Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) is a biocompatible member of the aliphatic polyester family of biodegradable polymers. PLGA has long been a popular choice for drug delivery applications, particularly since it is already FDA-approved for use in humans in the form of resorbable sutures. Hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs are encapsulated in PLGA particles via single- or double-emulsion. Briefly, the drug is dissolved with polymer or emulsified with polymer in an organic phase that is then emulsified with the aqueous phase. After the solvent has evaporated, particles are washed and collected via centrifugation for lyophilization and long term storage. PLGA degrades slowly via hydrolysis in aqueous environments, and encapsulated agents are released over a period of weeks to months. Although PLGA is a material that possesses many advantages for drug delivery, reproducible formation of nanoparticles can be challenging; considerable variability is introduced by the use of different equipment, reagents batch, and precise method of emulsification. Here, we describe in great detail the formation and characterization of microparticles and nanoparticles formed by single- or double-emulsion using the emulsifying agent vitamin E-TPGS. Particle morphology and size are determined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We provide representative SEM images for nanoparticles produced with varying emulsifier concentration, as well as examples of imaging artifacts and failed emulsifications. This protocol can be readily adapted to use alternative emulsifiers (e.g. poly(vinyl alcohol), PVA) or solvents (e.g. dichloromethane, DCM).
21 Related JoVE Articles!
Formulation of Diblock Polymeric Nanoparticles through Nanoprecipitation Technique
Institutions: University of North Carolina School of Medicine, University of North Carolina .
Nanotechnology is a relatively new branch of science that involves harnessing the unique properties of particles that are nanometers in scale (nanoparticles). Nanoparticles can be engineered in a precise fashion where their size, composition and surface chemistry can be carefully controlled. This enables unprecedented freedom to modify some of the fundamental properties of their cargo, such as solubility, diffusivity, biodistribution, release characteristics and immunogenicity. Since their inception, nanoparticles have been utilized in many areas of science and medicine, including drug delivery, imaging, and cell biology1-4
. However, it has not been fully utilized outside of "nanotechnology laboratories" due to perceived technical barrier. In this article, we describe a simple method to synthesize a polymer based nanoparticle platform that has a wide range of potential applications.
The first step is to synthesize a diblock co-polymer that has both a hydrophobic domain and hydrophilic domain. Using PLGA and PEG as model polymers, we described a conjugation reaction using EDC/NHS chemistry5
(Fig 1). We also discuss the polymer purification process. The synthesized diblock co-polymer can self-assemble into nanoparticles in the nanoprecipitation process through hydrophobic-hydrophilic interactions.
The described polymer nanoparticle is very versatile. The hydrophobic core of the nanoparticle can be utilized to carry poorly soluble drugs for drug delivery experiments6. Furthermore, the nanoparticles can overcome the problem of toxic solvents for poorly soluble molecular biology reagents, such as wortmannin, which requires a solvent like DMSO. However, DMSO can be toxic to cells and interfere with the experiment. These poorly soluble drugs and reagents can be effectively delivered using polymer nanoparticles with minimal toxicity. Polymer nanoparticles can also be loaded with fluorescent dye and utilized for intracellular trafficking studies. Lastly, these polymer nanoparticles can be conjugated to targeting ligands through surface PEG. Such targeted nanoparticles can be utilized to label specific epitopes on or in cells7-10
Bioengineering, Issue 55, Nanoparticles, nanomedicine, drug delivery, polymeric micelles, polymeric nanoparticles, diblock co-polymers, nanoplatform, nanoparticle molecular imaging, polymer conjugation.
A Technique to Functionalize and Self-assemble Macroscopic Nanoparticle-ligand Monolayer Films onto Template-free Substrates
Institutions: Naval Research Laboratory.
This protocol describes a self-assembly technique to create macroscopic monolayer films composed of ligand-coated nanoparticles1,2
. The simple, robust and scalable technique efficiently functionalizes metallic nanoparticles with thiol-ligands in a miscible water/organic solvent mixture allowing for rapid grafting of thiol groups onto the gold nanoparticle surface. The hydrophobic ligands on the nanoparticles then quickly phase separate the nanoparticles from the aqueous based suspension and confine them to the air-fluid interface. This drives the ligand-capped nanoparticles to form monolayer domains at the air-fluid interface. The use of water-miscible organic solvents is important as it enables the transport of the nanoparticles from the interface onto template-free substrates. The flow is mediated by a surface tension gradient3,4
and creates macroscopic, high-density, monolayer nanoparticle-ligand films. This self-assembly technique may be generalized to include the use of particles of different compositions, size, and shape and may lead to an efficient assembly method to produce low-cost, macroscopic, high-density, monolayer nanoparticle films for wide-spread applications.
Chemistry, Issue 87, phase transfer, nanoparticle, self-assembly, bottom-up, fabrication, low-cost, monolayer, thin film, nanostructure, array, metamaterial
In Situ SIMS and IR Spectroscopy of Well-defined Surfaces Prepared by Soft Landing of Mass-selected Ions
Institutions: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.
Soft landing of mass-selected ions onto surfaces is a powerful approach for the highly-controlled preparation of materials that are inaccessible using conventional synthesis techniques. Coupling soft landing with in situ
characterization using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (IRRAS) enables analysis of well-defined surfaces under clean vacuum conditions. The capabilities of three soft-landing instruments constructed in our laboratory are illustrated for the representative system of surface-bound organometallics prepared by soft landing of mass-selected ruthenium tris(bipyridine) dications, [Ru(bpy)3
(bpy = bipyridine), onto carboxylic acid terminated self-assembled monolayer surfaces on gold (COOH-SAMs). In situ
time-of-flight (TOF)-SIMS provides insight into the reactivity of the soft-landed ions. In addition, the kinetics of charge reduction, neutralization and desorption occurring on the COOH-SAM both during and after ion soft landing are studied using in situ
Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR)-SIMS measurements. In situ
IRRAS experiments provide insight into how the structure of organic ligands surrounding metal centers is perturbed through immobilization of organometallic ions on COOH-SAM surfaces by soft landing. Collectively, the three instruments provide complementary information about the chemical composition, reactivity and structure of well-defined species supported on surfaces.
Chemistry, Issue 88, soft landing, mass selected ions, electrospray, secondary ion mass spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, organometallic, catalysis
Electrospinning Growth Factor Releasing Microspheres into Fibrous Scaffolds
Institutions: Wayne State University.
This procedure describes a method to fabricate a multifaceted substrate to direct nerve cell growth. This system incorporates mechanical, topographical, adhesive and chemical signals. Mechanical properties are controlled by the type of material used to fabricate the electrospun fibers. In this protocol we use 30% methacrylated Hyaluronic Acid (HA), which has a tensile modulus of ~500 Pa, to produce a soft fibrous scaffold. Electrospinning on to a rotating mandrel produces aligned fibers to create a topographical cue. Adhesion is achieved by coating the scaffold with fibronectin. The primary challenge addressed herein is providing a chemical signal throughout the depth of the scaffold for extended periods. This procedure describes fabricating poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres that contain Nerve Growth Factor (NGF) and directly impregnating the scaffold with these microspheres during the electrospinning process. Due to the harsh production environment, including high sheer forces and electrical charges, protein viability is measured after production. The system provides protein release for over 60 days and has been shown to promote primary nerve cell growth.
Bioengineering, Issue 90, Electrospinning, Hyaluronic Acid, PLGA, Microspheres, Controlled Release, Neural Tissue Engineering, Directed Cell Migration
Combination of Microstereolithography and Electrospinning to Produce Membranes Equipped with Niches for Corneal Regeneration
Institutions: University of Sheffield, University of Sheffield, L. V. Prasad Eye Institute.
Corneal problems affect millions of people worldwide reducing their quality of life significantly. Corneal disease can be caused by illnesses such as Aniridia or Steven Johnson Syndrome as well as by external factors such as chemical burns or radiation. Current treatments are (i) the use of corneal grafts and (ii) the use of stem cell expanded in the laboratory and delivered on carriers (e.g.
, amniotic membrane); these treatments are relatively successful but unfortunately they can fail after 3-5 years. There is a need to design and manufacture new corneal biomaterial devices able to mimic in detail the physiological environment where stem cells reside in the cornea. Limbal stem cells are located in the limbus (circular area between cornea and sclera) in specific niches known as the Palisades of Vogt. In this work we have developed a new platform technology which combines two cutting-edge manufacturing techniques (microstereolithography and electrospinning) for the fabrication of corneal membranes that mimic to a certain extent the limbus. Our membranes contain artificial micropockets which aim to provide cells with protection as the Palisades of Vogt do in the eye.
Bioengineering, Issue 91, electrospinning, microstereolithography, stem cell niche, storage, limbal explants
Porous Silicon Microparticles for Delivery of siRNA Therapeutics
Institutions: Houston Methodist Research Institute, Sun Yat-sen University, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, National Center for Nanoscience & Technology of China, Weill Cornell Medical College, Weill Cornell Medical College.
Small interfering RNA (siRNA) can be used to suppress gene expression, thereby providing a new avenue for the treatment of various diseases. However, the successful implementation of siRNA therapy requires the use of delivery platforms that can overcome the major challenges of siRNA delivery, such as enzymatic degradation, low intracellular uptake and lysosomal entrapment. Here, a protocol for the preparation and use of a biocompatible and effective siRNA delivery system is presented. This platform consists of polyethylenimine (PEI) and arginine (Arg)-grafted porous silicon microparticles, which can be loaded with siRNA by performing a simple mixing step. The silicon particles are gradually degraded over time, thereby triggering the formation of Arg-PEI/siRNA nanoparticles. This delivery vehicle provides a means for protecting and internalizing siRNA, without causing cytotoxicity. The major steps of polycation functionalization, particle characterization, and siRNA loading are outlined in detail. In addition, the procedures for determining particle uptake, cytotoxicity, and transfection efficacy are also described.
Bioengineering, Issue 95, Porous silicon, siRNA, Nanodelivery system, Cancer therapy, Transfection, Polycation functionalization
Fluorescence-quenching of a Liposomal-encapsulated Near-infrared Fluorophore as a Tool for In Vivo Optical Imaging
Institutions: Jena University Hospital, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Jena University Hospital.
Optical imaging offers a wide range of diagnostic modalities and has attracted a lot of interest as a tool for biomedical imaging. Despite the enormous number of imaging techniques currently available and the progress in instrumentation, there is still a need for highly sensitive probes that are suitable for in vivo
imaging. One typical problem of available preclinical fluorescent probes is their rapid clearance in vivo
, which reduces their imaging sensitivity. To circumvent rapid clearance, increase number of dye molecules at the target site, and thereby reduce background autofluorescence, encapsulation of the near-infrared fluorescent dye, DY-676-COOH in liposomes and verification of its potential for in vivo
imaging of inflammation was done. DY-676 is known for its ability to self-quench at high concentrations. We first determined the concentration suitable for self-quenching, and then encapsulated this quenching concentration into the aqueous interior of PEGylated liposomes. To substantiate the quenching and activation potential of the liposomes we use a harsh freezing method which leads to damage of liposomal membranes without affecting the encapsulated dye. The liposomes characterized by a high level of fluorescence quenching were termed Lip-Q. We show by experiments with different cell lines that uptake of Lip-Q is predominantly by phagocytosis which in turn enabled the characterization of its potential as a tool for in vivo
imaging of inflammation in mice models. Furthermore, we use a zymosan-induced edema model in mice to substantiate the potential of Lip-Q in optical imaging of inflammation in vivo
. Considering possible uptake due to inflammation-induced enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, an always-on liposome formulation with low, non-quenched concentration of DY-676-COOH (termed Lip-dQ) and the free DY-676-COOH were compared with Lip-Q in animal trials.
Bioengineering, Issue 95, Drug-delivery, Liposomes, Fluorochromes, Fluorescence-quenching, Optical imaging, Inflammation
Preparation and Characterization of SDF-1α-Chitosan-Dextran Sulfate Nanoparticles
Institutions: Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston Children's Hospital.
Chitosan (CS) and dextran sulfate (DS) are charged polysaccharides (glycans), which form polyelectrolyte complex-based nanoparticles when mixed under appropriate conditions. The glycan nanoparticles are useful carriers for protein factors, which facilitate the in vivo
delivery of the proteins and sustain their retention in the targeted tissue. The glycan polyelectrolyte complexes are also ideal for protein delivery, as the incorporation is carried out in aqueous solution, which reduces the likelihood of inactivation of the proteins. Proteins with a heparin-binding site adhere to dextran sulfate readily, and are, in turn, stabilized by the binding. These particles are also less inflammatory and toxic when delivered in vivo
. In the protocol described below, SDF-1α (Stromal cell-derived factor-1α), a stem cell homing factor, is first mixed and incubated with dextran sulfate. Chitosan is added to the mixture to form polyelectrolyte complexes, followed by zinc sulfate to stabilize the complexes with zinc bridges. The resultant SDF-1α-DS-CS particles are measured for size (diameter) and surface charge (zeta potential). The amount of the incorporated SDF-1α is determined, followed by measurements of its in vitro
release rate and its chemotactic activity in a particle-bound form.
Chemistry, Issue 95, Dextran sulfate, chitosan, glycan, SDF-1α, nanoparticle, polyelectrolyte complex
Biofunctionalized Prussian Blue Nanoparticles for Multimodal Molecular Imaging Applications
Institutions: Children's National Medical Center, University of Maryland, George Washington University, George Washington University.
Multimodal, molecular imaging allows the visualization of biological processes at cellular, subcellular, and molecular-level resolutions using multiple, complementary imaging techniques. These imaging agents facilitate the real-time assessment of pathways and mechanisms in vivo
, which enhance both diagnostic and therapeutic efficacy. This article presents the protocol for the synthesis of biofunctionalized Prussian blue nanoparticles (PB NPs) - a novel class of agents for use in multimodal, molecular imaging applications. The imaging modalities incorporated in the nanoparticles, fluorescence imaging and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), have complementary features. The PB NPs possess a core-shell design where gadolinium and manganese ions incorporated within the interstitial spaces of the PB lattice generate MRI contrast, both in T1
-weighted sequences. The PB NPs are coated with fluorescent avidin using electrostatic self-assembly, which enables fluorescence imaging. The avidin-coated nanoparticles are modified with biotinylated ligands that confer molecular targeting capabilities to the nanoparticles. The stability and toxicity of the nanoparticles are measured, as well as their MRI relaxivities. The multimodal, molecular imaging capabilities of these biofunctionalized PB NPs are then demonstrated by using them for fluorescence imaging and molecular MRI in vitro
Bioengineering, Issue 98, Prussian blue, nanoparticles, multimodal imaging, molecular imaging, fluorescence, magnetic resonance imaging, gadolinium, manganese
Contrast Ultrasound Targeted Treatment of Gliomas in Mice via Drug-Bearing Nanoparticle Delivery and Microvascular Ablation
Institutions: University of Virginia , University of Virginia.
We are developing minimally-invasive contrast agent microbubble based therapeutic approaches in which the permeabilization and/or ablation of the microvasculature are controlled by varying ultrasound pulsing parameters. Specifically, we are testing whether such approaches may be used to treat malignant brain tumors through drug delivery and microvascular ablation. Preliminary studies have been performed to determine whether targeted drug-bearing nanoparticle delivery can be facilitated by the ultrasound mediated destruction of "composite" delivery agents comprised of 100nm poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLAGA) nanoparticles that are adhered to albumin shelled microbubbles. We denote these agents as microbubble-nanoparticle composite agents (MNCAs). When targeted to subcutaneous C6 gliomas with ultrasound, we observed an immediate 4.6-fold increase in nanoparticle delivery in MNCA treated tumors over tumors treated with microbubbles co-administered with nanoparticles and a 8.5 fold increase over non-treated tumors. Furthermore, in many cancer applications, we believe it may be desirable to perform targeted drug delivery in conjunction with ablation of the tumor microcirculation, which will lead to tumor hypoxia and apoptosis. To this end, we have tested the efficacy of non-theramal cavitation-induced microvascular ablation, showing that this approach elicits tumor perfusion reduction, apoptosis, significant growth inhibition, and necrosis. Taken together, these results indicate that our ultrasound-targeted approach has the potential to increase therapeutic efficiency by creating tumor necrosis through microvascular ablation and/or simultaneously enhancing the drug payload in gliomas.
Medicine, Issue 46, microbubbles, targeted drug delivery, nanoparticles, ultrasound
Intra-lymph Node Injection of Biodegradable Polymer Particles
Institutions: University of Maryland, College Park.
Generation of adaptive immune response relies on efficient drainage or trafficking of antigen to lymph nodes for processing and presentation of these foreign molecules to T and B lymphocytes. Lymph nodes have thus become critical targets for new vaccines and immunotherapies. A recent strategy for targeting these tissues is direct lymph node injection of soluble vaccine components, and clinical trials involving this technique have been promising. Several biomaterial strategies have also been investigated to improve lymph node targeting, for example, tuning particle size for optimal drainage of biomaterial vaccine particles. In this paper we present a new method that combines direct lymph node injection with biodegradable polymer particles that can be laden with antigen, adjuvant, or other vaccine components. In this method polymeric microparticles or nanoparticles are synthesized by a modified double emulsion protocol incorporating lipid stabilizers. Particle properties (e.g.
size, cargo loading) are confirmed by laser diffraction and fluorescent microscopy, respectively. Mouse lymph nodes are then identified by peripheral injection of a nontoxic tracer dye that allows visualization of the target injection site and subsequent deposition of polymer particles in lymph nodes. This technique allows direct control over the doses and combinations of biomaterials and vaccine components delivered to lymph nodes and could be harnessed in the development of new biomaterial-based vaccines.
Bioengineering, Issue 83, biomaterial, immunology, microparticle, nanoparticle, vaccine, adjuvant, lymph node, targeting, polymer
Models and Methods to Evaluate Transport of Drug Delivery Systems Across Cellular Barriers
Institutions: University of Maryland, University of Maryland.
Sub-micrometer carriers (nanocarriers; NCs) enhance efficacy of drugs by improving solubility, stability, circulation time, targeting, and release. Additionally, traversing cellular barriers in the body is crucial for both oral delivery of therapeutic NCs into the circulation and transport from the blood into tissues, where intervention is needed. NC transport across cellular barriers is achieved by: (i) the paracellular route, via transient disruption of the junctions that interlock adjacent cells, or (ii) the transcellular route, where materials are internalized by endocytosis, transported across the cell body, and secreted at the opposite cell surface (transyctosis). Delivery across cellular barriers can be facilitated by coupling therapeutics or their carriers with targeting agents that bind specifically to cell-surface markers involved in transport. Here, we provide methods to measure the extent and mechanism of NC transport across a model cell barrier, which consists of a monolayer of gastrointestinal (GI) epithelial cells grown on a porous membrane located in a transwell insert. Formation of a permeability barrier is confirmed by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER), transepithelial transport of a control substance, and immunostaining of tight junctions. As an example, ~200 nm polymer NCs are used, which carry a therapeutic cargo and are coated with an antibody that targets a cell-surface determinant. The antibody or therapeutic cargo is labeled with 125
I for radioisotope tracing and labeled NCs are added to the upper chamber over the cell monolayer for varying periods of time. NCs associated to the cells and/or transported to the underlying chamber can be detected. Measurement of free 125
I allows subtraction of the degraded fraction. The paracellular route is assessed by determining potential changes caused by NC transport to the barrier parameters described above. Transcellular transport is determined by addressing the effect of modulating endocytosis and transcytosis pathways.
Bioengineering, Issue 80, Antigens, Enzymes, Biological Therapy, bioengineering (general), Pharmaceutical Preparations, Macromolecular Substances, Therapeutics, Digestive System and Oral Physiological Phenomena, Biological Phenomena, Cell Physiological Phenomena, drug delivery systems, targeted nanocarriers, transcellular transport, epithelial cells, tight junctions, transepithelial electrical resistance, endocytosis, transcytosis, radioisotope tracing, immunostaining
Methods Development for Blood Borne Macrophage Carriage of Nanoformulated Antiretroviral Drugs
Institutions: University of Nebraska Medical Center.
Nanoformulated drugs can improve pharmacodynamics and bioavailability while serving also to reduce drug toxicities for antiretroviral (ART) medicines. To this end, our laboratory has applied the principles of nanomedicine to simplify ART regimens and as such reduce toxicities while improving compliance and drug pharmacokinetics. Simple and reliable methods for manufacturing nanoformulated ART (nanoART) are shown. Particles of pure drug are encapsulated by a thin layer of surfactant lipid coating and produced by fractionating larger drug crystals into smaller ones by either wet milling or high-pressure homogenization. In an alternative method free drug is suspended in a droplet of a polymer. Herein, drug is dissolved within a polymer then agitated by ultrasonication until individual nanosized droplets are formed. Dynamic light scattering and microscopic examination characterize the physical properties of the particles (particle size, charge and shape). Their biologic properties (cell uptake and retention, cytotoxicity and antiretroviral efficacy) are determined with human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). MDM are derived from human peripheral blood monocytes isolated from leukopacks using centrifugal elutriation for purification. Such blood-borne macrophages may be used as cellular transporters for nanoART distribution to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected organs. We posit that the repackaging of clinically available antiretroviral medications into nanoparticles for HIV-1 treatments may improve compliance and positively affect disease outcomes.
Immunology, Issue 46, NanoART, antiretroviral, HIV/AIDS, monocytes/macrophages, wet milling, homogenization, ultrasonication
Therapeutic Gene Delivery and Transfection in Human Pancreatic Cancer Cells using Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-targeted Gelatin Nanoparticles
Institutions: Northeastern University.
More than 32,000 patients are diagnosed with pancreatic cancer in the United States per year and the disease is associated with very high mortality 1
. Urgent need exists to develop novel clinically-translatable therapeutic strategies that can improve on the dismal survival statistics of pancreatic cancer patients. Although gene therapy in cancer has shown a tremendous promise, the major challenge is in the development of safe and effective delivery system, which can lead to sustained transgene expression.
Gelatin is one of the most versatile natural biopolymer, widely used in food and pharmaceutical products. Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that type B gelatin could physical encapsulate DNA, which preserved the supercoiled structure of the plasmid and improved transfection efficiency upon intracellular delivery. By thiolation of gelatin, the sulfhydryl groups could be introduced into the polymer and would form disulfide bond within nanoparticles, which stabilizes the whole complex and once disulfide bond is broken due to the presence of glutathione in cytosol, payload would be released 2-5
. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-modified GENS, when administered into the systemic circulation, provides long-circulation times and preferentially targets to the tumor mass due to the hyper-permeability of the neovasculature by the enhanced permeability and retention
. Studies have shown over-expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on Panc-1 human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells 7
. In order to actively target pancreatic cancer cell line, EGFR specific peptide was conjugated on the particle surface through a PEG spacer.8
Most anti-tumor gene therapies are focused on administration of the tumor suppressor genes, such as wild-type p53 (wt-p53), to restore the pro-apoptotic function in the cells 9
. The p53 mechanism functions as a critical signaling pathway in cell growth, which regulates apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, metabolism and other processes 10
. In pancreatic cancer, most cells have mutations in p53 protein, causing the loss of apoptotic activity. With the introduction of wt-p53, the apoptosis could be repaired and further triggers cell death in cancer cells 11
Based on the above rationale, we have designed EGFR targeting peptide-modified thiolated gelatin nanoparticles for wt-p53 gene delivery and evaluated delivery efficiency and transfection in Panc-1 cells.
Bioengineering, Issue 59, Gelatin Nanoparticle, Gene Therapy, Targeted Delivery, Pancreatic Cancer, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor, EGFR
Combinatorial Synthesis of and High-throughput Protein Release from Polymer Film and Nanoparticle Libraries
Institutions: Iowa State University.
Polyanhydrides are a class of biomaterials with excellent biocompatibility and drug delivery capabilities. While they have been studied extensively with conventional one-sample-at-a-time synthesis techniques, a more recent high-throughput approach has been developed enabling the synthesis and testing of large libraries of polyanhydrides1
. This will facilitate more efficient optimization and design process of these biomaterials for drug and vaccine delivery applications. The method in this work describes the combinatorial synthesis of biodegradable polyanhydride film and nanoparticle libraries and the high-throughput detection of protein release from these libraries. In this robotically operated method (Figure 1
), linear actuators and syringe pumps are controlled by LabVIEW, which enables a hands-free automated protocol, eliminating user error. Furthermore, this method enables the rapid fabrication of micro-scale polymer libraries, reducing the batch size while resulting in the creation of multivariant polymer systems. This combinatorial approach to polymer synthesis facilitates the synthesis of up to 15 different polymers in an equivalent amount of time it would take to synthesize one polymer conventionally. In addition, the combinatorial polymer library can be fabricated into blank or protein-loaded geometries including films or nanoparticles upon dissolution of the polymer library in a solvent and precipitation into a non-solvent (for nanoparticles) or by vacuum drying (for films). Upon loading a fluorochrome-conjugated protein into the polymer libraries, protein release kinetics can be assessed at high-throughput using a fluorescence-based detection method (Figures 2
) as described previously1
. This combinatorial platform has been validated with conventional methods2
and the polyanhydride film and nanoparticle libraries have been characterized with 1
H NMR and FTIR. The libraries have been screened for protein release kinetics, stability and antigenicity; in vitro
cellular toxicity, cytokine production, surface marker expression, adhesion, proliferation and differentiation; and in vivo
biodistribution and mucoadhesion1-11
. The combinatorial method developed herein enables high-throughput polymer synthesis and fabrication of protein-loaded nanoparticle and film libraries, which can, in turn, be screened in vitro
and in vivo
for optimization of biomaterial performance.
Bioengineering, Issue 67, combinatorial, high-throughput, polymer synthesis, polyanhydrides, nanoparticle fabrication, release kinetics, protein delivery
High-throughput Synthesis of Carbohydrates and Functionalization of Polyanhydride Nanoparticles
Institutions: Iowa State University, Iowa State University.
Transdisciplinary approaches involving areas such as material design, nanotechnology, chemistry, and immunology have to be utilized to rationally design efficacious vaccines carriers. Nanoparticle-based platforms can prolong the persistence of vaccine antigens, which could improve vaccine immunogenicity1
. Several biodegradable polymers have been studied as vaccine delivery vehicles1
; in particular, polyanhydride particles have demonstrated the ability to provide sustained release of stable protein antigens and to activate antigen presenting cells and modulate immune responses2-12
The molecular design of these vaccine carriers needs to integrate the rational selection of polymer properties as well as the incorporation of appropriate targeting agents. High throughput automated fabrication of targeting ligands and functionalized particles is a powerful tool that will enhance the ability to study a wide range of properties and will lead to the design of reproducible vaccine delivery devices.
The addition of targeting ligands capable of being recognized by specific receptors on immune cells has been shown to modulate and tailor immune responses10,11,13
C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) are pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) that recognize carbohydrates present on the surface of pathogens. The stimulation of immune cells via CLRs allows for enhanced internalization of antigen and subsequent presentation for further T cell activation14,15
. Therefore, carbohydrate molecules play an important role in the study of immune responses; however, the use of these biomolecules often suffers from the lack of availability of structurally well-defined and pure carbohydrates. An automation platform based on iterative solution-phase reactions can enable rapid and controlled synthesis of these synthetically challenging molecules using significantly lower building block quantities than traditional solid-phase methods16,17
Herein we report a protocol for the automated solution-phase synthesis of oligosaccharides such as mannose-based targeting ligands with fluorous solid-phase extraction for intermediate purification. After development of automated methods to make the carbohydrate-based targeting agent, we describe methods for their attachment on the surface of polyanhydride nanoparticles employing an automated robotic set up operated by LabVIEW as previously described10
. Surface functionalization with carbohydrates has shown efficacy in targeting CLRs10,11
and increasing the throughput of the fabrication method to unearth the complexities associated with a multi-parametric system will be of great value (Figure 1a
Bioengineering, Issue 65, Chemical Engineering, High-throughput, Automation, Carbohydrates, Synthesis, Polyanhydrides, Nanoparticles, Functionalization, Targeting, Fluorous Solid Phase Extraction
Postproduction Processing of Electrospun Fibres for Tissue Engineering
Institutions: University of Sheffield , University of Sheffield , University of Sheffield .
Electrospinning is a commonly used and versatile method to produce scaffolds (often biodegradable) for 3D tissue engineering.1, 2, 3
Many tissues in vivo
undergo biaxial distension to varying extents such as skin, bladder, pelvic floor and even the hard palate as children grow. In producing scaffolds for these purposes there is a need to develop scaffolds of appropriate biomechanical properties (whether achieved without or with cells) and which are sterile for clinical use. The focus of this paper is not how to establish basic electrospinning parameters (as there is extensive literature on electrospinning) but on how to modify spun scaffolds post production to make them fit for tissue engineering purposes - here thickness, mechanical properties and sterilisation (required for clinical use) are considered and we also describe how cells can be cultured on scaffolds and subjected to biaxial strain to condition them for specific applications.
Electrospinning tends to produce thin sheets; as the electrospinning collector becomes coated with insulating fibres it becomes a poor conductor such that fibres no longer deposit on it. Hence we describe approaches to produce thicker structures by heat or vapour annealing increasing the strength of scaffolds but not necessarily the elasticity. Sequential spinning of scaffolds of different polymers to achieve complex scaffolds is also described. Sterilisation methodologies can adversely affect strength and elasticity of scaffolds. We compare three methods for their effects on the biomechanical properties on electrospun scaffolds of poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA).
Imaging of cells on scaffolds and assessment of production of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins by cells on scaffolds is described. Culturing cells on scaffolds in vitro
can improve scaffold strength and elasticity but the tissue engineering literature shows that cells often fail to produce appropriate ECM when cultured under static conditions. There are few commercial systems available that allow one to culture cells on scaffolds under dynamic conditioning regimes - one example is the Bose Electroforce 3100 which can be used to exert a conditioning programme on cells in scaffolds held using mechanical grips within a media filled chamber.4
An approach to a budget cell culture bioreactor for controlled distortion in 2 dimensions is described. We show that cells can be induced to produce elastin under these conditions. Finally assessment of the biomechanical properties of processed scaffolds cultured with or without cells is described.
Bioengineering, Issue 66, Materials Science, Biomedical Engineering, Tissue Engineering, Medicine, Chemistry, Electrospinning, bilayer, biaxial distension, heat and vapour annealing, mechanical testing, fibres
Capillary Force Lithography for Cardiac Tissue Engineering
Institutions: University of Washington, University of Washington.
Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death worldwide1
. Cardiac tissue engineering holds much promise to deliver groundbreaking medical discoveries with the aims of developing functional tissues for cardiac regeneration as well as in vitro
screening assays. However, the ability to create high-fidelity models of heart tissue has proven difficult. The heart’s extracellular matrix (ECM) is a complex structure consisting of both biochemical and biomechanical signals ranging from the micro- to the nanometer scale2
. Local mechanical loading conditions and cell-ECM interactions have recently been recognized as vital components in cardiac tissue engineering3-5
A large portion of the cardiac ECM is composed of aligned collagen fibers with nano-scale diameters that significantly influences tissue architecture and electromechanical coupling2
. Unfortunately, few methods have been able to mimic the organization of ECM fibers down to the nanometer scale. Recent advancements in nanofabrication techniques, however, have enabled the design and fabrication of scalable scaffolds that mimic the in vivo
structural and substrate stiffness cues of the ECM in the heart6-9
Here we present the development of two reproducible, cost-effective, and scalable nanopatterning processes for the functional alignment of cardiac cells using the biocompatible polymer poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)8
and a polyurethane (PU) based polymer. These anisotropically nanofabricated substrata (ANFS) mimic the underlying ECM of well-organized, aligned tissues and can be used to investigate the role of nanotopography on cell morphology and function10-14
Using a nanopatterned (NP) silicon master as a template, a polyurethane acrylate (PUA) mold is fabricated. This PUA mold is then used to pattern the PU or PLGA hydrogel via UV-assisted or solvent-mediated capillary force lithography (CFL), respectively15,16
. Briefly, PU or PLGA pre-polymer is drop dispensed onto a glass coverslip and the PUA mold is placed on top. For UV-assisted CFL, the PU is then exposed to UV radiation (λ = 250-400 nm) for curing. For solvent-mediated CFL, the PLGA is embossed using heat (120 °C) and pressure (100 kPa). After curing, the PUA mold is peeled off, leaving behind an ANFS for cell culture. Primary cells, such as neonatal rat ventricular myocytes, as well as human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes, can be maintained on the ANFS2
Bioengineering, Issue 88, Nanotopography, Anisotropic, Nanofabrication, Cell Culture, Cardiac Tissue Engineering
Evaluation of Polymeric Gene Delivery Nanoparticles by Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis and High-throughput Flow Cytometry
Institutions: Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine.
Non-viral gene delivery using polymeric nanoparticles has emerged as an attractive approach for gene therapy to treat genetic diseases1
and as a technology for regenerative medicine2
. Unlike viruses, which have significant safety issues, polymeric nanoparticles can be designed to be non-toxic, non-immunogenic, non-mutagenic, easier to synthesize, chemically versatile, capable of carrying larger nucleic acid cargo and biodegradable and/or environmentally responsive. Cationic polymers self-assemble with negatively charged DNA via electrostatic interaction to form complexes on the order of 100 nm that are commonly termed polymeric nanoparticles. Examples of biomaterials used to form nanoscale polycationic gene delivery nanoparticles include polylysine, polyphosphoesters, poly(amidoamines)s and polyethylenimine (PEI), which is a non-degradable off-the-shelf cationic polymer commonly used for nucleic acid delivery1,3
. Poly(beta-amino ester)s (PBAEs) are a newer class of cationic polymers4
that are hydrolytically degradable5,6
and have been shown to be effective at gene delivery to hard-to-transfect cell types such as human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs)7
, mouse mammary epithelial cells8
, human brain cancer cells9
and macrovascular (human umbilical vein, HUVECs) endothelial cells10
A new protocol to characterize polymeric nanoparticles utilizing nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) is described. In this approach, both the particle size distribution and the distribution of the number of plasmids per particle are obtained11
. In addition, a high-throughput 96-well plate transfection assay for rapid screening of the transfection efficacy of polymeric nanoparticles is presented. In this protocol, poly(beta-amino ester)s (PBAEs) are used as model polymers and human retinal endothelial cells (HRECs) are used as model human cells. This protocol can be easily adapted to evaluate any polymeric nanoparticle and any cell type of interest in a multi-well plate format.
Biomedical Engineering, Issue 73, Bioengineering, Tissue Engineering, Cellular Biology, Medicine, Genetics, Biocompatible Materials, Biopolymers, Drug Delivery Systems, Nanotechnology, bioengineering (general), Therapeutics, Nanoparticle, poly(beta-amino ester), high-throughput, transfection, nanoparticle tracking analysis, biomaterial, gene delivery, flow cytometry
Self-reporting Scaffolds for 3-Dimensional Cell Culture
Institutions: University of Nottingham, University of Nottingham, University of Nottingham.
Culturing cells in 3D on appropriate scaffolds is thought to better mimic the in vivo
microenvironment and increase cell-cell interactions. The resulting 3D cellular construct can often be more relevant to studying the molecular events and cell-cell interactions than similar experiments studied in 2D. To create effective 3D cultures with high cell viability throughout the scaffold the culture conditions such as oxygen and pH need to be carefully controlled as gradients in analyte concentration can exist throughout the 3D construct. Here we describe the methods of preparing biocompatible pH responsive sol-gel nanosensors and their incorporation into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) electrospun scaffolds along with their subsequent preparation for the culture of mammalian cells. The pH responsive scaffolds can be used as tools to determine microenvironmental pH within a 3D cellular construct. Furthermore, we detail the delivery of pH responsive nanosensors to the intracellular environment of mammalian cells whose growth was supported by electrospun PLGA scaffolds. The cytoplasmic location of the pH responsive nanosensors can be utilized to monitor intracellular pH (pHi) during ongoing experimentation.
Bioengineering, Issue 81, Biocompatible Materials, Nanosensors, scaffold, electrospinning, 3D cell culture, PLGA
Whole-animal Imaging and Flow Cytometric Techniques for Analysis of Antigen-specific CD8+ T Cell Responses after Nanoparticle Vaccination
Institutions: University of Michigan, University of Michigan, University of Michigan.
Traditional vaccine adjuvants, such as alum, elicit suboptimal CD8+ T cell responses. To address this major challenge in vaccine development, various nanoparticle systems have been engineered to mimic features of pathogens to improve antigen delivery to draining lymph nodes and increase antigen uptake by antigen-presenting cells, leading to new vaccine formulations optimized for induction of antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses. In this article, we describe the synthesis of a “pathogen-mimicking” nanoparticle system, termed interbilayer-crosslinked multilamellar vesicles (ICMVs) that can serve as an effective vaccine carrier for co-delivery of subunit antigens and immunostimulatory agents and elicitation of potent cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocyte (CTL) responses. We describe methods for characterizing hydrodynamic size and surface charge of vaccine nanoparticles with dynamic light scattering and zeta potential analyzer and present a confocal microscopy-based procedure to analyze nanoparticle-mediated antigen delivery to draining lymph nodes. Furthermore, we show a new bioluminescence whole-animal imaging technique utilizing adoptive transfer of luciferase-expressing, antigen-specific CD8+ T cells into recipient mice, followed by nanoparticle vaccination, which permits non-invasive interrogation of expansion and trafficking patterns of CTLs in real time. We also describe tetramer staining and flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells for longitudinal quantification of endogenous T cell responses in mice vaccinated with nanoparticles.
Immunology, Issue 98, nanoparticle, vaccine, biomaterial, subunit antigen, adjuvant, cytotoxic CD8+ T lymphocyte, whole animal imaging, tetramer staining, and lymph node