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Pubmed Article
Nuclear Receptor 4A1 (NR4A1) as a Drug Target for Renal Cell Adenocarcinoma.
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2015
The orphan nuclear receptor NR4A1 exhibits pro-oncogenic activity in cancer cell lines. NR4A1 activates mTOR signaling, regulates genes such as thioredoxin domain containing 5 and isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 that maintain low oxidative stress, and coactivates specificity protein 1 (Sp1)-regulated pro-survival and growth promoting genes. Transfection of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) ACHN and 786-O cells with oligonucleotides that target NR4A1 results in a 40-60% decrease in cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis. Moreover, knockdown of NR4A1 in RCC cells decreased bcl-2, survivin and epidermal growth factor receptor expression, inhibited of mTOR signaling, induced oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress, and decreased TXNDC5 and IDH1. We have recently demonstrated that selected 1,1-bis(3'-indolyl)-1-(p-substituted phenyl)methane (C-DIM) compounds including the p-hydroxyphenyl (DIM-C-pPhOH) and p-carboxymethyl (DIM-C-pPhCO2Me) analogs bind NR4A1 and act as antagonists. Both DIM-C-pPhOH and DIM-C-pPhCO2Me inhibited growth and induced apoptosis in ACHN and 786-O cells, and the functional and genomic effects of the NR4A1 antagonists were comparable to those observed after NR4A1 knockdown. These results indicate that NR4A1 antagonists target multiple growth promoting and pro-survival pathways in RCC cells and in tumors (xenograft) and represent a novel chemotherapy for treating RCC.
Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers amongst women in North America. Many current anti-cancer treatments, including ionizing radiation, induce apoptosis via DNA damage. Unfortunately, such treatments are non-selective to cancer cells and produce similar toxicity in normal cells. We have reported selective induction of apoptosis in cancer cells by the natural compound pancratistatin (PST). Recently, a novel PST analogue, a C-1 acetoxymethyl derivative of 7-deoxypancratistatin (JCTH-4), was produced by de novo synthesis and it exhibits comparable selective apoptosis inducing activity in several cancer cell lines. Recently, autophagy has been implicated in malignancies as both pro-survival and pro-death mechanisms in response to chemotherapy. Tamoxifen (TAM) has invariably demonstrated induction of pro-survival autophagy in numerous cancers. In this study, the efficacy of JCTH-4 alone and in combination with TAM to induce cell death in human breast cancer (MCF7) and neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) cells was evaluated. TAM alone induced autophagy, but insignificant cell death whereas JCTH-4 alone caused significant induction of apoptosis with some induction of autophagy. Interestingly, the combinatory treatment yielded a drastic increase in apoptotic and autophagic induction. We monitored time-dependent morphological changes in MCF7 cells undergoing TAM-induced autophagy, JCTH-4-induced apoptosis and autophagy, and accelerated cell death with combinatorial treatment using time-lapse microscopy. We have demonstrated these compounds to induce apoptosis/autophagy by mitochondrial targeting in these cancer cells. Importantly, these treatments did not affect the survival of noncancerous human fibroblasts. Thus, these results indicate that JCTH-4 in combination with TAM could be used as a safe and very potent anti-cancer therapy against breast cancer and neuroblastoma cells.
24 Related JoVE Articles!
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Using an Automated Cell Counter to Simplify Gene Expression Studies: siRNA Knockdown of IL-4 Dependent Gene Expression in Namalwa Cells
Authors: Adam M. McCoy, Claudia Litterst, Michelle L. Collins, Luis A. Ugozzoli.
Institutions: Bio-Rad Laboratories.
The use of siRNA mediated gene knockdown is continuing to be an important tool in studies of gene expression. siRNA studies are being conducted not only to study the effects of downregulating single genes, but also to interrogate signaling pathways and other complex interaction networks. These pathway analyses require both the use of relevant cellular models and methods that cause less perturbation to the cellular physiology. Electroporation is increasingly being used as an effective way to introduce siRNA and other nucleic acids into difficult to transfect cell lines and primary cells without altering the signaling pathway under investigation. There are multiple critical steps to a successful siRNA experiment, and there are ways to simplify the work while improving the data quality at several experimental stages. To help you get started with your siRNA mediated gene knockdown project, we will demonstrate how to perform a pathway study complete from collecting and counting the cells prior to electroporation through post transfection real-time PCR gene expression analysis. The following study investigates the role of the transcriptional activator STAT6 in IL-4 dependent gene expression of CCL17 in a Burkitt lymphoma cell line (Namalwa). The techniques demonstrated are useful for a wide range of siRNA-based experiments on both adherent and suspension cells. We will also show how to streamline cell counting with the TC10 automated cell counter, how to electroporate multiple samples simultaneously using the MXcell electroporation system, and how to simultaneously assess RNA quality and quantity with the Experion automated electrophoresis system.
Cellular Biology, Issue 38, Cell Counting, Gene Silencing, siRNA, Namalwa Cells, IL4, Gene Expression, Electroporation, Real Time PCR
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Modeling Astrocytoma Pathogenesis In Vitro and In Vivo Using Cortical Astrocytes or Neural Stem Cells from Conditional, Genetically Engineered Mice
Authors: Robert S. McNeill, Ralf S. Schmid, Ryan E. Bash, Mark Vitucci, Kristen K. White, Andrea M. Werneke, Brian H. Constance, Byron Huff, C. Ryan Miller.
Institutions: University of North Carolina School of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Emory University School of Medicine, University of North Carolina School of Medicine.
Current astrocytoma models are limited in their ability to define the roles of oncogenic mutations in specific brain cell types during disease pathogenesis and their utility for preclinical drug development. In order to design a better model system for these applications, phenotypically wild-type cortical astrocytes and neural stem cells (NSC) from conditional, genetically engineered mice (GEM) that harbor various combinations of floxed oncogenic alleles were harvested and grown in culture. Genetic recombination was induced in vitro using adenoviral Cre-mediated recombination, resulting in expression of mutated oncogenes and deletion of tumor suppressor genes. The phenotypic consequences of these mutations were defined by measuring proliferation, transformation, and drug response in vitro. Orthotopic allograft models, whereby transformed cells are stereotactically injected into the brains of immune-competent, syngeneic littermates, were developed to define the role of oncogenic mutations and cell type on tumorigenesis in vivo. Unlike most established human glioblastoma cell line xenografts, injection of transformed GEM-derived cortical astrocytes into the brains of immune-competent littermates produced astrocytomas, including the most aggressive subtype, glioblastoma, that recapitulated the histopathological hallmarks of human astrocytomas, including diffuse invasion of normal brain parenchyma. Bioluminescence imaging of orthotopic allografts from transformed astrocytes engineered to express luciferase was utilized to monitor in vivo tumor growth over time. Thus, astrocytoma models using astrocytes and NSC harvested from GEM with conditional oncogenic alleles provide an integrated system to study the genetics and cell biology of astrocytoma pathogenesis in vitro and in vivo and may be useful in preclinical drug development for these devastating diseases.
Neuroscience, Issue 90, astrocytoma, cortical astrocytes, genetically engineered mice, glioblastoma, neural stem cells, orthotopic allograft
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Bladder Smooth Muscle Strip Contractility as a Method to Evaluate Lower Urinary Tract Pharmacology
Authors: F. Aura Kullmann, Stephanie L. Daugherty, William C. de Groat, Lori A. Birder.
Institutions: University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine.
We describe an in vitro method to measure bladder smooth muscle contractility, and its use for investigating physiological and pharmacological properties of the smooth muscle as well as changes induced by pathology. This method provides critical information for understanding bladder function while overcoming major methodological difficulties encountered in in vivo experiments, such as surgical and pharmacological manipulations that affect stability and survival of the preparations, the use of human tissue, and/or the use of expensive chemicals. It also provides a way to investigate the properties of each bladder component (i.e. smooth muscle, mucosa, nerves) in healthy and pathological conditions. The urinary bladder is removed from an anesthetized animal, placed in Krebs solution and cut into strips. Strips are placed into a chamber filled with warm Krebs solution. One end is attached to an isometric tension transducer to measure contraction force, the other end is attached to a fixed rod. Tissue is stimulated by directly adding compounds to the bath or by electric field stimulation electrodes that activate nerves, similar to triggering bladder contractions in vivo. We demonstrate the use of this method to evaluate spontaneous smooth muscle contractility during development and after an experimental spinal cord injury, the nature of neurotransmission (transmitters and receptors involved), factors involved in modulation of smooth muscle activity, the role of individual bladder components, and species and organ differences in response to pharmacological agents. Additionally, it could be used for investigating intracellular pathways involved in contraction and/or relaxation of the smooth muscle, drug structure-activity relationships and evaluation of transmitter release. The in vitro smooth muscle contractility method has been used extensively for over 50 years, and has provided data that significantly contributed to our understanding of bladder function as well as to pharmaceutical development of compounds currently used clinically for bladder management.
Medicine, Issue 90, Krebs, species differences, in vitro, smooth muscle contractility, neural stimulation
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Renal Ischaemia Reperfusion Injury: A Mouse Model of Injury and Regeneration
Authors: Emily E. Hesketh, Alicja Czopek, Michael Clay, Gary Borthwick, David Ferenbach, David Kluth, Jeremy Hughes.
Institutions: University of Edinburgh.
Renal ischaemia reperfusion injury (IRI) is a common cause of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients and occlusion of renal blood flow is unavoidable during renal transplantation. Experimental models that accurately and reproducibly recapitulate renal IRI are crucial in dissecting the pathophysiology of AKI and the development of novel therapeutic agents. Presented here is a mouse model of renal IRI that results in reproducible AKI. This is achieved by a midline laparotomy approach for the surgery with one incision allowing both a right nephrectomy that provides control tissue and clamping of the left renal pedicle to induce ischaemia of the left kidney. By careful monitoring of the clamp position and body temperature during the period of ischaemia this model achieves reproducible functional and structural injury. Mice sacrificed 24 hr following surgery demonstrate loss of renal function with elevation of the serum or plasma creatinine level as well as structural kidney damage with acute tubular necrosis evident. Renal function improves and the acute tissue injury resolves during the course of 7 days following renal IRI such that this model may be used to study renal regeneration. This model of renal IRI has been utilized to study the molecular and cellular pathophysiology of AKI as well as analysis of the subsequent renal regeneration.
Medicine, Issue 88, Murine, Acute Kidney Injury, Ischaemia, Reperfusion, Nephrectomy, Regeneration, Laparotomy
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Strategies for Tracking Anastasis, A Cell Survival Phenomenon that Reverses Apoptosis
Authors: Ho Lam Tang, Ho Man Tang, J. Marie Hardwick, Ming Chiu Fung.
Institutions: Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.
Anastasis (Greek for “rising to life”) refers to the recovery of dying cells. Before these cells recover, they have passed through important checkpoints of apoptosis, including mitochondrial fragmentation, release of mitochondrial cytochrome c into the cytosol, activation of caspases, chromatin condensation, DNA damage, nuclear fragmentation, plasma membrane blebbing, cell shrinkage, cell surface exposure of phosphatidylserine, and formation of apoptotic bodies. Anastasis can occur when apoptotic stimuli are removed prior to death, thereby allowing dying cells to reverse apoptosis and potentially other death mechanisms. Therefore, anastasis appears to involve physiological healing processes that could also sustain damaged cells inappropriately. The functions and mechanisms of anastasis are still unclear, hampered in part by the limited tools for detecting past events after the recovery of apparently healthy cells. Strategies to detect anastasis will enable studies of the physiological mechanisms, the hazards of undead cells in disease pathology, and potential therapeutics to modulate anastasis. Here, we describe effective strategies using live cell microscopy and a mammalian caspase biosensor for identifying and tracking anastasis in mammalian cells.
Cellular Biology, Issue 96, Anastasis, apoptosis, apoptotic bodies, caspase, cell death, cell shrinkage, cell suicide, cytochrome c, DNA damage, genetic alterations, mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP), programmed cell death, reversal of apoptosis
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A Manual Small Molecule Screen Approaching High-throughput Using Zebrafish Embryos
Authors: Shahram Jevin Poureetezadi, Eric K. Donahue, Rebecca A. Wingert.
Institutions: University of Notre Dame.
Zebrafish have become a widely used model organism to investigate the mechanisms that underlie developmental biology and to study human disease pathology due to their considerable degree of genetic conservation with humans. Chemical genetics entails testing the effect that small molecules have on a biological process and is becoming a popular translational research method to identify therapeutic compounds. Zebrafish are specifically appealing to use for chemical genetics because of their ability to produce large clutches of transparent embryos, which are externally fertilized. Furthermore, zebrafish embryos can be easily drug treated by the simple addition of a compound to the embryo media. Using whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH), mRNA expression can be clearly visualized within zebrafish embryos. Together, using chemical genetics and WISH, the zebrafish becomes a potent whole organism context in which to determine the cellular and physiological effects of small molecules. Innovative advances have been made in technologies that utilize machine-based screening procedures, however for many labs such options are not accessible or remain cost-prohibitive. The protocol described here explains how to execute a manual high-throughput chemical genetic screen that requires basic resources and can be accomplished by a single individual or small team in an efficient period of time. Thus, this protocol provides a feasible strategy that can be implemented by research groups to perform chemical genetics in zebrafish, which can be useful for gaining fundamental insights into developmental processes, disease mechanisms, and to identify novel compounds and signaling pathways that have medically relevant applications.
Developmental Biology, Issue 93, zebrafish, chemical genetics, chemical screen, in vivo small molecule screen, drug discovery, whole mount in situ hybridization (WISH), high-throughput screening (HTS), high-content screening (HCS)
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Physiology Lab Demonstration: Glomerular Filtration Rate in a Rat
Authors: Carmen Hinojosa-Laborde, Brian Jespersen, Robert Shade.
Institutions: U.S. Army Institute of Surgical Research, Michigan State University, Texas Biomedical Research Institute.
Measurements of glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and the fractional excretion of sodium (Na) and potassium (K) are critical in assessing renal function in health and disease. GFR is measured as the steady state renal clearance of inulin which is filtered at the glomerulus, but not secreted or reabsorbed along the nephron. The fractional excretion of Na and K can be determined from the concentration of Na and K in plasma and urine. The renal clearance of inulin can be demonstrated in an anesthetized animal which has catheters in the femoral artery, femoral vein and bladder. The equipment and supplies used for this procedure are those commonly available in a research core facility, and thus makes this procedure a practical means for measuring renal function. The purpose of this video is to demonstrate the procedures required to perform a lab demonstration in which renal function is assessed before and after a diuretic drug. The presented technique can be utilized to assess renal function in rat models of renal disease.
Physiology, Issue 101, kidney, rat, glomerular filtration rate, urine flow rate, sodium excretion, potassium excretion, filtered load, blood pressure
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The Bioconjugation and Radiosynthesis of 89Zr-DFO-labeled Antibodies
Authors: Brian M. Zeglis, Jason S. Lewis.
Institutions: Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center.
The exceptional affinity, specificity, and selectivity of antibodies make them extraordinarily attractive vectors for tumor-targeted PET radiopharmaceuticals. Due to their multi-day biological half-life, antibodies must be labeled with positron-emitting radionuclides with relatively long physical decay half-lives. Traditionally, the positron-emitting isotopes 124I (t1/2 = 4.18 d), 86Y (t1/2 = 14.7 hr), and 64Cu (t1/2 = 12.7 hr) have been used to label antibodies for PET imaging. More recently, however, the field has witnessed a dramatic increase in the use of the positron-emitting radiometal 89Zr in antibody-based PET imaging agents. 89Zr is a nearly ideal radioisotope for PET imaging with immunoconjugates, as it possesses a physical half-life (t1/2 = 78.4 hr) that is compatible with the in vivo pharmacokinetics of antibodies and emits a relatively low energy positron that produces high resolution images. Furthermore, antibodies can be straightforwardly labeled with 89Zr using the siderophore-derived chelator desferrioxamine (DFO). In this protocol, the prostate-specific membrane antigen targeting antibody J591 will be used as a model system to illustrate (1) the bioconjugation of the bifunctional chelator DFO-isothiocyanate to an antibody, (2) the radiosynthesis and purification of a 89Zr-DFO-mAb radioimmunoconjugate, and (3) in vivo PET imaging with an 89Zr-DFO-mAb radioimmunoconjugate in a murine model of cancer.
Chemistry, Issue 96, Positron Emission Tomography, Antibody, Bioconjugation, Immunoconjugates, Desferrioxamine, 89Zr
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Measuring Oxidative Stress Resistance of Caenorhabditis elegans in 96-well Microtiter Plates
Authors: Elite Possik, Arnim Pause.
Institutions: McGill University, McGill University.
Oxidative stress, which is the result of an imbalance between production and detoxification of reactive oxygen species, is a major contributor to chronic human disorders, including cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, aging, and cancer. Therefore, it is important to study oxidative stress not only in cell systems but also using whole organisms. C. elegans is an attractive model organism to study the genetics of oxidative stress signal transduction pathways, which are highly evolutionarily conserved. Here, we provide a protocol to measure oxidative stress resistance in C. elegans in liquid. Briefly, ROS-inducing reagents such as paraquat (PQ) and H2O2 are dissolved in M9 buffer, and solutions are aliquoted in the wells of a 96 well microtiter plate. Synchronized L4/young adult C. elegans animals are transferred to the wells (5-8 animals/well) and survival is measured every hour until most worms are dead. When performing an oxidative stress resistance assay using a low concentration of stressors in plates, aging might influence the behavior of animals upon oxidative stress, which could lead to an incorrect interpretation of the data. However, in the assay described herein, this problem is unlikely to occur since only L4/young adult animals are being used. Moreover, this protocol is inexpensive and results are obtained in one day, which renders this technique attractive for genetic screens. Overall, this will help to understand oxidative stress signal transduction pathways, which could be translated into better characterization of oxidative stress-associated human disorders.
Cellular Biology, Issue 99, Oxidative stress, paraquat, Caenorhabditis elegans, reactive oxygen species, organismal death, animal model, nematode
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Studying Pancreatic Cancer Stem Cell Characteristics for Developing New Treatment Strategies
Authors: Enza Lonardo, Michele Cioffi, Patricia Sancho, Shanthini Crusz, Christopher Heeschen.
Institutions: Spanish National Cancer Research Center, Institute for Research in Biomedicine (IRB Barcelona), Queen Mary University of London.
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) contains a subset of exclusively tumorigenic cancer stem cells (CSCs) which have been shown to drive tumor initiation, metastasis and resistance to radio- and chemotherapy. Here we describe a specific methodology for culturing primary human pancreatic CSCs as tumor spheres in anchorage-independent conditions. Cells are grown in serum-free, non-adherent conditions in order to enrich for CSCs while their more differentiated progenies do not survive and proliferate during the initial phase following seeding of single cells. This assay can be used to estimate the percentage of CSCs present in a population of tumor cells. Both size (which can range from 35 to 250 micrometers) and number of tumor spheres formed represents CSC activity harbored in either bulk populations of cultured cancer cells or freshly harvested and digested tumors 1,2. Using this assay, we recently found that metformin selectively ablates pancreatic CSCs; a finding that was subsequently further corroborated by demonstrating diminished expression of pluripotency-associated genes/surface markers and reduced in vivo tumorigenicity of metformin-treated cells. As the final step for preclinical development we treated mice bearing established tumors with metformin and found significantly prolonged survival. Clinical studies testing the use of metformin in patients with PDAC are currently underway (e.g., NCT01210911, NCT01167738, and NCT01488552). Mechanistically, we found that metformin induces a fatal energy crisis in CSCs by enhancing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and reducing mitochondrial transmembrane potential. In contrast, non-CSCs were not eliminated by metformin treatment, but rather underwent reversible cell cycle arrest. Therefore, our study serves as a successful example for the potential of in vitro sphere formation as a screening tool to identify compounds that potentially target CSCs, but this technique will require further in vitro and in vivo validation to eliminate false discoveries.
Medicine, Issue 100, Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, cancer stem cells, spheres, metformin (met), metabolism
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Single-channel Analysis and Calcium Imaging in the Podocytes of the Freshly Isolated Glomeruli
Authors: Daria V. Ilatovskaya, Oleg Palygin, Vladislav Levchenko, Alexander Staruschenko.
Institutions: Medical College of Wisconsin.
Podocytes (renal glomerular epithelial cells) are known to regulate glomerular permeability and maintain glomerular structure; a key role for these cells in the pathogenesis of various renal diseases has been established since podocyte injury leads to proteinuria and foot process effacement. It was previously reported that various endogenous agents may cause a dramatic overload in intracellular Ca2+ concentration in podocytes, presumably leading to albuminuria, and this likely occurs via calcium-conducting ion channels. Therefore, it appeared important to study calcium handling in the podocytes both under normal conditions and in various pathological states. However, available experimental approaches have remained somewhat limited to cultured and transfected cells. Although they represent a good basic model for such studies, they are essentially extracted from the native environment of the glomerulus. Here we describe the methodology of studying podocytes as a part of the freshly isolated whole glomerulus. This preparation retains the functional potential of the podocytes, which are still attached to the capillaries; therefore, podocytes remain in the environment that conserves the major parts of the glomeruli filtration apparatus. The present manuscript elaborates on two experimental approaches that allow 1) real-time detection of calcium concentration changes with the help of ratiometric confocal fluorescence microscopy, and 2) the recording of the single ion channels activity in the podocytes of the freshly isolated glomeruli. These methodologies utilize the advantages of the native environment of the glomerulus that enable researchers to resolve acute changes in the intracellular calcium handling in response to applications of various agents, measure basal concentration of calcium within the cells (for instance, to evaluate disease progression), and assess and manipulate calcium conductance at the level of single ion channels.
Molecular Biology, Issue 100, glomeruli, podocytes, calcium imaging, ion channels, confocal microscopy, intracellular calcium.
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Analysis of Nephron Composition and Function in the Adult Zebrafish Kidney
Authors: Kristen K. McCampbell, Kristin N. Springer, Rebecca A. Wingert.
Institutions: University of Notre Dame.
The zebrafish model has emerged as a relevant system to study kidney development, regeneration and disease. Both the embryonic and adult zebrafish kidneys are composed of functional units known as nephrons, which are highly conserved with other vertebrates, including mammals. Research in zebrafish has recently demonstrated that two distinctive phenomena transpire after adult nephrons incur damage: first, there is robust regeneration within existing nephrons that replaces the destroyed tubule epithelial cells; second, entirely new nephrons are produced from renal progenitors in a process known as neonephrogenesis. In contrast, humans and other mammals seem to have only a limited ability for nephron epithelial regeneration. To date, the mechanisms responsible for these kidney regeneration phenomena remain poorly understood. Since adult zebrafish kidneys undergo both nephron epithelial regeneration and neonephrogenesis, they provide an outstanding experimental paradigm to study these events. Further, there is a wide range of genetic and pharmacological tools available in the zebrafish model that can be used to delineate the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate renal regeneration. One essential aspect of such research is the evaluation of nephron structure and function. This protocol describes a set of labeling techniques that can be used to gauge renal composition and test nephron functionality in the adult zebrafish kidney. Thus, these methods are widely applicable to the future phenotypic characterization of adult zebrafish kidney injury paradigms, which include but are not limited to, nephrotoxicant exposure regimes or genetic methods of targeted cell death such as the nitroreductase mediated cell ablation technique. Further, these methods could be used to study genetic perturbations in adult kidney formation and could also be applied to assess renal status during chronic disease modeling.
Cellular Biology, Issue 90, zebrafish; kidney; nephron; nephrology; renal; regeneration; proximal tubule; distal tubule; segment; mesonephros; physiology; acute kidney injury (AKI)
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Modeling Spontaneous Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma (mRCC) in Mice Following Nephrectomy
Authors: Amanda Tracz, Michalis Mastri, Christina R. Lee, Roberto Pili, John M. L. Ebos.
Institutions: Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Sunnybrook Research Institute.
One of the key challenges to improved testing of new experimental therapeutics in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the development of models that faithfully recapitulate early- and late-stage metastatic disease progression. Typical tumor implantation models utilize ectopic or orthotopic primary tumor implantation, but few include systemic spontaneous metastatic disease that mimics the clinical setting. This protocol describes the key steps to develop RCC disease progression stages similar to patients. First, it uses a highly metastatic mouse tumor cell line in a syngeneic model to show orthotopic tumor cell implantation. Methods include superficial and internal implantation into the sub-capsular space with cells combined with matrigel to prevent leakage and early spread. Next it describes the procedures for excision of tumor-bearing kidney (nephrectomy), with critical pre- and post- surgical mouse care. Finally, it outlines the steps necessary to monitor and assess micro-and macro-metastatic disease progression, including bioluminescent imaging as well provides a detailed visual necropsy guide to score systemic disease distribution. The goal of this protocol description is to facilitate the widespread use of clinically relevant metastatic RCC models to improve the predictive value of future therapeutic testing. 
Medicine, Issue 86, Spontaneous metastasis, orthotopic, nephrectomy, renal cell carcinoma, RCC, necropsy, kidney, bioluminescence, sub-capsular
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A Matrigel-Based Tube Formation Assay to Assess the Vasculogenic Activity of Tumor Cells
Authors: Ralph A. Francescone III, Michael Faibish, Rong Shao.
Institutions: University of Massachusetts, University of Massachusetts, University of Massachusetts.
Over the past several decades, a tube formation assay using growth factor-reduced Matrigel has been typically employed to demonstrate the angiogenic activity of vascular endothelial cells in vitro1-5. However, recently growing evidence has shown that this assay is not limited to test vascular behavior for endothelial cells. Instead, it also has been used to test the ability of a number of tumor cells to develop a vascular phenotype6-8. This capability was consistent with their vasculogenic behavior identified in xenotransplanted animals, a process known as vasculogenic mimicry (VM)9. There is a multitude of evidence demonstrating that tumor cell-mediated VM plays a vital role in the tumor development, independent of endothelial cell angiogenesis6, 10-13. For example, tumor cells were found to participate in the blood perfused, vascular channel formation in tissue samples from melanoma and glioblastoma patients8, 10, 11. Here, we described this tubular network assay as a useful tool in evaluation of vasculogenic activity of tumor cells. We found that some tumor cell lines such as melanoma B16F1 cells, glioblastoma U87 cells, and breast cancer MDA-MB-435 cells are able to form vascular tubules; but some do not such as colon cancer HCT116 cells. Furthermore, this vascular phenotype is dependent on cell numbers plated on the Matrigel. Therefore, this assay may serve as powerful utility to screen the vascular potential of a variety of cell types including vascular cells, tumor cells as well as other cells.
Cancer Biology, Issue 55, tumor, vascular, endothelial, tube formation, Matrigel, in vitro
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Therapeutic Gene Delivery and Transfection in Human Pancreatic Cancer Cells using Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-targeted Gelatin Nanoparticles
Authors: Jing Xu, Mansoor Amiji.
Institutions: Northeastern University.
More than 32,000 patients are diagnosed with pancreatic cancer in the United States per year and the disease is associated with very high mortality 1. Urgent need exists to develop novel clinically-translatable therapeutic strategies that can improve on the dismal survival statistics of pancreatic cancer patients. Although gene therapy in cancer has shown a tremendous promise, the major challenge is in the development of safe and effective delivery system, which can lead to sustained transgene expression. Gelatin is one of the most versatile natural biopolymer, widely used in food and pharmaceutical products. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that type B gelatin could physical encapsulate DNA, which preserved the supercoiled structure of the plasmid and improved transfection efficiency upon intracellular delivery. By thiolation of gelatin, the sulfhydryl groups could be introduced into the polymer and would form disulfide bond within nanoparticles, which stabilizes the whole complex and once disulfide bond is broken due to the presence of glutathione in cytosol, payload would be released 2-5. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-modified GENS, when administered into the systemic circulation, provides long-circulation times and preferentially targets to the tumor mass due to the hyper-permeability of the neovasculature by the enhanced permeability and retention effect 6. Studies have shown over-expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on Panc-1 human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells 7. In order to actively target pancreatic cancer cell line, EGFR specific peptide was conjugated on the particle surface through a PEG spacer.8 Most anti-tumor gene therapies are focused on administration of the tumor suppressor genes, such as wild-type p53 (wt-p53), to restore the pro-apoptotic function in the cells 9. The p53 mechanism functions as a critical signaling pathway in cell growth, which regulates apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, metabolism and other processes 10. In pancreatic cancer, most cells have mutations in p53 protein, causing the loss of apoptotic activity. With the introduction of wt-p53, the apoptosis could be repaired and further triggers cell death in cancer cells 11. Based on the above rationale, we have designed EGFR targeting peptide-modified thiolated gelatin nanoparticles for wt-p53 gene delivery and evaluated delivery efficiency and transfection in Panc-1 cells.
Bioengineering, Issue 59, Gelatin Nanoparticle, Gene Therapy, Targeted Delivery, Pancreatic Cancer, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor, EGFR
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Immunohistochemical Staining of B7-H1 (PD-L1) on Paraffin-embedded Slides of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Tissue
Authors: Elaine Bigelow, Katherine M. Bever, Haiying Xu, Allison Yager, Annie Wu, Janis Taube, Lieping Chen, Elizabeth M. Jaffee, Robert A. Anders, Lei Zheng.
Institutions: The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.
B7-H1/PD-L1, a member of the B7 family of immune-regulatory cell-surface proteins, plays an important role in the negative regulation of cell-mediated immune responses through its interaction with its receptor, programmed death-1 (PD-1) 1,2. Overexpression of B7-H1 by tumor cells has been noted in a number of human cancers, including melanoma, glioblastoma, and carcinomas of the lung, breast, colon, ovary, and renal cells, and has been shown to impair anti-tumor T-cell immunity3-8. Recently, B7-H1 expression by pancreatic adenocarcinoma tissues has been identified as a potential prognostic marker9,10. Additionally, blockade of B7-H1 in a mouse model of pancreatic cancer has been shown to produce an anti-tumor response11. These data suggest the importance of B7-H1 as a potential therapeutic target. Anti-B7-H1 blockade antibodies are therefore being tested in clinical trials for multiple human solid tumors including melanoma and cancers of lung, colon, kidney, stomach and pancreas12. In order to eventually be able to identify the patients who will benefit from B7-H1 targeting therapies, it is critical to investigate the correlation between expression and localization of B7-H1 and patient response to treatment with B7-H1 blockade antibodies. Examining the expression of B7-H1 in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma tissues through immunohistochemistry will give a better understanding of how this co-inhibitory signaling molecule contributes to the suppression of antitumor immunity in the tumor's microenvironment. The anti-B7-H1 monoclonal antibody (clone 5H1) developed by Chen and coworkers has been shown to produce reliable staining results in cryosections of multiple types of human neoplastic tissues4,8, but staining on paraffin-embedded slides had been a challenge until recently13-18. We have developed the B7-H1 staining protocol for paraffin-embedded slides of pancreatic adenocarcinoma tissues. The B7-H1 staining protocol described here produces consistent membranous and cytoplasmic staining of B7-H1 with little background.
Cancer Biology, Issue 71, Medicine, Immunology, Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Chemistry, Oncology, immunohistochemistry, B7-H1 (PD-L1), pancreatic adenocarcinoma, pancreatic cancer, pancreas, tumor, T-cell immunity, cancer
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Preparation of Cell-lines for Conditional Knockdown of Gene Expression and Measurement of the Knockdown Effects on E4orf4-Induced Cell Death
Authors: Anna Brestovitsky, Rakefet Sharf, Tamar Kleinberger.
Institutions: Technion - Israel Institute of Technology.
Functional inactivation of gene expression in mammalian cells is crucial for the study of the contribution of a protein of interest to various pathways1,2. However, conditional knockdown of gene expression is required in cases when constitutive knockdown is not tolerated by cells for a long period of time3-5. Here we describe a protocol for preparation of cell lines allowing conditional knockdown of subunits of the ACF chromatin remodeling factor. These cell lines facilitate the determination of the contribution of ACF to induction of cell death by the adenovirus E4orf4 protein6. Sequences encoding short hairpin RNAs for the Acf1 and SNF2h subunits of the ACF chromatin remodeling factor were cloned next to a doxycycline-inducible promoter in a plasmid also containing a gene for the neomycin resistance gene. Neomycin-resistant cell clones were selected in the presence of G418 and isolated. The resulting cell lines were induced by doxycycline treatment, and once Acf1 or SNF2h expression levels were reduced, the cells were transfected with a plasmid encoding E4orf4 or an empty vector. To confirm the specific effect of the shRNA constructs, Acf1 or SNF2h protein levels were restored to WT levels by cotransfection with a plasmid expressing Acf1 or SNF2h which were rendered resistant to the shRNA by introduction of silent mutations. The ability of E4orf4 to induce cell death in the various samples was determined by a DAPI assay, in which the frequency of appearance of nuclei with apoptotic morphologies in the transfected cell population was measured7-9. The protocol described here can be utilized for determination of the functional contribution of various proteins to induction of cell death by their protein partners in cases when constitutive knockdown may be cell lethal.
Genetics, Issue 68, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Microbiology, Medicine, Cell death, adenovirus, E4orf4, DAPI assay, conditional knockdown, shRNA
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The Use of Reverse Phase Protein Arrays (RPPA) to Explore Protein Expression Variation within Individual Renal Cell Cancers
Authors: Fiach C. O'Mahony, Jyoti Nanda, Alexander Laird, Peter Mullen, Helen Caldwell, Ian M. Overton, Lel Eory, Marie O'Donnell, Dana Faratian, Thomas Powles, David J. Harrison, Grant D. Stewart.
Institutions: University of Edinburgh, University of St Andrews, University of Edinburgh, University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, University of Edinburgh, Queen Mary University of London.
Currently there is no curative treatment for metastatic clear cell renal cell cancer, the commonest variant of the disease. A key factor in this treatment resistance is thought to be the molecular complexity of the disease 1. Targeted therapy such as the tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI)-sunitinib have been utilized, but only 40% of patients will respond, with the overwhelming majority of these patients relapsing within 1 year 2. As such the question of intrinsic and acquired resistance in renal cell cancer patients is highly relevant 3. In order to study resistance to TKIs, with the ultimate goal of developing effective, personalized treatments, sequential tissue after a specific period of targeted therapy is required, an approach which had proved successful in chronic myeloid leukaemia 4. However the application of such a strategy in renal cell carcinoma is complicated by the high level of both inter- and intratumoral heterogeneity, which is a feature of renal cell carcinoma5,6 as well as other solid tumors 7. Intertumoral heterogeneity due to transcriptomic and genetic differences is well established even in patients with similar presentation, stage and grade of tumor. In addition it is clear that there is great morphological (intratumoral) heterogeneity in RCC, which is likely to represent even greater molecular heterogeneity. Detailed mapping and categorization of RCC tumors by combined morphological analysis and Fuhrman grading allows the selection of representative areas for proteomic analysis. Protein based analysis of RCC8 is attractive due to its widespread availability in pathology laboratories; however, its application can be problematic due to the limited availability of specific antibodies 9. Due to the dot blot nature of the Reverse Phase Protein Arrays (RPPA), antibody specificity must be pre-validated; as such strict quality control of antibodies used is of paramount importance. Despite this limitation the dot blot format does allow assay miniaturization, allowing for the printing of hundreds of samples onto a single nitrocellulose slide. Printed slides can then be analyzed in a similar fashion to Western analysis with the use of target specific primary antibodies and fluorescently labelled secondary antibodies, allowing for multiplexing. Differential protein expression across all the samples on a slide can then be analyzed simultaneously by comparing the relative level of fluorescence in a more cost-effective and high-throughput manner.
Cancer Biology, Issue 71, Bioengineering, Medicine, Biomedical Engineering, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Genetics, Pathology, Oncology, Proteins, Early Detection of Cancer, Translational Medical Research, RPPA, RCC, Heterogeneity, Proteomics, Tumor Grade, intertumoral, tumor, metastatic, carcinoma, renal cancer, clear cell renal cell cancer, cancer, assay
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Pre-clinical Evaluation of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors for Treatment of Acute Leukemia
Authors: Sandra Christoph, Alisa B. Lee-Sherick, Susan Sather, Deborah DeRyckere, Douglas K. Graham.
Institutions: University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, University Hospital of Essen.
Receptor tyrosine kinases have been implicated in the development and progression of many cancers, including both leukemia and solid tumors, and are attractive druggable therapeutic targets. Here we describe an efficient four-step strategy for pre-clinical evaluation of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in the treatment of acute leukemia. Initially, western blot analysis is used to confirm target inhibition in cultured leukemia cells. Functional activity is then evaluated using clonogenic assays in methylcellulose or soft agar cultures. Experimental compounds that demonstrate activity in cell culture assays are evaluated in vivo using NOD-SCID-gamma (NSG) mice transplanted orthotopically with human leukemia cell lines. Initial in vivo pharmacodynamic studies evaluate target inhibition in leukemic blasts isolated from the bone marrow. This approach is used to determine the dose and schedule of administration required for effective target inhibition. Subsequent studies evaluate the efficacy of the TKIs in vivo using luciferase expressing leukemia cells, thereby allowing for non-invasive bioluminescent monitoring of leukemia burden and assessment of therapeutic response using an in vivo bioluminescence imaging system. This strategy has been effective for evaluation of TKIs in vitro and in vivo and can be applied for identification of molecularly-targeted agents with therapeutic potential or for direct comparison and prioritization of multiple compounds.
Medicine, Issue 79, Leukemia, Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases, Molecular Targeted Therapy, Therapeutics, novel small molecule inhibitor, receptor tyrosine kinase, leukemia
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Setting-up an In Vitro Model of Rat Blood-brain Barrier (BBB): A Focus on BBB Impermeability and Receptor-mediated Transport
Authors: Yves Molino, Françoise Jabès, Emmanuelle Lacassagne, Nicolas Gaudin, Michel Khrestchatisky.
Institutions: VECT-HORUS SAS, CNRS, NICN UMR 7259.
The blood brain barrier (BBB) specifically regulates molecular and cellular flux between the blood and the nervous tissue. Our aim was to develop and characterize a highly reproducible rat syngeneic in vitro model of the BBB using co-cultures of primary rat brain endothelial cells (RBEC) and astrocytes to study receptors involved in transcytosis across the endothelial cell monolayer. Astrocytes were isolated by mechanical dissection following trypsin digestion and were frozen for later co-culture. RBEC were isolated from 5-week-old rat cortices. The brains were cleaned of meninges and white matter, and mechanically dissociated following enzymatic digestion. Thereafter, the tissue homogenate was centrifuged in bovine serum albumin to separate vessel fragments from nervous tissue. The vessel fragments underwent a second enzymatic digestion to free endothelial cells from their extracellular matrix. The remaining contaminating cells such as pericytes were further eliminated by plating the microvessel fragments in puromycin-containing medium. They were then passaged onto filters for co-culture with astrocytes grown on the bottom of the wells. RBEC expressed high levels of tight junction (TJ) proteins such as occludin, claudin-5 and ZO-1 with a typical localization at the cell borders. The transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) of brain endothelial monolayers, indicating the tightness of TJs reached 300 ohm·cm2 on average. The endothelial permeability coefficients (Pe) for lucifer yellow (LY) was highly reproducible with an average of 0.26 ± 0.11 x 10-3 cm/min. Brain endothelial cells organized in monolayers expressed the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), showed a polarized transport of rhodamine 123, a ligand for P-gp, and showed specific transport of transferrin-Cy3 and DiILDL across the endothelial cell monolayer. In conclusion, we provide a protocol for setting up an in vitro BBB model that is highly reproducible due to the quality assurance methods, and that is suitable for research on BBB transporters and receptors.
Medicine, Issue 88, rat brain endothelial cells (RBEC), mouse, spinal cord, tight junction (TJ), receptor-mediated transport (RMT), low density lipoprotein (LDL), LDLR, transferrin, TfR, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER),
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Using RNA-interference to Investigate the Innate Immune Response in Mouse Macrophages
Authors: Lesly De Arras, Brandon S. Guthrie, Scott Alper.
Institutions: National Jewish Health and University of Colorado School of Medicine.
Macrophages are key phagocytic innate immune cells. When macrophages encounter a pathogen, they produce antimicrobial proteins and compounds to kill the pathogen, produce various cytokines and chemokines to recruit and stimulate other immune cells, and present antigens to stimulate the adaptive immune response. Thus, being able to efficiently manipulate macrophages with techniques such as RNA-interference (RNAi) is critical to our ability to investigate this important innate immune cell. However, macrophages can be technically challenging to transfect and can exhibit inefficient RNAi-induced gene knockdown. In this protocol, we describe methods to efficiently transfect two mouse macrophage cell lines (RAW264.7 and J774A.1) with siRNA using the Amaxa Nucleofector 96-well Shuttle System and describe procedures to maximize the effect of siRNA on gene knockdown. Moreover, the described methods are adapted to work in 96-well format, allowing for medium and high-throughput studies. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, we describe experiments that utilize RNAi to inhibit genes that regulate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokine production.
Immunology, Issue 93, macrophage, RAW264.7, J774A.1, lipopolysaccharide, LPS, innate immunity, RNAi, siRNA, cytokines
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Analysis of Oxidative Stress in Zebrafish Embryos
Authors: Vera Mugoni, Annalisa Camporeale, Massimo M. Santoro.
Institutions: University of Torino, Vesalius Research Center, VIB.
High levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) may cause a change of cellular redox state towards oxidative stress condition. This situation causes oxidation of molecules (lipid, DNA, protein) and leads to cell death. Oxidative stress also impacts the progression of several pathological conditions such as diabetes, retinopathies, neurodegeneration, and cancer. Thus, it is important to define tools to investigate oxidative stress conditions not only at the level of single cells but also in the context of whole organisms. Here, we consider the zebrafish embryo as a useful in vivo system to perform such studies and present a protocol to measure in vivo oxidative stress. Taking advantage of fluorescent ROS probes and zebrafish transgenic fluorescent lines, we develop two different methods to measure oxidative stress in vivo: i) a “whole embryo ROS-detection method” for qualitative measurement of oxidative stress and ii) a “single-cell ROS detection method” for quantitative measurements of oxidative stress. Herein, we demonstrate the efficacy of these procedures by increasing oxidative stress in tissues by oxidant agents and physiological or genetic methods. This protocol is amenable for forward genetic screens and it will help address cause-effect relationships of ROS in animal models of oxidative stress-related pathologies such as neurological disorders and cancer.
Developmental Biology, Issue 89, Danio rerio, zebrafish embryos, endothelial cells, redox state analysis, oxidative stress detection, in vivo ROS measurements, FACS (fluorescence activated cell sorter), molecular probes
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Polysome Fractionation and Analysis of Mammalian Translatomes on a Genome-wide Scale
Authors: Valentina Gandin, Kristina Sikström, Tommy Alain, Masahiro Morita, Shannon McLaughlan, Ola Larsson, Ivan Topisirovic.
Institutions: McGill University, Karolinska Institutet, McGill University.
mRNA translation plays a central role in the regulation of gene expression and represents the most energy consuming process in mammalian cells. Accordingly, dysregulation of mRNA translation is considered to play a major role in a variety of pathological states including cancer. Ribosomes also host chaperones, which facilitate folding of nascent polypeptides, thereby modulating function and stability of newly synthesized polypeptides. In addition, emerging data indicate that ribosomes serve as a platform for a repertoire of signaling molecules, which are implicated in a variety of post-translational modifications of newly synthesized polypeptides as they emerge from the ribosome, and/or components of translational machinery. Herein, a well-established method of ribosome fractionation using sucrose density gradient centrifugation is described. In conjunction with the in-house developed “anota” algorithm this method allows direct determination of differential translation of individual mRNAs on a genome-wide scale. Moreover, this versatile protocol can be used for a variety of biochemical studies aiming to dissect the function of ribosome-associated protein complexes, including those that play a central role in folding and degradation of newly synthesized polypeptides.
Biochemistry, Issue 87, Cells, Eukaryota, Nutritional and Metabolic Diseases, Neoplasms, Metabolic Phenomena, Cell Physiological Phenomena, mRNA translation, ribosomes, protein synthesis, genome-wide analysis, translatome, mTOR, eIF4E, 4E-BP1
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Applying an Inducible Expression System to Study Interference of Bacterial Virulence Factors with Intracellular Signaling
Authors: Christian Berens, Stephanie Bisle, Leonie Klingenbeck, Anja Lührmann.
Institutions: Friedrich-Alexander-Universität, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Universitätsklinikum Erlangen.
The technique presented here allows one to analyze at which step a target protein, or alternatively a small molecule, interacts with the components of a signaling pathway. The method is based, on the one hand, on the inducible expression of a specific protein to initiate a signaling event at a defined and predetermined step in the selected signaling cascade. Concomitant expression, on the other hand, of the gene of interest then allows the investigator to evaluate if the activity of the expressed target protein is located upstream or downstream of the initiated signaling event, depending on the readout of the signaling pathway that is obtained. Here, the apoptotic cascade was selected as a defined signaling pathway to demonstrate protocol functionality. Pathogenic bacteria, such as Coxiella burnetii, translocate effector proteins that interfere with host cell death induction in the host cell to ensure bacterial survival in the cell and to promote their dissemination in the organism. The C. burnetii effector protein CaeB effectively inhibits host cell death after induction of apoptosis with UV-light or with staurosporine. To narrow down at which step CaeB interferes with the propagation of the apoptotic signal, selected proteins with well-characterized pro-apoptotic activity were expressed transiently in a doxycycline-inducible manner. If CaeB acts upstream of these proteins, apoptosis will proceed unhindered. If CaeB acts downstream, cell death will be inhibited. The test proteins selected were Bax, which acts at the level of the mitochondria, and caspase 3, which is the major executioner protease. CaeB interferes with cell death induced by Bax expression, but not by caspase 3 expression. CaeB, thus, interacts with the apoptotic cascade between these two proteins.
Infection, Issue 100, Apoptosis, Bax, Caspase 3, Coxiella burnetii, Doxycycline, Effector protein, Inducible expression, stable cell line, Tet system, Type IV Secretion System
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