Electrospinning is a highly adaptable method producing porous 3D fibrous scaffolds that can be exploited in in vitro cell culture. Alterations to intrinsic parameters within the process allow a high degree of control over scaffold characteristics including fiber diameter, alignment and porosity. By developing scaffolds with similar dimensions and topographies to organ- or tissue-specific extracellular matrices (ECM), micro-environments representative to those that cells are exposed to in situ can be created.
The airway bronchiole wall, comprised of three main micro-environments, was selected as a model tissue. Using decellularized airway ECM as a guide, we electrospun the non-degradable polymer, polyethylene terephthalate (PET), by three different protocols to produce three individual electrospun scaffolds optimized for epithelial, fibroblast or smooth muscle cell-culture. Using a commercially available bioreactor system, we stably co-cultured the three cell-types to provide an in vitro model of the airway wall over an extended time period.
This model highlights the potential for such methods being employed in in vitro diagnostic studies investigating important inter-cellular cross-talk mechanisms or assessing novel pharmaceutical targets, by providing a relevant platform to allow the culture of fully differentiated adult cells within 3D, tissue-specific environments.
21 Related JoVE Articles!
Preparation of Intact Bovine Tail Intervertebral Discs for Organ Culture
Institutions: University of Bern.
The intervertebral disc (IVD) is the joint of the spine connecting vertebra to vertebra. It functions to transmit loading of the spine and give flexibility to the spine. It composes of three compartments: the innermost nucleus pulposus (NP) encompassing by the annulus fibrosus (AF), and two cartilaginous endplates connecting the NP and AF to the vertebral body on both sides. Discogenic pain possibly caused by degenerative intervertebral disc disease (DDD) and disc herniations has been identified as a major problem in our modern society. To study possible mechanisms of IVD degeneration, in vitro
organ culture systems with live disc cells are highly appealing. The in vitro
culture of intact bovine coccygeal IVDs has advanced to a relevant model system, which allows the study of mechano-biological aspects in a well-controlled physiological and mechanical environment. Bovine tail IVDs can be obtained relatively easy in higher numbers and are very similar to the human lumbar IVDs with respect to cell density, cell population and dimensions. However, previous bovine caudal IVD harvesting techniques retaining cartilaginous endplates and bony endplates failed after 1-2 days of culture since the nutrition pathways were obviously blocked by clotted blood. IVDs are the biggest avascular organs, thus, the nutrients to the cells in the NP are solely dependent on diffusion via the capillary buds from the adjacent vertebral body. Presence of bone debris and clotted blood on the endplate surfaces can hinder nutrient diffusion into the center of the disc and compromise cell viability. Our group established a relatively quick protocol to "crack"-out the IVDs from the tail with a low risk for contamination. We are able to permeabilize the freshly-cut bony endplate surfaces by using a surgical jet lavage system, which removes the blood clots and cutting debris and very efficiently reopens the nutrition diffusion pathway to the center of the IVD. The presence of growth plates on both sides of the vertebral bone has to be avoided and to be removed prior to culture. In this video, we outline the crucial steps during preparation and demonstrate the key to a successful organ culture maintaining high cell viability for 14 days under free swelling culture. The culture time could be extended when appropriate mechanical environment can be maintained by using mechanical loading bioreactor. The technique demonstrated here can be extended to other animal species such as porcine, ovine and leporine caudal and lumbar IVD isolation.
Bioengineering, Issue 60, Intervertebral Disc, Organ Culture, Cartilaginous Endplates, Growth Plate, Cell Viability, Diffusion, Nutrition, Tissue Engineering, Mechanical Loading, Bioreactor
Towards Biomimicking Wood: Fabricated Free-standing Films of Nanocellulose, Lignin, and a Synthetic Polycation
Institutions: Virginia Tech, Virginia Tech, Illinois Institute of Technology- Moffett Campus, University of Guadalajara, Virginia Tech, Virginia Tech.
Woody materials are comprised of plant cell walls that contain a layered secondary cell wall composed of structural polymers of polysaccharides and lignin. Layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly process which relies on the assembly of oppositely charged molecules from aqueous solutions was used to build a freestanding composite film of isolated wood polymers of lignin and oxidized nanofibril cellulose (NFC). To facilitate the assembly of these negatively charged polymers, a positively charged polyelectrolyte, poly(diallyldimethylammomium chloride) (PDDA), was used as a linking layer to create this simplified model cell wall. The layered adsorption process was studied quantitatively using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and ellipsometry. The results showed that layer mass/thickness per adsorbed layer increased as a function of total number of layers. The surface coverage of the adsorbed layers was studied with atomic force microscopy (AFM). Complete coverage of the surface with lignin in all the deposition cycles was found for the system, however, surface coverage by NFC increased with the number of layers. The adsorption process was carried out for 250 cycles (500 bilayers) on a cellulose acetate (CA) substrate. Transparent free-standing LBL assembled nanocomposite films were obtained when the CA substrate was later dissolved in acetone. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the fractured cross-sections showed a lamellar structure, and the thickness per adsorption cycle (PDDA-Lignin-PDDA-NC) was estimated to be 17 nm for two different lignin types used in the study. The data indicates a film with highly controlled architecture where nanocellulose and lignin are spatially deposited on the nanoscale (a polymer-polymer nanocomposites), similar to what is observed in the native cell wall.
Plant Biology, Issue 88, nanocellulose, thin films, quartz crystal microbalance, layer-by-layer, LbL
Preparation of DNA-crosslinked Polyacrylamide Hydrogels
Institutions: JFK Medical Center, Rutgers University, Rutgers University.
Mechanobiology is an emerging scientific area that addresses the critical role of physical cues in directing cell morphology and function. For example, the effect of tissue elasticity on cell function is a major area of mechanobiology research because tissue stiffness modulates with disease, development, and injury. Static tissue-mimicking materials, or materials that cannot alter stiffness once cells are plated, are predominately used to investigate the effects of tissue stiffness on cell functions. While information gathered from static studies is valuable, these studies are not indicative of the dynamic nature of the cellular microenvironment in vivo
. To better address the effects of dynamic stiffness on cell function, we developed a DNA-crosslinked polyacrylamide hydrogel system (DNA gels). Unlike other dynamic substrates, DNA gels have the ability to decrease or increase in stiffness after fabrication without stimuli. DNA gels consist of DNA crosslinks that are polymerized into a polyacrylamide backbone. Adding and removing crosslinks via delivery of single-stranded DNA allows temporal, spatial, and reversible control of gel elasticity. We have shown in previous reports that dynamic modulation of DNA gel elasticity influences fibroblast and neuron behavior. In this report and video, we provide a schematic that describes the DNA gel crosslinking mechanisms and step-by-step instructions on the preparation DNA gels.
Bioengineering, Issue 90, bioengineering (general), Elastic, viscoelastic, bis-acrylamide, substrate, stiffness, dynamic, static, neuron, fibroblast, compliance, ECM, mechanobiology, tunable
Electrospinning Growth Factor Releasing Microspheres into Fibrous Scaffolds
Institutions: Wayne State University.
This procedure describes a method to fabricate a multifaceted substrate to direct nerve cell growth. This system incorporates mechanical, topographical, adhesive and chemical signals. Mechanical properties are controlled by the type of material used to fabricate the electrospun fibers. In this protocol we use 30% methacrylated Hyaluronic Acid (HA), which has a tensile modulus of ~500 Pa, to produce a soft fibrous scaffold. Electrospinning on to a rotating mandrel produces aligned fibers to create a topographical cue. Adhesion is achieved by coating the scaffold with fibronectin. The primary challenge addressed herein is providing a chemical signal throughout the depth of the scaffold for extended periods. This procedure describes fabricating poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres that contain Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) and directly impregnating the scaffold with these microspheres during the electrospinning process. Due to the harsh production environment, including high sheer forces and electrical charges, protein viability is measured after production. The system provides protein release for over 60 days and has been shown to promote primary nerve cell growth.
Bioengineering, Issue 90, Electrospinning, Hyaluronic Acid, PLGA, Microspheres, Controlled Release, Neural Tissue Engineering, Directed Cell Migration
Construction and Characterization of a Novel Vocal Fold Bioreactor
Institutions: University of Delaware, University of Delaware.
engineering of mechanically active tissues requires the presentation of physiologically relevant mechanical conditions to cultured cells. To emulate the dynamic environment of vocal folds, a novel vocal fold bioreactor capable of producing vibratory stimulations at fundamental phonation frequencies is constructed and characterized. The device is composed of a function generator, a power amplifier, a speaker selector and parallel vibration chambers. Individual vibration chambers are created by sandwiching a custom-made silicone membrane between a pair of acrylic blocks. The silicone membrane not only serves as the bottom of the chamber but also provides a mechanism for securing the cell-laden scaffold. Vibration signals, generated by a speaker mounted underneath the bottom acrylic block, are transmitted to the membrane aerodynamically by the oscillating air. Eight identical vibration modules, fixed on two stationary metal bars, are housed in an anti-humidity chamber for long-term operation in a cell culture incubator. The vibration characteristics of the vocal fold bioreactor are analyzed non-destructively using a Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV). The utility of the dynamic culture device is demonstrated by culturing cellular constructs in the presence of 200-Hz sinusoidal vibrations with a mid-membrane displacement of 40 µm. Mesenchymal stem cells cultured in the bioreactor respond to the vibratory signals by altering the synthesis and degradation of vocal fold-relevant, extracellular matrix components. The novel bioreactor system presented herein offers an excellent in vitro
platform for studying vibration-induced mechanotransduction and for the engineering of functional vocal fold tissues.
Bioengineering, Issue 90, vocal fold; bioreactor; speaker; silicone membrane; fibrous scaffold; mesenchymal stem cells; vibration; extracellular matrix
Generation and Grafting of Tissue-engineered Vessels in a Mouse Model
Institutions: King's College London BHF Centre.
The construction of vascular conduits is a fundamental strategy for surgical repair of damaged and injured vessels resulting from cardiovascular diseases. The current protocol presents an efficient and reproducible strategy in which functional tissue engineered vessel grafts can be generated using partially induced pluripotent stem cell (PiPSC) from human fibroblasts. We designed a decellularized vessel scaffold bioreactor, which closely mimics the matrix protein structure and blood flow that exists within a native vessel, for seeding of PiPSC-endothelial cells or smooth muscle cells prior to grafting into mice. This approach was demonstrated to be advantageous because immune-deficient mice engrafted with the PiPSC-derived grafts presented with markedly increased survival rate 3 weeks after surgery. This protocol represents a valuable tool for regenerative medicine, tissue engineering and potentially patient-specific cell-therapy in the near future.
Bioengineering, Issue 97, stem cells, partially induced pluripotent stem cells, tissue engineering, bioreactor, vascular differentiation, vessel graft, mouse models
Electrospun Nanofiber Scaffolds with Gradations in Fiber Organization
Institutions: University of Nebraska Medical Center, Marshall University.
The goal of this protocol is to report a simple method for generating nanofiber scaffolds with gradations in fiber organization and test their possible applications in controlling cell morphology/orientation. Nanofiber organization is controlled with a new fabrication apparatus that enables the gradual decrease of fiber organization in a scaffold. Changing the alignment of fibers is achieved through decreasing deposition time of random electrospun fibers on a uniaxially aligned fiber mat. By covering the collector with a moving barrier/mask, along the same axis as fiber deposition, the organizational structure is easily controlled. For tissue engineering purposes, adipose-derived stem cells can be seeded to these scaffolds. Stem cells undergo morphological changes as a result of their position on the varied organizational structure, and can potentially differentiate into different cell types depending on their locations. Additionally, the graded organization of fibers enhances the biomimicry of nanofiber scaffolds so they more closely resemble the natural orientations of collagen nanofibers at tendon-to-bone insertion site compared to traditional scaffolds. Through nanoencapsulation, the gradated fibers also afford the possibility to construct chemical gradients in fiber scaffolds, and thereby further strengthen their potential applications in fast screening of cell-materials interaction and interfacial tissue regeneration. This technique enables the production of continuous gradient scaffolds, but it also can potentially produce fibers in discrete steps by controlling the movement of the moving barrier/mask in a discrete fashion.
Bioengineering, Issue 98, Electrospinning, Nanofiber scaffolds, Gradations, Stem cells, Tissue engineering, Nanoencapsulation
Athymic Rat Model for Evaluation of Engineered Anterior Cruciate Ligament Grafts
Institutions: University of California Los Angeles, University of California Los Angeles.
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is a common ligamentous injury that often requires surgery because the ACL does not heal well without intervention. Current treatment strategies include ligament reconstruction with either autograft or allograft, which each have their associated limitations. Thus, there is interest in designing a tissue-engineered graft for use in ACL reconstruction. We describe the fabrication of an electrospun polymer graft for use in ACL tissue engineering. This polycaprolactone graft is biocompatible, biodegradable, porous, and is comprised of aligned fibers. Because an animal model is necessary to evaluate such a graft, this paper describes an intra-articular athymic rat model of ACL reconstruction that can be used to evaluate engineered grafts, including those seeded with xenogeneic cells. Representative histology and biomechanical testing results at 16 weeks postoperatively are presented, with grafts tested immediately post-implantation and contralateral native ACLs serving as controls. The present study provides a reproducible animal model with which to evaluate tissue engineered ACL grafts, and demonstrates the potential of a regenerative medicine approach to treatment of ACL rupture.
Bioengineering, Issue 97, Anterior cruciate ligament, tissue engineering, animal model, biodegradable scaffold, rat, knee
Engineering 3D Cellularized Collagen Gels for Vascular Tissue Regeneration
Institutions: Laval University, Laval University, Politecnico di Milano, University of Alberta, National Research Council (Canada), University of Western Ontario.
Synthetic materials are known to initiate clinical complications such as inflammation, stenosis, and infections when implanted as vascular substitutes. Collagen has been extensively used for a wide range of biomedical applications and is considered a valid alternative to synthetic materials due to its inherent biocompatibility (i.e.
, low antigenicity, inflammation, and cytotoxic responses). However, the limited mechanical properties and the related low hand-ability of collagen gels have hampered their use as scaffold materials for vascular tissue engineering. Therefore, the rationale behind this work was first to engineer cellularized collagen gels into a tubular-shaped geometry and second to enhance smooth muscle cells driven reorganization of collagen matrix to obtain tissues stiff enough to be handled.
The strategy described here is based on the direct assembling of collagen and smooth muscle cells (construct) in a 3D cylindrical geometry with the use of a molding technique. This process requires a maturation period, during which the constructs are cultured in a bioreactor under static conditions (without applied external dynamic mechanical constraints) for 1 or 2 weeks. The “static bioreactor” provides a monitored and controlled sterile environment (pH, temperature, gas exchange, nutrient supply and waste removal) to the constructs. During culture period, thickness measurements were performed to evaluate the cells-driven remodeling of the collagen matrix, and glucose consumption and lactate production rates were measured to monitor the cells metabolic activity. Finally, mechanical and viscoelastic properties were assessed for the resulting tubular constructs. To this end, specific protocols and a focused know-how (manipulation, gripping, working in hydrated environment, and so on) were developed to characterize the engineered tissues.
Bioengineering, Issue 100, Collagen gel, cell culture, 3D constructs, vascular tissue engineering, bioreactor, mechanical characterization
A Decellularization Methodology for the Production of a Natural Acellular Intestinal Matrix
Institutions: University College London.
Successful tissue engineering involves the combination of scaffolds with appropriate cells in vitro
or in vivo
. Scaffolds may be synthetic, naturally-derived or derived from tissues/organs. The latter are obtained using a technique called decellularization. Decellularization may involve a combination of physical, chemical, and enzymatic methods. The goal of this technique is to remove all cellular traces whilst maintaining the macro- and micro-architecture of the original tissue.
Intestinal tissue engineering has thus far used relatively simple scaffolds that do not replicate the complex architecture of the native organ. The focus of this paper is to describe an efficient decellularization technique for rat small intestine. The isolation of the small intestine so as to ensure the maintenance of a vascular connection is described. The combination of chemical and enzymatic solutions to remove the cells whilst preserving the villus-crypt axis in the luminal aspect of the scaffold is also set out. Finally, assessment of produced scaffolds for appropriate characteristics is discussed.
Bioengineering, Issue 80, Tissue Engineering, Manufactured Materials, Biocompatible Materials, materials fabrication, Decellularization, scaffold, artificial intestine, natural acellular matrix
Self-reporting Scaffolds for 3-Dimensional Cell Culture
Institutions: University of Nottingham, University of Nottingham, University of Nottingham.
Culturing cells in 3D on appropriate scaffolds is thought to better mimic the in vivo
microenvironment and increase cell-cell interactions. The resulting 3D cellular construct can often be more relevant to studying the molecular events and cell-cell interactions than similar experiments studied in 2D. To create effective 3D cultures with high cell viability throughout the scaffold the culture conditions such as oxygen and pH need to be carefully controlled as gradients in analyte concentration can exist throughout the 3D construct. Here we describe the methods of preparing biocompatible pH responsive sol-gel nanosensors and their incorporation into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) electrospun scaffolds along with their subsequent preparation for the culture of mammalian cells. The pH responsive scaffolds can be used as tools to determine microenvironmental pH within a 3D cellular construct. Furthermore, we detail the delivery of pH responsive nanosensors to the intracellular environment of mammalian cells whose growth was supported by electrospun PLGA scaffolds. The cytoplasmic location of the pH responsive nanosensors can be utilized to monitor intracellular pH (pHi) during ongoing experimentation.
Bioengineering, Issue 81, Biocompatible Materials, Nanosensors, scaffold, electrospinning, 3D cell culture, PLGA
Protocol for Relative Hydrodynamic Assessment of Tri-leaflet Polymer Valves
Institutions: Florida International University, University of Florida , University of Florida , Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.
Limitations of currently available prosthetic valves, xenografts, and homografts have prompted a recent resurgence of developments in the area of tri-leaflet polymer valve prostheses. However, identification of a protocol for initial assessment of polymer valve hydrodynamic functionality is paramount during the early stages of the design process. Traditional in vitro
pulse duplicator systems are not configured to accommodate flexible tri-leaflet materials; in addition, assessment of polymer valve functionality needs to be made in a relative context to native and prosthetic heart valves under identical test conditions so that variability in measurements from different instruments can be avoided. Accordingly, we conducted hydrodynamic assessment of i) native (n = 4, mean diameter, D = 20 mm), ii) bi-leaflet mechanical (n= 2, D = 23 mm) and iii) polymer valves (n = 5, D = 22 mm) via the use of a commercially available pulse duplicator system (ViVitro Labs Inc, Victoria, BC) that was modified to accommodate tri-leaflet valve geometries. Tri-leaflet silicone valves developed at the University of Florida comprised the polymer valve group. A mixture in the ratio of 35:65 glycerin to water was used to mimic blood physical properties. Instantaneous flow rate was measured at the interface of the left ventricle and aortic units while pressure was recorded at the ventricular and aortic positions. Bi-leaflet and native valve data from the literature was used to validate flow and pressure readings. The following hydrodynamic metrics were reported: forward flow pressure drop, aortic root mean square forward flow rate, aortic closing, leakage and regurgitant volume, transaortic closing, leakage, and total energy losses. Representative results indicated that hydrodynamic metrics from the three valve groups could be successfully obtained by incorporating a custom-built assembly into a commercially available pulse duplicator system and subsequently, objectively compared to provide insights on functional aspects of polymer valve design.
Bioengineering, Issue 80, Cardiovascular Diseases, Circulatory and Respiratory Physiological Phenomena, Fluid Mechanics and Thermodynamics, Mechanical Engineering, valve disease, valve replacement, polymer valves, pulse duplicator, modification, tri-leaflet geometries, hydrodynamic studies, relative assessment, medicine, bioengineering, physiology
Laser Microdissection Applied to Gene Expression Profiling of Subset of Cells from the Drosophila Wing Disc
Institutions: University of Naples.
Heterogeneous nature of tissues has proven to be a limiting factor in the amount of information that can be generated from biological samples, compromising downstream analyses. Considering the complex and dynamic cellular associations existing within many tissues, in order to recapitulate the in vivo
interactions thorough molecular analysis one must be able to analyze specific cell populations within their native context. Laser-mediated microdissection can achieve this goal, allowing unambiguous identification and successful harvest of cells of interest under direct microscopic visualization while maintaining molecular integrity. We have applied this technology to analyse gene expression within defined areas of the developing Drosophila
wing disc, which represents an advantageous model system to study growth control, cell differentiation and organogenesis. Larval imaginal discs are precociously subdivided into anterior and posterior, dorsal and ventral compartments by lineage restriction boundaries. Making use of the inducible GAL4-UAS binary expression system, each of these compartments can be specifically labelled in transgenic flies expressing an UAS-GFP transgene under the control of the appropriate GAL4-driver construct. In the transgenic discs, gene expression profiling of discrete subsets of cells can precisely be determined after laser-mediated microdissection, using the fluorescent GFP signal to guide laser cut.
Among the variety of downstream applications, we focused on RNA transcript profiling after localised RNA interference (RNAi). With the advent of RNAi technology, GFP labelling can be coupled with localised knockdown of a given gene, allowing to determinate the transcriptional response of a discrete cell population to the specific gene silencing. To validate this approach, we dissected equivalent areas of the disc from the posterior (labelled by GFP expression), and the anterior (unlabelled) compartment upon regional silencing in the P compartment of an otherwise ubiquitously expressed gene. RNA was extracted from microdissected silenced and unsilenced areas and comparative gene expression profiling determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. We show that this method can effectively be applied for accurate transcriptomics of subsets of cells within the Drosophila
imaginal discs. Indeed, while massive disc preparation as source of RNA generally assumes cell homogeneity, it is well known that transcriptional expression can vary greatly within these structures in consequence of positional information. Using localized fluorescent GFP signal to guide laser cut, more accurate transcriptional analyses can be performed and profitably applied to disparate applications, including transcript profiling of distinct cell lineages within their native context.
Developmental Biology, Issue 38, Drosophila, Imaginal discs, Laser microdissection, Gene expression, Transcription profiling, Regulatory pathways , in vivo RNAi, GAL4-UAS, GFP labelling, Positional information
Tri-layered Electrospinning to Mimic Native Arterial Architecture using Polycaprolactone, Elastin, and Collagen: A Preliminary Study
Institutions: Virginia Commonwealth University, Virginia Commonwealth University, University Hospital of Geneva.
Throughout native artery, collagen and elastin play an important role, providing a mechanical backbone, preventing vessel rupture, and promoting recovery under pulsatile deformations. The goal of this study was to mimic the structure of native artery by fabricating a multi-layered electrospun conduit composed of poly(caprolactone) (PCL) with the addition of elastin and collagen with blends of 45-45-10, 55-35-10, and 65-25-10 PCL-ELAS-COL to demonstrate mechanical properties indicative of native arterial tissue, while remaining conducive to tissue regeneration. Whole grafts and individual layers were analyzed using uniaxial tensile testing, dynamic compliance, suture retention, and burst strength. Compliance results revealed that changes to the middle/medial layer changed overall graft behavior with whole graft compliance values ranging from 0.8 - 2.8 % / 100 mmHg, while uniaxial results demonstrated an average modulus range of 2.0 - 11.8 MPa. Both modulus and compliance data displayed values within the range of native artery. Mathematical modeling was implemented to show how changes in layer stiffness affect the overall circumferential wall stress, and as a design aid to achieve the best mechanical combination of materials. Overall, the results indicated that a graft can be designed to mimic a tri-layered structure by altering layer properties.
Bioengineering, Issue 47, Electrospinning, Vascular Graft, Multilayer, Polycaprolactone, Elastin
Decellularization and Recellularization of Whole Livers
Institutions: Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Shriners Hospitals for Children.
The liver is a complex organ which requires constant perfusion for delivery of nutrients and oxygen and removal of waste in order to survive1
. Efforts to recreate or mimic the liver microstructure with grounds up approach using tissue engineering and microfabrication techniques have not been successful so far due to this design challenge. In addition, synthetic biomaterials used to create scaffolds for liver tissue engineering applications have been limited in inducing tissue regeneration and repair in large part due to the lack of specific cell binding motifs that would induce the proper cell functions2
. Decellularized native tissues such blood vessels3
on the other hand have found many applications in tissue engineering, and have provided a practical solution to some of the challenges. The advantage of decellularized native matrix is that it retains, to an extent, the original composition, and the microstructure, hence enhancing cell attachment and reorganization5
In this work we describe the methods to perform perfusion-decellularization of the liver, such that an intact liver bioscaffold that retains the structure of major blood vessels is obtained. Further, we describe methods to recellularize these bioscaffolds with adult primary hepatocytes, creating a liver graft that is functional in vitro
, and has the vessel access necessary for transplantation in vivo
Bioengineering, Issue 48, Liver extracellular matrix, decellularization, recellularization, hepatocytes, bioreactor
Engineering Biological-Based Vascular Grafts Using a Pulsatile Bioreactor
Institutions: Yale University, Yale University School of Medicine .
Much effort has been devoted to develop and advance the methodology to regenerate functional small-diameter arterial bypasses. In the physiological environment, both mechanical and chemical stimulation are required to maintain the proper development and functionality of arterial vessels1,2
Bioreactor culture systems developed by our group are designed to support vessel regeneration within a precisely controlled chemo-mechanical
environment mimicking that of native vessels. Our bioreactor assembly and maintenance procedures are fairly simple and highly repeatable3,4
. Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are seeded onto a tubular polyglycolic acid (PGA) mesh that is threaded over compliant silicone tubing and cultured in the bioreactor with or without pulsatile stimulation for up to 12 weeks. There are four main attributes that distinguish our bioreactor from some predecessors. 1) Unlike other culture systems that simulate only the biochemical surrounding of native blood vessels, our bioreactor also creates a physiological pulsatile environment by applying cyclic radial strain to the vessels in culture. 2) Multiple engineered vessels can be cultured simultaneously under different mechanical conditions within a controlled chemical environment. 3) The bioreactor allows a mono layer of endothelial cells (EC) to be easily coated onto the luminal side of engineered vessels for animal implantation models. 4) Our bioreactor can also culture engineered vessels with different diameter size ranged from 1 mm to 3 mm, saving the effort to tailor each individual bioreactor to fit a specific diameter size.
The engineered vessels cultured in our bioreactor resemble native blood vessels histologically to some degree. Cells in the vessel walls express mature SMC contractile markers such as smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SMMHC)3
. A substantial amount of collagen is deposited within the extracellular matrix, which is responsible for ultimate mechanical strength of the engineered vessels5
. Biochemical analysis also indicates that collagen content of engineered vessels is comparable to that of native arteries6
. Importantly, the pulsatile bioreactor has consistently regenerated vessels that exhibit mechanical properties that permit successful implantation experiments in animal models3,7
. Additionally, this bioreactor can be further modified to allow real-time assessment and tracking of collagen remodeling over time, non-invasively, using a non-linear optical microscopy (NLOM)8
. To conclude, this bioreactor should serve as an excellent platform to study the fundamental mechanisms that regulate the regeneration of functional small-diameter vascular grafts.
Bioengineering, Issue 52, bioreactor, vascular grafts, blood vessel, engineered vessel, smooth muscle cells
Procedure for Lung Engineering
Institutions: Yale University, Duke University, Yale University.
Lung tissue, including lung cancer and chronic lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cumulatively account for some 280,000 deaths annually; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is currently the fourth leading cause of death in the United States1
. Contributing to this mortality is the fact that lungs do not generally repair or regenerate beyond the microscopic, cellular level. Therefore, lung tissue that is damaged by degeneration or infection, or lung tissue that is surgically resected is not functionally replaced in vivo
. To explore whether lung tissue can be generated in vitro
, we treated lungs from adult rats using a procedure that removes cellular components to produce an acellular lung extracellular matrix scaffold. This scaffold retains the hierarchical branching structures of airways and vasculature, as well as a largely intact basement membrane, which comprises collagen IV, laminin, and fibronectin. The scaffold is mounted in a bioreactor designed to mimic critical aspects of lung physiology, such as negative pressure ventilation and pulsatile vascular perfusion. By culturing pulmonary epithelium and vascular endothelium within the bioreactor-mounted scaffold, we are able to generate lung tissue that is phenotypically comparable to native lung tissue and that is able to participate in gas exchange for short time intervals (45-120 minutes). These results are encouraging, and suggest that repopulation of lung matrix is a viable strategy for lung regeneration. This possibility presents an opportunity not only to work toward increasing the supply of lung tissue for transplantation, but also to study respiratory cell and molecular biology in vitro
for longer time periods and in a more accurate microenvironment than has previously been possible.
Bioengineering, Issue 49, Decellularization, tissue engineering, lung engineering, lung tissue, extracellular matrix
Elastomeric PGS Scaffolds in Arterial Tissue Engineering
Institutions: University of Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh.
Cardiovascular disease is one of the leading cause of mortality in the US and especially, coronary artery disease increases with an aging population and increasing obesity1
. Currently, bypass surgery using autologous vessels, allografts, and synthetic grafts are known as a commonly used for arterial substitutes2
. However, these grafts have limited applications when an inner diameter of arteries is less than 6 mm due to low availability, thrombotic complications, compliance mismatch, and late intimal hyperplasia3,4
. To overcome these limitations, tissue engineering has been successfully applied as a promising alternative to develop small-diameter arterial constructs that are nonthrombogenic, robust, and compliant. Several previous studies have developed small-diameter arterial constructs with tri-lamellar structure, excellent mechanical properties and burst pressure comparable to native arteries5,6
. While high tensile strength and burst pressure by increasing collagen production from a rigid material or cell sheet scaffold, these constructs still had low elastin production and compliance, which is a major problem to cause graft failure after implantation. Considering these issues, we hypothesized that an elastometric biomaterial combined with mechanical conditioning would provide elasticity and conduct mechanical signals more efficiently to vascular cells, which increase extracellular matrix production and support cellular orientation.
The objective of this report is to introduce a fabrication technique of porous tubular scaffolds and a dynamic mechanical conditioning for applying them to arterial tissue engineering. We used a biodegradable elastomer, poly (glycerol sebacate) (PGS)7
for fabricating porous tubular scaffolds from the salt fusion method. Adult primary baboon smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were seeded on the lumen of scaffolds, which cultured in our designed pulsatile flow bioreactor for 3 weeks. PGS scaffolds had consistent thickness and randomly distributed macro- and micro-pores. Mechanical conditioning from pulsatile flow bioreactor supported SMC orientation and enhanced ECM production in scaffolds. These results suggest that elastomeric scaffolds and mechanical conditioning of bioreactor culture may be a promising method for arterial tissue engineering.
Bioengineering, Issue 50, blood vessel, tissue engineering, bioreactor, smooth muscle cell
Postproduction Processing of Electrospun Fibres for Tissue Engineering
Institutions: University of Sheffield , University of Sheffield , University of Sheffield .
Electrospinning is a commonly used and versatile method to produce scaffolds (often biodegradable) for 3D tissue engineering.1, 2, 3
Many tissues in vivo
undergo biaxial distension to varying extents such as skin, bladder, pelvic floor and even the hard palate as children grow. In producing scaffolds for these purposes there is a need to develop scaffolds of appropriate biomechanical properties (whether achieved without or with cells) and which are sterile for clinical use. The focus of this paper is not how to establish basic electrospinning parameters (as there is extensive literature on electrospinning) but on how to modify spun scaffolds post production to make them fit for tissue engineering purposes - here thickness, mechanical properties and sterilisation (required for clinical use) are considered and we also describe how cells can be cultured on scaffolds and subjected to biaxial strain to condition them for specific applications.
Electrospinning tends to produce thin sheets; as the electrospinning collector becomes coated with insulating fibres it becomes a poor conductor such that fibres no longer deposit on it. Hence we describe approaches to produce thicker structures by heat or vapour annealing increasing the strength of scaffolds but not necessarily the elasticity. Sequential spinning of scaffolds of different polymers to achieve complex scaffolds is also described. Sterilisation methodologies can adversely affect strength and elasticity of scaffolds. We compare three methods for their effects on the biomechanical properties on electrospun scaffolds of poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA).
Imaging of cells on scaffolds and assessment of production of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins by cells on scaffolds is described. Culturing cells on scaffolds in vitro
can improve scaffold strength and elasticity but the tissue engineering literature shows that cells often fail to produce appropriate ECM when cultured under static conditions. There are few commercial systems available that allow one to culture cells on scaffolds under dynamic conditioning regimes - one example is the Bose Electroforce 3100 which can be used to exert a conditioning programme on cells in scaffolds held using mechanical grips within a media filled chamber.4
An approach to a budget cell culture bioreactor for controlled distortion in 2 dimensions is described. We show that cells can be induced to produce elastin under these conditions. Finally assessment of the biomechanical properties of processed scaffolds cultured with or without cells is described.
Bioengineering, Issue 66, Materials Science, Biomedical Engineering, Tissue Engineering, Medicine, Chemistry, Electrospinning, bilayer, biaxial distension, heat and vapour annealing, mechanical testing, fibres
Capillary Force Lithography for Cardiac Tissue Engineering
Institutions: University of Washington, University of Washington.
Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death worldwide1
. Cardiac tissue engineering holds much promise to deliver groundbreaking medical discoveries with the aims of developing functional tissues for cardiac regeneration as well as in vitro
screening assays. However, the ability to create high-fidelity models of heart tissue has proven difficult. The heart’s extracellular matrix (ECM) is a complex structure consisting of both biochemical and biomechanical signals ranging from the micro- to the nanometer scale2
. Local mechanical loading conditions and cell-ECM interactions have recently been recognized as vital components in cardiac tissue engineering3-5
A large portion of the cardiac ECM is composed of aligned collagen fibers with nano-scale diameters that significantly influences tissue architecture and electromechanical coupling2
. Unfortunately, few methods have been able to mimic the organization of ECM fibers down to the nanometer scale. Recent advancements in nanofabrication techniques, however, have enabled the design and fabrication of scalable scaffolds that mimic the in vivo
structural and substrate stiffness cues of the ECM in the heart6-9
Here we present the development of two reproducible, cost-effective, and scalable nanopatterning processes for the functional alignment of cardiac cells using the biocompatible polymer poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)8
and a polyurethane (PU) based polymer. These anisotropically nanofabricated substrata (ANFS) mimic the underlying ECM of well-organized, aligned tissues and can be used to investigate the role of nanotopography on cell morphology and function10-14
Using a nanopatterned (NP) silicon master as a template, a polyurethane acrylate (PUA) mold is fabricated. This PUA mold is then used to pattern the PU or PLGA hydrogel via UV-assisted or solvent-mediated capillary force lithography (CFL), respectively15,16
. Briefly, PU or PLGA pre-polymer is drop dispensed onto a glass coverslip and the PUA mold is placed on top. For UV-assisted CFL, the PU is then exposed to UV radiation (λ = 250-400 nm) for curing. For solvent-mediated CFL, the PLGA is embossed using heat (120 °C) and pressure (100 kPa). After curing, the PUA mold is peeled off, leaving behind an ANFS for cell culture. Primary cells, such as neonatal rat ventricular myocytes, as well as human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes, can be maintained on the ANFS2
Bioengineering, Issue 88, Nanotopography, Anisotropic, Nanofabrication, Cell Culture, Cardiac Tissue Engineering
A Novel RFP Reporter to Aid in the Visualization of the Eye Imaginal Disc in Drosophila
Institutions: King's College London.
eye is a powerful model system for studying areas such as neurogenesis, signal transduction and neurodegeneration. Many of the discoveries made using this system have taken advantage of the spatiotemporal nature of photoreceptor differentiation in the developing eye imaginal disc. To use this system it is first necessary for the researcher to learn to identify and dissect the eye disc. We describe a novel RFP reporter to aid in the identification of the eye disc and the visualization of specific cell types in the developing eye. We detail a methodology for dissection of the eye imaginal disc from third instar larvae and describe how the eye-RFP reporter can aid in this dissection. This eye-RFP reporter is only expressed in the eye and can be visualized using fluorescence microscopy either in live tissue or after fixation without the need for signal amplification. We also show how this reporter can be used to identify specific cells types within the eye disc. This protocol and the use of the eye-RFP reporter will aid researchers using the Drosophila
eye to address fundamentally important biological questions.
Cellular Biology, Issue 34, fluorescence microscopy, Drosophila, eye, RFP, dissection, imaginal disc