Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that is pathologically characterized by extracellular deposition of β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) and intraneuronal accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau protein. Because cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is in direct contact with the extracellular space of the brain, it provides a reflection of the biochemical changes in the brain in response to pathological processes. CSF from AD patients shows a decrease in the 42 amino-acid form of Aβ (Aβ42), and increases in total tau and hyperphosphorylated tau, though the mechanisms responsible for these changes are still not fully understood. Transgenic (Tg) mouse models of AD provide an excellent opportunity to investigate how and why Aβ or tau levels in CSF change as the disease progresses. Here, we demonstrate a refined cisterna magna puncture technique for CSF sampling from the mouse. This extremely gentle sampling technique allows serial CSF samples to be obtained from the same mouse at 2-3 month intervals which greatly minimizes the confounding effect of between-mouse variability in Aβ or tau levels, making it possible to detect subtle alterations over time. In combination with Aβ and tau ELISA, this technique will be useful for studies designed to investigate the relationship between the levels of CSF Aβ42 and tau, and their metabolism in the brain in AD mouse models. Studies in Tg mice could provide important validation as to the potential of CSF Aβ or tau levels to be used as biological markers for monitoring disease progression, and to monitor the effect of therapeutic interventions. As the mice can be sacrificed and the brains can be examined for biochemical or histological changes, the mechanisms underlying the CSF changes can be better assessed. These data are likely to be informative for interpretation of human AD CSF changes.
25 Related JoVE Articles!
Consensus Brain-derived Protein, Extraction Protocol for the Study of Human and Murine Brain Proteome Using Both 2D-DIGE and Mini 2DE Immunoblotting
Institutions: Inserm UMR 837, CHRU-Lille, Faculté de Médecine - Pôle Recherche, CHRU-Lille.
Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) is a powerful tool to uncover proteome modifications potentially related to different physiological or pathological conditions. Basically, this technique is based on the separation of proteins according to their isoelectric point in a first step, and secondly according to their molecular weights by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). In this report an optimized sample preparation protocol for little amount of human post-mortem and mouse brain tissue is described. This method enables to perform both two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) and mini 2DE immunoblotting. The combination of these approaches allows one to not only find new proteins and/or protein modifications in their expression thanks to its compatibility with mass spectrometry detection, but also a new insight into markers validation. Thus, mini-2DE coupled to western blotting permits to identify and validate post-translational modifications, proteins catabolism and provides a qualitative comparison among different conditions and/or treatments. Herein, we provide a method to study components of protein aggregates found in AD and Lewy body dementia such as the amyloid-beta peptide and the alpha-synuclein. Our method can thus be adapted for the analysis of the proteome and insoluble proteins extract from human brain tissue and mice models too. In parallel, it may provide useful information for the study of molecular and cellular pathways involved in neurodegenerative diseases as well as potential novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets.
Neuroscience, Issue 86, proteomics, neurodegeneration, 2DE, human and mice brain tissue, fluorescence, immunoblotting.
Abbreviations: 2DE (two-dimensional gel electrophoresis), 2D-DIGE (two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis), mini-2DE (mini 2DE immunoblotting),IPG (Immobilized pH Gradients), IEF (isoelectrofocusing), AD (Alzheimer´s disease)
In Vitro Aggregation Assays Using Hyperphosphorylated Tau Protein
Institutions: Michigan State University.
Alzheimer's disease is one of a large group of neurodegenerative disorders known as tauopathies that are manifested by the neuronal deposits of hyperphosphorylated tau protein in the form of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). The density of NFT correlates well with cognitive impairment and other neurodegenerative symptoms, thus prompting the endeavor of developing tau aggregation-based therapeutics. Thus far, however, tau aggregation assays use recombinant or synthetic tau that is devoid of the pathology-related phosphorylation marks. Here we describe two assays using recombinant, hyperphosphorylated tau as the subject. These assays can be scaled up for high-throughput screens for compounds that can modulate the kinetics or stability of hyperphosphorylated tau aggregates. Novel therapeutics for Alzheimer's disease and other tauopathies can potentially be discovered using hyperphosphorylated tau isoforms.
Biochemistry, Issue 95, tau, Alzheimer's Disease, tauopathy, phosphorylation, amyloid, Zippers-Assisted Catalysis, protein aggregation, neurofibrillary tangles
Ex Vivo Treatment Response of Primary Tumors and/or Associated Metastases for Preclinical and Clinical Development of Therapeutics
Institutions: Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Weill Cornell Medical College, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center.
The molecular analysis of established cancer cell lines has been the mainstay of cancer research for the past several decades. Cell culture provides both direct and rapid analysis of therapeutic sensitivity and resistance. However, recent evidence suggests that therapeutic response is not exclusive to the inherent molecular composition of cancer cells but rather is greatly influenced by the tumor cell microenvironment, a feature that cannot be recapitulated by traditional culturing methods. Even implementation of tumor xenografts, though providing a wealth of information on drug delivery/efficacy, cannot capture the tumor cell/microenvironment crosstalk (i.e.
, soluble factors) that occurs within human tumors and greatly impacts tumor response. To this extent, we have developed an ex vivo
(fresh tissue sectioning) technique which allows for the direct assessment of treatment response for preclinical and clinical therapeutics development. This technique maintains tissue integrity and cellular architecture within the tumor cell/microenvironment context throughout treatment response providing a more precise means to assess drug efficacy.
Cancer Biology, Issue 92, Ex vivo sectioning, Treatment response, Sensitivity/Resistance, Drug development, Patient tumors, Preclinical and Clinical
Near Infrared (NIr) Light Increases Expression of a Marker of Mitochondrial Function in the Mouse Vestibular Sensory Epithelium
Institutions: University of Sydney, University of Sydney.
Strategies for attenuating decline in balance function with increasing age are predominantly focused on physical therapies including balance tasks and exercise. However, these approaches do not address the underlying causes of balance decline. Using mice, the impact of near infrared light (NIr) on the metabolism of cells in the vestibular sensory epithelium was assessed. Data collected shows that this simple and safe intervention may protect these vulnerable cells from the deleterious effects of natural aging. mRNA was extracted from the isolated peripheral vestibular sensory epithelium (crista ampullaris and utricular macula) and subsequently transcribed into a cDNA library. This library was then probed for the expression of ubiquitous antioxidant (SOD-1). Antioxidant gene expression was then used to quantify cellular metabolism. Using transcranial delivery of NIr in young (4 weeks) and older (8 - 9 months) mice, and a brief treatment regime (90 sec/day for 5 days), this work suggests NIr alone may be sufficient to improve mitochondrial function in the vestibular sensory epithelium. Since there are currently no available, affordable, non-invasive methods of therapy to improve vestibular hair cell function, the application of external NIr radiation provides a potential strategy to counteract the impact of aging on cellular metabolism inthe vestibular sensory epithelium.
Molecular Biology, Issue 97, Vestibular, mitochondria, infrared, neuroprotection, aging, oxidative stress
The Mesenteric Lymph Duct Cannulated Rat Model: Application to the Assessment of Intestinal Lymphatic Drug Transport
Institutions: Monash University (Parkville Campus).
The intestinal lymphatic system plays key roles in fluid transport, lipid absorption and immune function. Lymph flows directly from the small intestine via a series of lymphatic vessels and nodes that converge at the superior mesenteric lymph duct. Cannulation of the mesenteric lymph duct thus enables the collection of mesenteric lymph flowing from the intestine. Mesenteric lymph consists of a cellular fraction of immune cells (99% lymphocytes), aqueous fraction (fluid, peptides and proteins such as cytokines and gut hormones) and lipoprotein fraction (lipids, lipophilic molecules and apo-proteins). The mesenteric lymph duct cannulation model can therefore be used to measure the concentration and rate of transport of a range of factors from the intestine via the lymphatic system. Changes to these factors in response to different challenges (e.g.,
diets, antigens, drugs) and in disease (e.g.,
inflammatory bowel disease, HIV, diabetes) can also be determined. An area of expanding interest is the role of lymphatic transport in the absorption of orally administered lipophilic drugs and prodrugs that associate with intestinal lipid absorption pathways. Here we describe, in detail, a mesenteric lymph duct cannulated rat model which enables evaluation of the rate and extent of lipid and drug transport via the lymphatic system for several hours following intestinal delivery. The method is easily adaptable to the measurement of other parameters in lymph. We provide detailed descriptions of the difficulties that may be encountered when establishing this complex surgical method, as well as representative data from failed and successful experiments to provide instruction on how to confirm experimental success and interpret the data obtained.
Immunology, Issue 97, Intestine, Mesenteric, Lymphatic, Lymph, Carotid artery, Cannulation, Cannula, Rat, Drug, Lipid, Absorption, Surgery
Validation of Nanobody and Antibody Based In Vivo Tumor Xenograft NIRF-imaging Experiments in Mice Using Ex Vivo Flow Cytometry and Microscopy
Institutions: University Medical Center, Hamburg, University Medical Center, Hamburg, University Medical Center, Hamburg, University Medical Center, Hamburg.
This protocol outlines the steps required to perform ex vivo
validation of in vivo
near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) xenograft imaging experiments in mice using fluorophore labelled nanobodies and conventional antibodies.
First we describe how to generate subcutaneous tumors in mice, using antigen-negative cell lines as negative controls and antigen-positive cells as positive controls in the same mice for intraindividual comparison. We outline how to administer intravenously near-infrared fluorophore labelled (AlexaFluor680) antigen-specific nanobodies and conventional antibodies. In vivo
imaging was performed with a small-animal NIRF-Imaging system. After the in vivo
imaging experiments the mice were sacrificed. We then describe how to prepare the tumors for parallel ex vivo
analyses by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy to validate in vivo
The use of the near-infrared fluorophore labelled nanobodies allows for non-invasive same day imaging in vivo
. Our protocols describe the ex vivo
quantification of the specific labeling efficiency of tumor cells by flow cytometry and analysis of the distribution of the antibody constructs within the tumors by fluorescence microscopy. Using near-infrared fluorophore labelled probes allows for non-invasive, economical in vivo
imaging with the unique ability to exploit the same probe without further secondary labelling for ex vivo
validation experiments using flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy.
Medicine, Issue 98, Nanobody, antibody, VHH, fluorescence imaging, molecular imaging, xenograft, animal model
Novel Atomic Force Microscopy Based Biopanning for Isolation of Morphology Specific Reagents against TDP-43 Variants in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Institutions: Arizona State University, Georgetown University Medical Center, Georgetown University Medical Center.
Because protein variants play critical roles in many diseases including TDP-43 in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), alpha-synuclein in Parkinson’s disease and beta-amyloid and tau in Alzheimer’s disease, it is critically important to develop morphology specific reagents that can selectively target these disease-specific protein variants to study the role of these variants in disease pathology and for potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications. We have developed novel atomic force microscopy (AFM) based biopanning techniques that enable isolation of reagents that selectively recognize disease-specific protein variants. There are two key phases involved in the process, the negative and positive panning phases. During the negative panning phase, phages that are reactive to off-target antigens are eliminated through multiple rounds of subtractive panning utilizing a series of carefully selected off-target antigens. A key feature in the negative panning phase is utilizing AFM imaging to monitor the process and confirm that all undesired phage particles are removed. For the positive panning phase, the target antigen of interest is fixed on a mica surface and bound phages are eluted and screened to identify phages that selectively bind the target antigen. The target protein variant does not need to be purified providing the appropriate negative panning controls have been used. Even target protein variants that are only present at very low concentrations in complex biological material can be utilized in the positive panning step. Through application of this technology, we acquired antibodies to protein variants of TDP-43 that are selectively found in human ALS brain tissue. We expect that this protocol should be applicable to generating reagents that selectively bind protein variants present in a wide variety of different biological processes and diseases.
Bioengineering, Issue 96, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, TDP-43, Biopanning, Atomic Force Microscopy, scFv, Neurodegenerative diseases
Long Term Intravital Multiphoton Microscopy Imaging of Immune Cells in Healthy and Diseased Liver Using CXCR6.Gfp Reporter Mice
Institutions: RWTH University-Hospital Aachen, RWTH University-Hospital Aachen, RWTH Aachen University, RWTH University-Hospital Aachen.
Liver inflammation as a response to injury is a highly dynamic process involving the infiltration of distinct subtypes of leukocytes including monocytes, neutrophils, T cell subsets, B cells, natural killer (NK) and NKT cells. Intravital microscopy of the liver for monitoring immune cell migration is particularly challenging due to the high requirements regarding sample preparation and fixation, optical resolution and long-term animal survival. Yet, the dynamics of inflammatory processes as well as cellular interaction studies could provide critical information to better understand the initiation, progression and regression of inflammatory liver disease. Therefore, a highly sensitive and reliable method was established to study migration and cell-cell-interactions of different immune cells in mouse liver over long periods (about 6 hr) by intravital two-photon laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM) in combination with intensive care monitoring.
The method provided includes a gentle preparation and stable fixation of the liver with minimal perturbation of the organ; long term intravital imaging using multicolor multiphoton microscopy with virtually no photobleaching or phototoxic effects over a time period of up to 6 hr, allowing tracking of specific leukocyte subsets; and stable imaging conditions due to extensive monitoring of mouse vital parameters and stabilization of circulation, temperature and gas exchange.
To investigate lymphocyte migration upon liver inflammation CXCR6.gfp knock-in mice were subjected to intravital liver imaging under baseline conditions and after acute and chronic liver damage induced by intraperitoneal injection(s) of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4
CXCR6 is a chemokine receptor expressed on lymphocytes, mainly on Natural Killer T (NKT)-, Natural Killer (NK)- and subsets of T lymphocytes such as CD4 T cells but also mucosal associated invariant (MAIT) T cells1
. Following the migratory pattern and positioning of CXCR6.gfp+
immune cells allowed a detailed insight into their altered behavior upon liver injury and therefore their potential involvement in disease progression.
Immunology, Issue 97, intravital imaging, TPLSM, two-photon microscopy, liver, migration, microscopy, leukocyte traffic, inflammation
The Double-H Maze: A Robust Behavioral Test for Learning and Memory in Rodents
Institutions: University Hospital Freiburg, UMR 7364 Université de Strasbourg, CNRS, Neuropôle de Strasbourg.
Spatial cognition research in rodents typically employs the use of maze tasks, whose attributes vary from one maze to the next. These tasks vary by their behavioral flexibility and required memory duration, the number of goals and pathways, and also the overall task complexity. A confounding feature in many of these tasks is the lack of control over the strategy employed by the rodents to reach the goal, e.g.,
allocentric (declarative-like) or egocentric (procedural) based strategies. The double-H maze is a novel water-escape memory task that addresses this issue, by allowing the experimenter to direct the type of strategy learned during the training period. The double-H maze is a transparent device, which consists of a central alleyway with three arms protruding on both sides, along with an escape platform submerged at the extremity of one of these arms.
Rats can be trained using an allocentric strategy by alternating the start position in the maze in an unpredictable manner (see protocol 1; §4.7), thus requiring them to learn the location of the platform based on the available allothetic cues. Alternatively, an egocentric learning strategy (protocol 2; §4.8) can be employed by releasing the rats from the same position during each trial, until they learn the procedural pattern required to reach the goal. This task has been proven to allow for the formation of stable memory traces.
Memory can be probed following the training period in a misleading probe trial, in which the starting position for the rats alternates. Following an egocentric learning paradigm, rats typically resort to an allocentric-based strategy, but only when their initial view on the extra-maze cues differs markedly from their original position. This task is ideally suited to explore the effects of drugs/perturbations on allocentric/egocentric memory performance, as well as the interactions between these two memory systems.
Behavior, Issue 101, Double-H maze, spatial memory, procedural memory, consolidation, allocentric, egocentric, habits, rodents, video tracking system
Morris Water Maze Test: Optimization for Mouse Strain and Testing Environment
Institutions: West Virginia University, West Virginia University, N. Bud Grossman Center for Memory Research and Care, University of Minnesota, N. Bud Grossman Center for Memory Research and Care, University of Minnesota, GRECC, VA Medical Center, West Virginia University.
The Morris water maze (MWM) is a commonly used task to assess hippocampal-dependent spatial learning and memory in transgenic mouse models of disease, including neurocognitive disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease. However, the background strain of the mouse model used can have a substantial effect on the observed behavioral phenotype, with some strains exhibiting superior learning ability relative to others. To ensure differences between transgene negative and transgene positive mice can be detected, identification of a training procedure sensitive to the background strain is essential. Failure to tailor the MWM protocol to the background strain of the mouse model may lead to under- or over- training, thereby masking group differences in probe trials. Here, a MWM protocol tailored for use with the F1 FVB/N x 129S6 background is described. This is a frequently used background strain to study the age-dependent effects of mutant P301L tau (rTg(TauP301L)4510 mice) on the memory deficits associated with Alzheimer’s disease. Also described is a strategy to re-optimize, as dictated by the particular testing environment utilized.
Behavior, Issue 100, Spatial learning, spatial reference memory, Morris water maze, Alzheimer’s disease, behavior, tau, hippocampal-dependent learning, rTg4510, Tg2576, strain background, transgenic mouse models
Stereotaxic Infusion of Oligomeric Amyloid-beta into the Mouse Hippocampus
Institutions: Columbia University Medical Center, Columbia University Medical Center, Columbia University Medical Center.
Alzheimer’s disease is a neurodegenerative disease affecting the aging population. A key neuropathological feature of the disease is the over-production of amyloid-beta and the deposition of amyloid-beta plaques in brain regions of the afflicted individuals. Throughout the years scientists have generated numerous Alzheimer’s disease mouse models that attempt to replicate the amyloid-beta pathology. Unfortunately, the mouse models only selectively mimic the disease features. Neuronal death, a prominent effect in the brains of Alzheimer’s disease patients, is noticeably lacking in these mice. Hence, we and others have employed a method of directly infusing soluble oligomeric species of amyloid-beta - forms of amyloid-beta that have been proven to be most toxic to neurons - stereotaxically into the brain. In this report we utilize male C57BL/6J mice to document this surgical technique of increasing amyloid-beta levels in a select brain region. The infusion target is the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus because this brain structure, along with the basal forebrain that is connected by the cholinergic circuit, represents one of the areas of degeneration in the disease. The results of elevating amyloid-beta in the dentate gyrus via stereotaxic infusion reveal increases in neuron loss in the dentate gyrus within 1 week, while there is a concomitant increase in cell death and cholinergic neuron loss in the vertical limb of the diagonal band of Broca of the basal forebrain. These effects are observed up to 2 weeks. Our data suggests that the current amyloid-beta infusion model provides an alternative mouse model to address region specific neuron death in a short-term basis. The advantage of this model is that amyloid-beta can be elevated in a spatial and temporal manner.
Neuroscience, Issue 100, Amyloid-beta, brain, mouse, infusion, surgery, neuroscience
Setting-up an In Vitro Model of Rat Blood-brain Barrier (BBB): A Focus on BBB Impermeability and Receptor-mediated Transport
Institutions: VECT-HORUS SAS, CNRS, NICN UMR 7259.
The blood brain barrier (BBB) specifically regulates molecular and cellular flux between the blood and the nervous tissue. Our aim was to develop and characterize a highly reproducible rat syngeneic in vitro
model of the BBB using co-cultures of primary rat brain endothelial cells (RBEC) and astrocytes to study receptors involved in transcytosis across the endothelial cell monolayer. Astrocytes were isolated by mechanical dissection following trypsin digestion and were frozen for later co-culture. RBEC were isolated from 5-week-old rat cortices. The brains were cleaned of meninges and white matter, and mechanically dissociated following enzymatic digestion. Thereafter, the tissue homogenate was centrifuged in bovine serum albumin to separate vessel fragments from nervous tissue. The vessel fragments underwent a second enzymatic digestion to free endothelial cells from their extracellular matrix. The remaining contaminating cells such as pericytes were further eliminated by plating the microvessel fragments in puromycin-containing medium. They were then passaged onto filters for co-culture with astrocytes grown on the bottom of the wells. RBEC expressed high levels of tight junction (TJ) proteins such as occludin, claudin-5 and ZO-1 with a typical localization at the cell borders. The transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) of brain endothelial monolayers, indicating the tightness of TJs reached 300 ohm·cm2
on average. The endothelial permeability coefficients (Pe) for lucifer yellow (LY) was highly reproducible with an average of 0.26 ± 0.11 x 10-3
cm/min. Brain endothelial cells organized in monolayers expressed the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), showed a polarized transport of rhodamine 123, a ligand for P-gp, and showed specific transport of transferrin-Cy3 and DiILDL across the endothelial cell monolayer. In conclusion, we provide a protocol for setting up an in vitro
BBB model that is highly reproducible due to the quality assurance methods, and that is suitable for research on BBB transporters and receptors.
Medicine, Issue 88, rat brain endothelial cells (RBEC), mouse, spinal cord, tight junction (TJ), receptor-mediated transport (RMT), low density lipoprotein (LDL), LDLR, transferrin, TfR, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER),
The ChroP Approach Combines ChIP and Mass Spectrometry to Dissect Locus-specific Proteomic Landscapes of Chromatin
Institutions: European Institute of Oncology.
Chromatin is a highly dynamic nucleoprotein complex made of DNA and proteins that controls various DNA-dependent processes. Chromatin structure and function at specific regions is regulated by the local enrichment of histone post-translational modifications (hPTMs) and variants, chromatin-binding proteins, including transcription factors, and DNA methylation. The proteomic characterization of chromatin composition at distinct functional regions has been so far hampered by the lack of efficient protocols to enrich such domains at the appropriate purity and amount for the subsequent in-depth analysis by Mass Spectrometry (MS). We describe here a newly designed chromatin proteomics strategy, named ChroP (Chromatin Proteomics
), whereby a preparative chromatin immunoprecipitation is used to isolate distinct chromatin regions whose features, in terms of hPTMs, variants and co-associated non-histonic proteins, are analyzed by MS. We illustrate here the setting up of ChroP for the enrichment and analysis of transcriptionally silent heterochromatic regions, marked by the presence of tri-methylation of lysine 9 on histone H3. The results achieved demonstrate the potential of ChroP
in thoroughly characterizing the heterochromatin proteome and prove it as a powerful analytical strategy for understanding how the distinct protein determinants of chromatin interact and synergize to establish locus-specific structural and functional configurations.
Biochemistry, Issue 86, chromatin, histone post-translational modifications (hPTMs), epigenetics, mass spectrometry, proteomics, SILAC, chromatin immunoprecipitation , histone variants, chromatome, hPTMs cross-talks
Photo-Induced Cross-Linking of Unmodified Proteins (PICUP) Applied to Amyloidogenic Peptides
Institutions: University of California, Los Angeles, University of California, Los Angeles, University of California, Los Angeles.
The assembly of amyloidogenic proteins into toxic oligomers is a seminal event in the pathogenesis of protein misfolding diseases, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases, hereditary amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and type 2 diabetes. Owing to the metastable nature of these protein assemblies, it is difficult to assess their oligomer size distribution quantitatively using classical methods, such as electrophoresis, chromatography, fluorescence, or dynamic light scattering. Oligomers of amyloidogenic proteins exist as metastable mixtures, in which the oligomers dissociate into monomers and associate into larger assemblies simultaneously. PICUP stabilizes oligomer populations by covalent cross-linking and when combined with fractionation methods, such as sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) or size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), PICUP provides snapshots of the oligomer size distributions that existed before cross-linking. Hence, PICUP enables visualization and quantitative analysis of metastable protein populations and can be used to monitor assembly and decipher relationships between sequence modifications and oligomerization1
. Mechanistically, PICUP involves photo-oxidation of Ru2+
in a tris(bipyridyl)Ru(II) complex (RuBpy) to Ru3+
by irradiation with visible light in the presence of an electron acceptor. Ru3+
is a strong one-electron oxidizer capable of abstracting an electron from a neighboring protein molecule, generating a protein radical1,2
. Radicals are unstable, highly-reactive species and therefore disappear rapidly through a variety of intra- and intermolecular reactions. A radical may utilize the high energy of an unpaired electron to react with another protein monomer forming a dimeric radical, which subsequently loses a hydrogen atom and forms a stable, covalently-linked dimer. The dimer may then react further through a similar mechanism with monomers or other dimers to form higher-order oligomers. Advantages of PICUP relative to other photo- or chemical cross-linking methods3,4
include short (≤1 s) exposure to non-destructive visible light, no need for pre facto
modification of the native sequence, and zero-length covalent cross-linking. In addition, PICUP enables cross-linking of proteins within wide pH and temperature ranges, including physiologic parameters. Here, we demonstrate application of PICUP to cross-linking of three amyloidogenic proteins the 40- and 42-residue amyloid β-protein variants (Aβ40 and Aβ42), and calcitonin, and a control protein, growth-hormone releasing factor (GRF).
Cross-linking, Issue 23, PICUP, amyloid β-protein, oligomer, amyloid, protein assembly
Preparation of Oligomeric β-amyloid1-42 and Induction of Synaptic Plasticity Impairment on Hippocampal Slices
Institutions: Columbia University.
Impairment of synaptic connections is likely to underlie the subtle amnesic changes occurring at the early stages of Alzheimer s Disease (AD). β-amyloid (Aβ), a peptide produced in high amounts in AD, is known to reduce Long-Term Potentiation (LTP), a cellular correlate of learning and memory. Indeed, LTP impairment caused by Aβ is a useful experimental paradigm for studying synaptic dysfunctions in AD models and for screening drugs capable of mitigating or reverting such synaptic impairments. Studies have shown that Aβ produces the LTP disruption preferentially via its oligomeric form. Here we provide a detailed protocol for impairing LTP by perfusion of oligomerized synthetic Aβ1-42 peptide onto acute hippocampal slices. In this video, we outline a step-by-step procedure for the preparation of oligomeric Aβ1-42
. Then, we follow an individual experiment in which LTP is reduced in hippocampal slices exposed to oligomerized Aβ1-42
compared to slices in a control experiment where no Aβ1-42
exposure had occurred.
JoVE Neuroscience, Issue 41, brain, mouse, hippocampus, plasticity, LTP, amyloid
SDS-PAGE/Immunoblot Detection of Aβ Multimers in Human Cortical Tissue Homogenates using Antigen-Epitope Retrieval
Institutions: Emory University, Tsukuba University, New York University School of Medicine, Emory University.
The anomalous folding and polymerization of the β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide is thought to initiate the neurodegenerative cascade in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis1
. Aβ is predominantly a 40- or 42-amino acid peptide that is prone to self-aggregation into β-sheet-rich amyloid fibrils that are found in the cores of cerebral senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease. Increasing evidence suggests that low molecular weight, soluble Aβ multimers are more toxic than fibrillar Aβ amyloid2
. The identification and quantification of low- and high-molecular weight multimeric Aβ species in brain tissue is an essential objective in Alzheimer's disease research, and the methods employed also can be applied to the identification and characterization of toxic multimers in other proteopathies3
. Naturally occurring Aβ multimers can be detected by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by immunoblotting with Aβ-specific antibodies. However, the separation and detection of multimeric Aβ requires the use of highly concentrated cortical homogenates and antigen retrieval in small pore-size nitrocellulose membranes. Here we describe a technique for the preparation of clarified human cortical homogenates, separation of proteins by SDS-PAGE, and antigen-epitope retrieval/Western blotting with antibody 6E10 to the N-terminal region of the Aβ peptide. Using this protocol, we consistently detect Aβ monomers, dimers, trimers, tetramers, and higher molecular weight multimers in cortical tissue from humans with Alzheimer's pathology.
JoVE Neuroscience, Issue 38, β-amyloid, oligomers, multimers, Western blotting, protein aggregation, Alzheimer's, antigen retrieval
Assaying β-amyloid Toxicity using a Transgenic C. elegans Model
Institutions: University of Colorado, University of Colorado.
Accumulation of the β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) is generally believed to be central to the induction of Alzheimer's disease, but the relevant mechanism(s) of toxicity are still unclear. Aβ is also deposited intramuscularly in Inclusion Body Myositis, a severe human myopathy. The intensely studied nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans
can be transgenically engineered to express human Aβ. Depending on the tissue or timing of Aβ expression, transgenic worms can have readily measurable phenotypes that serve as a read-out of Aβ toxicity. For example, transgenic worms with pan-neuronal Aβ expression have defects is associative learning (Dosanjh et al.
2009), while transgenic worms with constitutive muscle-specific expression show a progressive, age-dependent paralysis phenotype (Link, 1995; Cohen et al.
2006). One particularly useful C. elegans
model employs a temperature-sensitive mutation in the mRNA surveillance system to engineer temperature-inducible muscle expression of an Aβ transgene, resulting in a reproducible paralysis phenotype upon temperature upshift (Link et al.
2003). Treatments that counter Aβ toxicity in this model [e.g., expression of a protective transgene (Hassan et al.
2009) or exposure to Ginkgo biloba extracts (Wu et al.
2006)] reproducibly alter the rate of paralysis induced by temperature upshift of these transgenic worms. Here we describe our protocol for measuring the rate of paralysis in this transgenic C. elegans
model, with particular attention to experimental variables that can influence this measurement.
Neuroscience, Issue 44, Alzheimer's disease, paralysis, compound screening, Inclusion Body Myositis, invertebrate model
Detection of Neuritic Plaques in Alzheimer's Disease Mouse Model
Institutions: The University of British Columbia.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder leading to dementia. Neuritic plaque formation is one of the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease. The central component of neuritic plaques is a small filamentous protein called amyloid β protein (Aβ)1
, which is derived from sequential proteolytic cleavage of the beta-amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β-secretase and γ-secretase. The amyloid hypothesis entails that Aγ-containing plaques as the underlying toxic mechanism in AD pathology2
. The postmortem analysis of the presence of neuritic plaque confirms the diagnosis of AD. To further our understanding of Aγ neurobiology in AD pathogenesis, various mouse strains expressing AD-related mutations in the human APP genes were generated. Depending on the severity of the disease, these mice will develop neuritic plaques at different ages. These mice serve as invaluable tools for studying the pathogenesis and drug development that could affect the APP processing pathway and neuritic plaque formation. In this protocol, we employ an immunohistochemical method for specific detection of neuritic plaques in AD model mice. We will specifically discuss the preparation from extracting the half brain, paraformaldehyde fixation, cryosectioning, and two methods to detect neurotic plaques in AD transgenic mice: immunohistochemical detection using the ABC and DAB method and fluorescent detection using thiofalvin S staining method.
Neuroscience, Issue 53, Alzheimer’s disease, neuritic plaques, Amyloid β protein, APP, transgenic mouse
Intranasal Administration of CNS Therapeutics to Awake Mice
Institutions: HealthPartners Institute for Education and Research.
Intranasal administration is a method of delivering therapeutic agents to the central nervous system (CNS). It is non-invasive and allows large molecules that do not cross the blood-brain barrier access to the CNS. Drugs are directly targeted to the CNS with intranasal delivery, reducing systemic exposure and thus unwanted systemic side effects1
. Delivery from the nose to the CNS occurs within minutes along both the olfactory and trigeminal neural pathways via an extracellular route and does not require drug to bind to any receptor or axonal transport2
. Intranasal delivery is a widely publicized method and is currently being used in human clinical trials3
Intranasal delivery of drugs in animal models allows for initial evaluation of pharmacokinetic distribution and efficacy. With mice, it is possible to administer drugs to awake (non-anesthetized) animals on a regular basis using a specialized intranasal grip. Awake delivery is beneficial because it allows for long-term chronic dosing without anesthesia, it takes less time than with anesthesia, and can be learned and done by many people so that teams of technicians can dose large numbers of mice in short periods. Efficacy of therapeutics administered intranasally in this way to mice has been demonstrated in a number of studies including insulin in diabetic mouse models 4-6
and deferoxamine in Alzheimer's mouse models. 7,8
The intranasal grip for mice can be learned, but is not easy and requires practice, skill, and a precise grip to effectively deliver drug to the brain and avoid drainage to the lung and stomach. Mice are restrained by hand using a modified scruff in the non-dominant hand with the neck held parallel to the floor, while drug is delivered with a pipettor using the dominant hand. It usually takes 3-4 weeks of acclimating to handling before mice can be held with this grip without a stress response. We have prepared this JoVE video to make this intranasal delivery technique more accessible.
Medicine, Issue 74, Biomedical Engineering, Neuroscience, Anatomy, Physiology, Bioengineering, Neurobiology, Pharmacology, Intranasal, nasal, awake, mice, drug delivery, brain targeting, CNS, mouse acclimation, animal model, therapeutics, clinical techniques
Protein WISDOM: A Workbench for In silico De novo Design of BioMolecules
Institutions: Princeton University.
The aim of de novo
protein design is to find the amino acid sequences that will fold into a desired 3-dimensional structure with improvements in specific properties, such as binding affinity, agonist or antagonist behavior, or stability, relative to the native sequence. Protein design lies at the center of current advances drug design and discovery. Not only does protein design provide predictions for potentially useful drug targets, but it also enhances our understanding of the protein folding process and protein-protein interactions. Experimental methods such as directed evolution have shown success in protein design. However, such methods are restricted by the limited sequence space that can be searched tractably. In contrast, computational design strategies allow for the screening of a much larger set of sequences covering a wide variety of properties and functionality. We have developed a range of computational de novo
protein design methods capable of tackling several important areas of protein design. These include the design of monomeric proteins for increased stability and complexes for increased binding affinity.
To disseminate these methods for broader use we present Protein WISDOM (http://www.proteinwisdom.org), a tool that provides automated methods for a variety of protein design problems. Structural templates are submitted to initialize the design process. The first stage of design is an optimization sequence selection stage that aims at improving stability through minimization of potential energy in the sequence space. Selected sequences are then run through a fold specificity stage and a binding affinity stage. A rank-ordered list of the sequences for each step of the process, along with relevant designed structures, provides the user with a comprehensive quantitative assessment of the design. Here we provide the details of each design method, as well as several notable experimental successes attained through the use of the methods.
Genetics, Issue 77, Molecular Biology, Bioengineering, Biochemistry, Biomedical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Computational Biology, Genomics, Proteomics, Protein, Protein Binding, Computational Biology, Drug Design, optimization (mathematics), Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins, De novo protein and peptide design, Drug design, In silico sequence selection, Optimization, Fold specificity, Binding affinity, sequencing
Genetically-encoded Molecular Probes to Study G Protein-coupled Receptors
Institutions: The Rockefeller University.
To facilitate structural and dynamic studies of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling complexes, new approaches are required to introduce informative probes or labels into expressed receptors that do not perturb receptor function. We used amber codon suppression technology to genetically-encode the unnatural amino acid, p
-azido-L-phenylalanine (azF) at various targeted positions in GPCRs heterologously expressed in mammalian cells. The versatility of the azido group is illustrated here in different applications to study GPCRs in their native cellular environment or under detergent solubilized conditions. First, we demonstrate a cell-based targeted photocrosslinking technology to identify the residues in the ligand-binding pocket of GPCR where a tritium-labeled small-molecule ligand is crosslinked to a genetically-encoded azido amino acid. We then demonstrate site-specific modification of GPCRs by the bioorthogonal Staudinger-Bertozzi ligation reaction that targets the azido group using phosphine derivatives. We discuss a general strategy for targeted peptide-epitope tagging of expressed membrane proteins in-culture and its detection using a whole-cell-based ELISA approach. Finally, we show that azF-GPCRs can be selectively tagged with fluorescent probes. The methodologies discussed are general, in that they can in principle be applied to any amino acid position in any expressed GPCR to interrogate active signaling complexes.
Genetics, Issue 79, Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled, Protein Engineering, Signal Transduction, Biochemistry, Unnatural amino acid, site-directed mutagenesis, G protein-coupled receptor, targeted photocrosslinking, bioorthogonal labeling, targeted epitope tagging
Pre-clinical Evaluation of Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors for Treatment of Acute Leukemia
Institutions: University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, University Hospital of Essen.
Receptor tyrosine kinases have been implicated in the development and progression of many cancers, including both leukemia and solid tumors, and are attractive druggable therapeutic targets. Here we describe an efficient four-step strategy for pre-clinical evaluation of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) in the treatment of acute leukemia. Initially, western blot analysis is used to confirm target inhibition in cultured leukemia cells. Functional activity is then evaluated using clonogenic assays in methylcellulose or soft agar cultures. Experimental compounds that demonstrate activity in cell culture assays are evaluated in vivo
using NOD-SCID-gamma (NSG) mice transplanted orthotopically with human leukemia cell lines. Initial in vivo
pharmacodynamic studies evaluate target inhibition in leukemic blasts isolated from the bone marrow. This approach is used to determine the dose and schedule of administration required for effective target inhibition. Subsequent studies evaluate the efficacy of the TKIs in vivo
using luciferase expressing leukemia cells, thereby allowing for non-invasive bioluminescent monitoring of leukemia burden and assessment of therapeutic response using an in vivo
bioluminescence imaging system. This strategy has been effective for evaluation of TKIs in vitro
and in vivo
and can be applied for identification of molecularly-targeted agents with therapeutic potential or for direct comparison and prioritization of multiple compounds.
Medicine, Issue 79, Leukemia, Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases, Molecular Targeted Therapy, Therapeutics, novel small molecule inhibitor, receptor tyrosine kinase, leukemia
Induction of Invasive Transitional Cell Bladder Carcinoma in Immune Intact Human MUC1 Transgenic Mice: A Model for Immunotherapy Development
Institutions: University of California, Davis, University of California, Davis, Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany.
A preclinical model of invasive bladder cancer was developed in human mucin 1 (MUC1) transgenic (MUC1.Tg) mice for the purpose of evaluating immunotherapy and/or cytotoxic chemotherapy. To induce bladder cancer, C57BL/6 mice (MUC1.Tg and wild type) were treated orally with the carcinogen N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine (OH-BBN) at 3.0 mg/day, 5 days/week for 12 weeks. To assess the effects of OH-BBN on serum cytokine profile during tumor development, whole blood was collected via submandibular bleeds prior to treatment and every four weeks. In addition, a MUC1-targeted peptide vaccine and placebo were administered to groups of mice weekly for eight weeks. Multiplex fluorometric microbead immunoanalyses of serum cytokines during tumor development and following vaccination were performed. At termination, interferon gamma (IFN-γ)/interleukin-4 (IL-4) ELISpot analysis for MUC1 specific T-cell immune response and histopathological evaluations of tumor type and grade were performed. The results showed that: (1) the incidence of bladder cancer in both MUC1.Tg and wild type mice was 67%; (2) transitional cell carcinomas (TCC) developed at a 2:1 ratio compared to squamous cell carcinomas (SCC); (3) inflammatory cytokines increased with time during tumor development; and (4) administration of the peptide vaccine induces a Th1-polarized serum cytokine profile and a MUC1 specific T-cell response. All tumors in MUC1.Tg mice were positive for MUC1 expression, and half of all tumors in MUC1.Tg and wild type mice were invasive. In conclusion, using a team approach through the coordination of the efforts of pharmacologists, immunologists, pathologists and molecular biologists, we have developed an immune intact transgenic mouse model of bladder cancer that expresses hMUC1.
Medicine, Issue 80, Urinary Bladder, Animals, Genetically Modified, Cancer Vaccines, Immunotherapy, Animal Experimentation, Models, Neoplasms Bladder Cancer, C57BL/6 Mouse, MUC1, Immunotherapy, Preclinical Model
Rapid Generation of Amyloid from Native Proteins In vitro
Institutions: The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center.
Proteins carry out crucial tasks in organisms by exerting functions elicited from their specific three dimensional folds. Although the native structures of polypeptides fulfill many purposes, it is now recognized that most proteins can adopt an alternative assembly of beta-sheet rich amyloid. Insoluble amyloid fibrils are initially associated with multiple human ailments, but they are increasingly shown as functional players participating in various important cellular processes. In addition, amyloid deposited in patient tissues contains nonproteinaceous
components, such as nucleic acids and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). These cofactors can facilitate the formation of amyloid, resulting in the generation of different types of insoluble precipitates. By taking advantage of our understanding how proteins misfold via an intermediate stage of soluble amyloid precursor, we have devised a method to convert native proteins to amyloid fibrils in vitro
. This approach allows one to prepare amyloid in large quantities, examine the properties of amyloid generated from specific proteins, and evaluate the structural changes accompanying the conversion.
Biochemistry, Issue 82, amyloid, soluble protein oligomer, amyloid precursor, protein misfolding, amyloid fibril, protein aggregate
Measuring DNA Damage and Repair in Mouse Splenocytes After Chronic In Vivo Exposure to Very Low Doses of Beta- and Gamma-Radiation
Institutions: Canadian Nuclear Laboratories.
Low dose radiation exposure may produce a variety of biological effects that are different in quantity and quality from the effects produced by high radiation doses. Addressing questions related to environmental, occupational and public health safety in a proper and scientifically justified manner heavily relies on the ability to accurately measure the biological effects of low dose pollutants, such as ionizing radiation and chemical substances. DNA damage and repair are the most important early indicators of health risks due to their potential long term consequences, such as cancer. Here we describe a protocol to study the effect of chronic in vivo
exposure to low doses of γ- and β-radiation on DNA damage and repair in mouse spleen cells. Using a commonly accepted marker of DNA double-strand breaks, phosphorylated histone H2AX called γH2AX, we demonstrate how it can be used to evaluate not only the levels of DNA damage, but also changes in the DNA repair capacity potentially produced by low dose in vivo
exposures. Flow cytometry allows fast, accurate and reliable measurement of immunofluorescently labeled γH2AX in a large number of samples. DNA double-strand break repair can be evaluated by exposing extracted splenocytes to a challenging dose of 2 Gy to produce a sufficient number of DNA breaks to trigger repair and by measuring the induced (1 hr post-irradiation) and residual DNA damage (24 hrs post-irradiation). Residual DNA damage would be indicative of incomplete repair and the risk of long-term genomic instability and cancer. Combined with other assays and end-points that can easily be measured in such in vivo
, chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei frequencies in bone marrow reticulocytes, gene expression, etc.), this approach allows an accurate and contextual evaluation of the biological effects of low level stressors.
Molecular Biology, Issue 101, DNA damage, DNA double-strand breaks, DNA repair, γ-H2AX, low dose radiation, tritium, β--radiation, γ-radiation, chronic exposure, flow cytometry, in vivo, mouse model