitro studies4-9. Further, the contribution of the Isd system to infection has been repeatedly demonstrated in mouse models8,10-14. Establishing the contribution of the Isd system to hemoglobin-derived iron acquisition and growth has proven to be more challenging. Growth assays using hemoglobin as a sole iron source are complicated by the instability of commercially available hemoglobin, contaminating free iron in the growth medium, and toxicity associated with iron chelators. Here we present a method that overcomes these limitations. High quality hemoglobin is prepared from fresh blood and is stored in liquid nitrogen. Purified hemoglobin is supplemented into iron-deplete medium mimicking the iron-poor environment encountered by pathogens inside the vertebrate host. By starving S. aureus of free iron and supplementing with a minimally manipulated form of hemoglobin we induce growth in a manner that is entirely dependent on the ability to bind hemoglobin, extract heme, pass heme through the bacterial cell envelope and degrade heme in the cytoplasm. This assay will be useful for researchers seeking to elucidate the mechanisms of hemoglobin-/heme-derived iron acquisition in S. aureus and possibly other bacterial pathogens.
Infection, Issue 72, Immunology, Microbiology, Infectious Diseases, Cellular Biology, Pathology, Micronutrients, Bacterial Infections, Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections, Bacteriology, Staphylococcus aureus, iron acquisition, hemoglobin, bacterial growth, bacteria
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In Vitro and In Vivo Model to Study Bacterial Adhesion to the Vessel Wall Under Flow Conditions
Authors: Jorien Claes, Laurens Liesenborghs, Marleen Lox, Peter Verhamme, Thomas Vanassche, Marijke Peetermans.
Institutions: KU Leuven.
In order to cause endovascular infections and infective endocarditis, bacteria need to be able to adhere to the vessel wall while being exposed to the shear stress of flowing blood. To identify the bacterial and host factors that contribute to vascular adhesion of microorganisms, appropriate models that study these interactions under physiological shear conditions are needed. Here, we describe an in vitro flow chamber model that allows to investigate bacterial adhesion to different components of the extracellular matrix or to endothelial cells, and an intravital microscopy model that was developed to directly visualize the initial adhesion of bacteria to the splanchnic circulation in vivo. These methods can be used to identify the bacterial and host factors required for the adhesion of bacteria under flow. We illustrate the relevance of shear stress and the role of von Willebrand factor for the adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus using both the in vitro and in vivo model.
Immunology, Issue 100, Shear stress, Staphylococcus aureus, bacteria, adhesion, mesenteric circulation, von Willebrand factor, flow chamber, vascular infection, infective endocarditis, blood vessel, endothelium, subendothelial matrix
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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