The carotid artery balloon injury model in rats has been well established for over two decades. It remains an important method to study the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in vascular smooth muscle dedifferentiation, neointima formation and vascular remodeling. Male Sprague-Dawley rats are the most frequently employed animals for this model. Female rats are not preferred as female hormones are protective against vascular diseases and thus introduce a variation into this procedure. The left carotid is typically injured with the right carotid serving as a negative control. Left carotid injury is caused by the inflated balloon that denudes the endothelium and distends the vessel wall. Following injury, potential therapeutic strategies such as the use of pharmacological compounds and either gene or shRNA transfer can be evaluated. Typically for gene or shRNA transfer, the injured section of the vessel lumen is locally transduced for 30 min with viral particles encoding either a protein or shRNA for delivery and expression in the injured vessel wall. Neointimal thickening representing proliferative vascular smooth muscle cells usually peaks at 2 weeks after injury. Vessels are mostly harvested at this time point for cellular and molecular analysis of cell signaling pathways as well as gene and protein expression. Vessels can also be harvested at earlier time points to determine the onset of expression and/or activation of a specific protein or pathway, depending on the experimental aims intended. Vessels can be characterized and evaluated using histological staining, immunohistochemistry, protein/mRNA assays, and activity assays. The intact right carotid artery from the same animal is an ideal internal control. Injury-induced changes in molecular and cellular parameters can be evaluated by comparing the injured artery to the internal right control artery. Likewise, therapeutic modalities can be evaluated by comparing the injured and treated artery to the control injured only artery.
20 Related JoVE Articles!
Flow Cytometry Analysis of Immune Cells Within Murine Aortas
Institutions: Eastern Virginia Medical School, LaJolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology.
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory process of medium and large size vessels that is characterized by the formation of plaques consisting of foam cells, immune cells, vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells, platelets, extracellular matrix, and a lipid-rich core with extensive necrosis and fibrosis of surrounding tissues.1
The innate and adaptive arms of the immune response are involved in the initiation, development and persistence of atherosclerosis.2, 3
There is a significant body of evidence that different subsets of the immune cells, such as macrophages, dendritic cells, T and B lymphocytes, are present within the aortas of healthy and atherosclerosis-prone mice4
. Additionally, immune cells are found in the surrounding aortic adventitia which suggests an important role of this tissue in atherogenesis.2
For some time, the quantitative detection of different types of immune cells, their activation status, and the cellular composition within the aortic wall was limited by RT-PCR and immunohistochemical methods for the study of atherosclerosis. Few attempts were made to perform flow cytometry using human aortas, and a number of problems, such as a high autofluorescence, have been reported5,6
. Human atherosclerotic plaques were digested with collagenase 1, and free cells were collected and stained for CD14+/CD11c+ to highlight macrophage-derived foam cells. In this study, a "mock" channel was used to avoid false-positive staining.6
Necrotic materials accumulating during the digestion process give rise in a large amount of debris that generates a high autofluorescence in aortic samples. To resolve this problem, a panel of negative and positive controls has been proposed, but only double staining could be applied in these samples. We have developed a new flow cytometry-based method7
to analyze the immune cell composition and characterize the activation, proliferation, differentiation of immune cells in healthy and atherosclerosis-prone aorta. This method allows the investigation of the immune cell composition of the aortic wall and opens possibilities to use a broad spectrum of immunological methods for investigations of immune aspects of this disease.
Immunology, Issue 53, atherosclerosis, immune response, leukocytes, adventitia, flow cytometry
Aortic Ring Assay
Institutions: Ben-Gurion University.
Angiogenesis, the sprouting of blood vessels from preexisting vasculature is associated with both natural and pathological processes. Various angiogenesis assays involve the study of individual endothelial cells in culture conditions (1). The aortic ring assay is an angiogenesis model that is based on organ culture. In this assay, angiogenic vessels grow from a segment of the aorta (modified from (2)). Briefly, mouse thoracic aorta is excised, the fat layer and adventitia are removed, and rings approximately 1 mm in length are prepared. Individual rings are then embedded in a small solid dome of basement matrix extract (BME), cast inside individual wells of a 48-well plate. Angiogenic factors and inhibitors of angiogenesis can be directly added to the rings, and a mixed co-culture of aortic rings and other cell types can be employed for the study of paracrine angiogenic effects. Sprouting is observed by inspection under a stereomicroscope over a period of 6-12 days. Due to the large variation caused by the irregularities in the aortic segments, experimentation in 6-plicates is strongly advised. Neovessel outgrowth is monitored throughout the experiment and imaged using phase microscopy, and supernatants are collected for measurement of relevant angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors, cell death markers and nitrite.
Medicine, Issue 33, aortic rings, angiogenesis, blood vessels, aorta, mouse, vessel outgrowth
Murine Heterotopic Heart Transplant Technique
Institutions: University of Colorado Denver.
It is now over forty years since this technique was first reported by Corry, Wynn and Russell. Although it took some years for other labs to become proficient in and utilize this technique, it is now widely used by many laboratories around the world. A significant refinement to the original technique was developed and reported in 2001 by Niimi. Described here are the techniques that have evolved over more than a decade in the hands of three surgeons (Plenter, Grazia, Pietra) in our center. These techniques are now being passed on to a younger generation of surgeons and researchers.
Based largely on the Niimi experience, the procedures used have evolved in the fine details - details which we will endeavor to relate here in such a way that others may be able to use this very useful model. Like Niimi, we have found that a video aid to learning is a priceless resource for the beginner.
Medicine, Issue 89, Heart Transplantation, Transplantation Immunology, Graft Rejection, Cardiac, Transplant, Mouse, Immunology, Rejection, Surgery
Ultrasound Assessment of Endothelial-Dependent Flow-Mediated Vasodilation of the Brachial Artery in Clinical Research
Institutions: University of California, San Francisco, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Francisco.
The vascular endothelium is a monolayer of cells that cover the interior of blood vessels and provide both structural and functional roles. The endothelium acts as a barrier, preventing leukocyte adhesion and aggregation, as well as controlling permeability to plasma components. Functionally, the endothelium affects vessel tone.
Endothelial dysfunction is an imbalance between the chemical species which regulate vessel tone, thombroresistance, cellular proliferation and mitosis. It is the first step in atherosclerosis and is associated with coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, heart failure, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia.
The first demonstration of endothelial dysfunction involved direct infusion of acetylcholine and quantitative coronary angiography. Acetylcholine binds to muscarinic receptors on the endothelial cell surface, leading to an increase of intracellular calcium and increased nitric oxide (NO) production. In subjects with an intact endothelium, vasodilation was observed while subjects with endothelial damage experienced paradoxical vasoconstriction.
There exists a non-invasive, in vivo
method for measuring endothelial function in peripheral arteries using high-resolution B-mode ultrasound. The endothelial function of peripheral arteries is closely related to coronary artery function. This technique measures the percent diameter change in the brachial artery during a period of reactive hyperemia following limb ischemia.
This technique, known as endothelium-dependent, flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) has value in clinical research settings. However, a number of physiological and technical issues can affect the accuracy of the results and appropriate guidelines for the technique have been published. Despite the guidelines, FMD remains heavily operator dependent and presents a steep learning curve. This article presents a standardized method for measuring FMD in the brachial artery on the upper arm and offers suggestions to reduce intra-operator variability.
Medicine, Issue 92, endothelial function, endothelial dysfunction, brachial artery, peripheral artery disease, ultrasound, vascular, endothelium, cardiovascular disease.
Mouse Kidney Transplantation: Models of Allograft Rejection
Institutions: The University of Edinburgh.
Rejection of the transplanted kidney in humans is still a major cause of morbidity and mortality. The mouse model of renal transplantation closely replicates both the technical and pathological processes that occur in human renal transplantation. Although mouse models of allogeneic rejection in organs other than the kidney exist, and are more technically feasible, there is evidence that different organs elicit disparate rejection modes and dynamics, for instance the time course of rejection in cardiac and renal allograft differs significantly in certain strain combinations. This model is an attractive tool for many reasons despite its technical challenges. As inbred mouse strain haplotypes are well characterized it is possible to choose donor and recipient combinations to model acute allograft rejection by transplanting across MHC class I and II loci. Conversely by transplanting between strains with similar haplotypes a chronic process can be elicited were the allograft kidney develops interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy. We have modified the surgical technique to reduce operating time and improve ease of surgery, however a learning curve still needs to be overcome in order to faithfully replicate the model. This study will provide key points in the surgical procedure and aid the process of establishing this technique.
Medicine, Issue 92, transplantation, mouse model, surgery, kidney, immunology, rejection
Measuring Ascending Aortic Stiffness In Vivo in Mice Using Ultrasound
Institutions: Johns Hopkins University, Johns Hopkins University, Johns Hopkins University, Macquarie University.
We present a protocol for measuring in vivo
aortic stiffness in mice using high-resolution ultrasound imaging. Aortic diameter is measured by ultrasound and aortic blood pressure is measured invasively with a solid-state pressure catheter. Blood pressure is raised then lowered incrementally by intravenous infusion of vasoactive drugs phenylephrine and sodium nitroprusside. Aortic diameter is measured for each pressure step to characterize the pressure-diameter relationship of the ascending aorta. Stiffness indices derived from the pressure-diameter relationship can be calculated from the data collected. Calculation of arterial compliance is described in this protocol.
This technique can be used to investigate mechanisms underlying increased aortic stiffness associated with cardiovascular disease and aging. The technique produces a physiologically relevant measure of stiffness compared to ex vivo
approaches because physiological influences on aortic stiffness are incorporated in the measurement. The primary limitation of this technique is the measurement error introduced from the movement of the aorta during the cardiac cycle. This motion can be compensated by adjusting the location of the probe with the aortic movement as well as making multiple measurements of the aortic pressure-diameter relationship and expanding the experimental group size.
Medicine, Issue 94, Aortic stiffness, ultrasound, in vivo, aortic compliance, elastic modulus, mouse model, cardiovascular disease
Murine Model of Femoral Artery Wire Injury with Implantation of a Perivascular Drug Delivery Patch
Institutions: University of Texas at Austin.
Percutaneous interventions including balloon angioplasty and stenting have been used to restore blood flow in vessels with occlusive vascular disease. While these therapies lead to the rapid restoration of blood flow, these technologies remain limited by restenosis in the case of bare metal stents and angioplasty, or reduced healing and possibly enhanced risk of thrombosis in the case of drug eluting stents. A key pathophysiological mechanism in the formation of restenosis is intimal hyperplasia caused by the activation of vascular smooth muscle cells and inflammation due to arterial stretch and injury. Surgeries that induce arterial injury in genetically modified mice are useful for the mechanistic study of the vascular response to injury but are often technically challenging to perform in mouse models due to the their small size and lack of appropriate sized devices. We describe two approaches for a surgical technique that induces endothelial denudation and arterial stretch in the femoral artery of mice to produce robust neointimal hyperplasia. The first approach creates an arteriotomy in the muscular branch of the femoral artery to obtain vascular access. Following wire injury this arterial branch is ligated to close the arteriotomy. A second approach creates an arteriotomy in the main femoral artery that is later closed through localized cautery. This method allows for vascular access through a larger vessel and, consequently, provides a less technically demanding procedure that can be used in smaller mice. Following either method of arterial injury, a degradable drug delivery patch can be placed over or around the injured artery to deliver therapeutic agents.
Medicine, Issue 96, vascular injury, neointimal hyperplasia, perivascular drug delivery, wire injury, mouse surgical model of restenosis
Generation and Grafting of Tissue-engineered Vessels in a Mouse Model
Institutions: King's College London BHF Centre.
The construction of vascular conduits is a fundamental strategy for surgical repair of damaged and injured vessels resulting from cardiovascular diseases. The current protocol presents an efficient and reproducible strategy in which functional tissue engineered vessel grafts can be generated using partially induced pluripotent stem cell (PiPSC) from human fibroblasts. We designed a decellularized vessel scaffold bioreactor, which closely mimics the matrix protein structure and blood flow that exists within a native vessel, for seeding of PiPSC-endothelial cells or smooth muscle cells prior to grafting into mice. This approach was demonstrated to be advantageous because immune-deficient mice engrafted with the PiPSC-derived grafts presented with markedly increased survival rate 3 weeks after surgery. This protocol represents a valuable tool for regenerative medicine, tissue engineering and potentially patient-specific cell-therapy in the near future.
Bioengineering, Issue 97, stem cells, partially induced pluripotent stem cells, tissue engineering, bioreactor, vascular differentiation, vessel graft, mouse models
Two-photon Imaging of Intracellular Ca2+ Handling and Nitric Oxide Production in Endothelial and Smooth Muscle Cells of an Isolated Rat Aorta
Institutions: Medical College of Wisconsin, Medical College of Wisconsin, Medical College of Wisconsin, Blood Research Institute of Wisconsin.
Calcium is a very important regulator of many physiological processes in vascular tissues. Most endothelial and smooth muscle functions highly depend on changes in intracellular calcium ([Ca2+
) and nitric oxide (NO). In order to understand how [Ca2+
, NO and downstream molecules are handled by a blood vessel in response to vasoconstrictors and vasodilators, we developed a novel technique that applies calcium-labeling (or NO-labeling) dyes with two photon microscopy to measure calcium handling (or NO production) in isolated blood vessels. Described here is a detailed step-by-step procedure that demonstrates how to isolate an aorta from a rat, label calcium or NO within the endothelial or smooth muscle cells, and image calcium transients (or NO production) using a two photon microscope following physiological or pharmacological stimuli. The benefits of using the method are multi-fold: 1) it is possible to simultaneously measure calcium transients in both endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells in response to different stimuli; 2) it allows one to image endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells in their native setting; 3) this method is very sensitive to intracellular calcium or NO changes and generates high resolution images for precise measurements; and 4) described approach can be applied to the measurement of other molecules, such as reactive oxygen species. In summary, application of two photon laser emission microscopy to monitor calcium transients and NO production in the endothelial and smooth muscle cells of an isolated blood vessel has provided high quality quantitative data and promoted our understanding of the mechanisms regulating vascular function.
Cellular Biology, Issue 100, Two-photon microscopy, fluorescence, vasculature, intracellular calcium, Fluo-4 AM, nitric oxide, DAF-FM, aorta, rat
Isolation of Blood-vessel-derived Multipotent Precursors from Human Skeletal Muscle
Institutions: University of Pittsburgh, University of Pittsburgh, Nazarbayev University, University of California at Los Angeles, Erasmus MC Stem Cell Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, Queen's Medical Research Institute and University of Edinburgh, University of California at Los Angeles, University of Pittsburgh.
Since the discovery of mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs), the native identity and localization of MSCs
have been obscured by their retrospective isolation in culture. Recently, using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), we and other researchers prospectively identified and purified three subpopulations of multipotent precursor cells associated with the vasculature of human skeletal muscle. These three cell populations: myogenic endothelial cells (MECs), pericytes (PCs), and adventitial cells (ACs), are localized respectively to the three structural layers of blood vessels: intima, media, and adventitia. All of these human blood-vessel-derived stem cell (hBVSC) populations not only express classic MSC markers but also possess mesodermal developmental potentials similar to typical MSCs. Previously, MECs, PCs, and ACs have been isolated through distinct protocols and subsequently characterized in separate studies. The current isolation protocol, through modifications to the isolation process and adjustments in the selective cell surface markers, allows us to simultaneously purify all three hBVSC subpopulations by FACS from a single human muscle biopsy. This new method will not only streamline the isolation of multiple BVSC subpopulations but also facilitate future clinical applications of hBVSCs for distinct therapeutic purposes.
Cellular Biology, Issue 90, Blood Vessel; Pericyte; Adventitial Cell; Myogenic Endothelial Cell; Multipotent Precursor
The Helsinki Rat Microsurgical Sidewall Aneurysm Model
Institutions: University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
Experimental saccular aneurysm models are necessary for testing novel surgical and endovascular treatment options and devices before they are introduced into clinical practice. Furthermore, experimental models are needed to elucidate the complex aneurysm biology leading to rupture of saccular aneurysms.
Several different kinds of experimental models for saccular aneurysms have been established in different species. Many of them, however, require special skills, expensive equipment, or special environments, which limits their widespread use. A simple, robust, and inexpensive experimental model is needed as a standardized tool that can be used in a standardized manner in various institutions.
The microsurgical rat abdominal aortic sidewall aneurysm model combines the possibility to study both novel endovascular treatment strategies and the molecular basis of aneurysm biology in a standardized and inexpensive manner. Standardized grafts by means of shape, size, and geometry are harvested from a donor rat's descending thoracic aorta and then transplanted to a syngenic recipient rat. The aneurysms are sutured end-to-side with continuous or interrupted 9-0 nylon sutures to the infrarenal abdominal aorta.
We present step-by-step procedural instructions, information on necessary equipment, and discuss important anatomical and surgical details for successful microsurgical creation of an abdominal aortic sidewall aneurysm in the rat.
Medicine, Issue 92, Animal models; Rat; Sidewall saccular aneurysms; Microsurgery; aneurysm wall.
A Model of Disturbed Flow-Induced Atherosclerosis in Mouse Carotid Artery by Partial Ligation and a Simple Method of RNA Isolation from Carotid Endothelium
Institutions: Emory University, Georgia Tech and Emory University, Ewha Womans University.
Despite the well-known close association, direct evidence linking disturbed flow to atherogenesis has been lacking. We have recently used a modified version of carotid partial ligation methods [1,2] to show that it acutely induces low and oscillatory flow conditions, two key characteristics of disturbed flow, in the mouse common carotid artery. Using this model, we have provided direct evidence that disturbed flow indeed leads to rapid and robust atherosclerosis development in Apolipoprotein E knockout mouse . We also developed a method of endothelial RNA preparation with high purity from the mouse carotid intima . Using this mouse model and method, we found that partial ligation causes endothelial dysfunction in a week, followed by robust and rapid atheroma formation in two weeks in a hyperlipidemic mouse model along with features of complex lesion formation such as intraplaque neovascularization by four weeks. This rapid in vivo
model and the endothelial RNA preparation method could be used to determine molecular mechanisms underlying flow-dependent regulation of vascular biology and diseases. Also, it could be used to test various therapeutic interventions targeting endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis in considerably reduced study duration.
JoVE Medicine, Issue 40, atherosclerosis, disturbed flow, shear stress, carotid, partial ligation, endothelial RNA
Tri-layered Electrospinning to Mimic Native Arterial Architecture using Polycaprolactone, Elastin, and Collagen: A Preliminary Study
Institutions: Virginia Commonwealth University, Virginia Commonwealth University, University Hospital of Geneva.
Throughout native artery, collagen and elastin play an important role, providing a mechanical backbone, preventing vessel rupture, and promoting recovery under pulsatile deformations. The goal of this study was to mimic the structure of native artery by fabricating a multi-layered electrospun conduit composed of poly(caprolactone) (PCL) with the addition of elastin and collagen with blends of 45-45-10, 55-35-10, and 65-25-10 PCL-ELAS-COL to demonstrate mechanical properties indicative of native arterial tissue, while remaining conducive to tissue regeneration. Whole grafts and individual layers were analyzed using uniaxial tensile testing, dynamic compliance, suture retention, and burst strength. Compliance results revealed that changes to the middle/medial layer changed overall graft behavior with whole graft compliance values ranging from 0.8 - 2.8 % / 100 mmHg, while uniaxial results demonstrated an average modulus range of 2.0 - 11.8 MPa. Both modulus and compliance data displayed values within the range of native artery. Mathematical modeling was implemented to show how changes in layer stiffness affect the overall circumferential wall stress, and as a design aid to achieve the best mechanical combination of materials. Overall, the results indicated that a graft can be designed to mimic a tri-layered structure by altering layer properties.
Bioengineering, Issue 47, Electrospinning, Vascular Graft, Multilayer, Polycaprolactone, Elastin
Quantification of Atherosclerotic Plaque Activity and Vascular Inflammation using [18-F] Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (FDG-PET/CT)
Institutions: University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine.
Conventional non-invasive imaging modalities of atherosclerosis such as coronary artery calcium (CAC)1
and carotid intimal medial thickness (C-IMT)2
provide information about the burden of disease. However, despite multiple validation studies of CAC3-5
, and C-IMT2,6
, these modalities do not accurately assess plaque characteristics7,8
, and the composition and inflammatory state of the plaque determine its stability and, therefore, the risk of clinical events9-13
F]-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) imaging using positron-emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) has been extensively studied in oncologic metabolism14,15
. Studies using animal models and immunohistochemistry in humans show that FDG-PET/CT is exquisitely sensitive for detecting macrophage activity16
, an important source of cellular inflammation in vessel walls. More recently, we17,18
and others have shown that FDG-PET/CT enables highly precise, novel measurements of inflammatory activity of activity of atherosclerotic plaques in large and medium-sized arteries9,16,19,20
. FDG-PET/CT studies have many advantages over other imaging modalities: 1) high contrast resolution; 2) quantification of plaque volume and metabolic activity allowing for multi-modal atherosclerotic plaque quantification; 3) dynamic, real-time, in vivo
imaging; 4) minimal operator dependence. Finally, vascular inflammation detected by FDG-PET/CT has been shown to predict cardiovascular (CV) events independent of traditional risk factors21,22
and is also highly associated with overall burden of atherosclerosis23
. Plaque activity by FDG-PET/CT is modulated by known beneficial CV interventions such as short term (12 week) statin therapy24
as well as longer term therapeutic lifestyle changes (16 months)25
The current methodology for quantification of FDG uptake in atherosclerotic plaque involves measurement of the standardized uptake value (SUV) of an artery of interest and of the venous blood pool in order to calculate a target to background ratio (TBR), which is calculated by dividing the arterial SUV by the venous blood pool SUV. This method has shown to represent a stable, reproducible phenotype over time, has a high sensitivity for detection of vascular inflammation, and also has high inter-and intra-reader reliability26
. Here we present our methodology for patient preparation, image acquisition, and quantification of atherosclerotic plaque activity and vascular inflammation using SUV, TBR, and a global parameter called the metabolic volumetric product (MVP). These approaches may be applied to assess vascular inflammation in various study samples of interest in a consistent fashion as we have shown in several prior publications.9,20,27,28
Medicine, Issue 63, FDG-PET/CT, atherosclerosis, vascular inflammation, quantitative radiology, imaging
A Murine Model of Stent Implantation in the Carotid Artery for the Study of Restenosis
Institutions: RWTH Aachen University, RWTH Aachen University, Helmholtz-Institute of RWTH Aachen University, RWTH Aachen University, RWTH Aachen University.
Despite the considerable progress made in the stent development in the last decades, cardiovascular diseases remain the main cause of death in western countries. Beside the benefits offered by the development of different drug-eluting stents, the coronary revascularization bears also the life-threatening risks of in-stent thrombosis and restenosis. Research on new therapeutic strategies is impaired by the lack of appropriate methods to study stent implantation and restenosis processes. Here, we describe a rapid and accessible procedure of stent implantation in mouse carotid artery, which offers the possibility to study in a convenient way the molecular mechanisms of vessel remodeling and the effects of different drug coatings.
Medicine, Issue 75, Anatomy, Physiology, Biomedical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Cardiology, Surgery, Microsurgery, Animal Experimentation, Models, Animal, Cardiovascular Diseases, Stent implantation, atherosclerosis, restenosis, in-stent thrombosis, stent, mouse carotid artery, arteries, blood vessels, mouse, animal model, surgical techniques
Mouse Models for Graft Arteriosclerosis
Institutions: Yale University School of Medicine , Yale University School of Medicine .
Graft arteriosclerois (GA), also called allograft vasculopathy, is a pathologic lesion that develops over months to years in transplanted organs characterized by diffuse, circumferential stenosis of the entire graft vascular tree. The most critical component of GA pathogenesis is the proliferation of smooth muscle-like cells within the intima. When a human coronary artery segment is interposed into the infra-renal aortae of immunodeficient mice, the intimas could be expand in response to adoptively transferred human T cells allogeneic to the artery donor or exogenous human IFN-γ in the absence of human T cells. Interposition of a mouse aorta from one strain into another mouse strain recipient is limited as a model for chronic rejection in humans because the acute cell-mediated rejection response in this mouse model completely eliminates all donor-derived vascular cells from the graft within two-three weeks. We have recently developed two new mouse models to circumvent these problems. The first model involves interposition of a vessel segment from a male mouse into a female recipient of the same inbred strain (C57BL/6J). Graft rejection in this case is directed only against minor histocompatibility antigens encoded by the Y chromosome (present in the male but not the female) and the rejection response that ensues is sufficiently indolent to preserve donor-derived smooth muscle cells for several weeks. The second model involves interposing an artery segment from a wild type C57BL/6J mouse donor into a host mouse of the same strain and gender that lacks the receptor for IFN-γ followed by administration of mouse IFN-γ (delivered via infection of the mouse liver with an adenoviral vector. There is no rejection in this case as both donor and recipient mice are of the same strain and gender but donor smooth muscle cells proliferate in response to the cytokine while host-derived cells, lacking receptor for this cytokine, are unresponsive. By backcrossing additional genetic changes into the vessel donor, both models can be used to assess the effect of specific genes on GA progression. Here, we describe detailed protocols for our mouse GA models.
Medicine, Issue 75, Anatomy, Physiology, Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, Cardiology, Pathology, Surgery, Tissue Engineering, Cardiovascular Diseases, vascular biology, graft arteriosclerosis, GA, mouse models, transplantation, graft, vessels, arteries, mouse, animal model, surgical techniques
Generation and 3-Dimensional Quantitation of Arterial Lesions in Mice Using Optical Projection Tomography
Institutions: The Queen's Medical Research Institute.
The generation and analysis of vascular lesions in appropriate animal models is a cornerstone of research into cardiovascular disease, generating important information on the pathogenesis of lesion formation and the action of novel therapies. Use of atherosclerosis-prone mice, surgical methods of lesion induction, and dietary modification has dramatically improved understanding of the mechanisms that contribute to disease development and the potential of new treatments.
Classically, analysis of lesions is performed ex vivo
using 2-dimensional histological techniques. This article describes application of optical projection tomography (OPT) to 3-dimensional quantitation of arterial lesions. As this technique is non-destructive, it can be used as an adjunct to standard histological and immunohistochemical analyses.
Neointimal lesions were induced by wire-insertion or ligation of the mouse femoral artery whilst atherosclerotic lesions were generated by administration of an atherogenic diet to apoE-deficient mice.
Lesions were examined using OPT imaging of autofluorescent emission followed by complementary histological and immunohistochemical analysis. OPT clearly distinguished lesions from the underlying vascular wall. Lesion size was calculated in 2-dimensional sections using planimetry, enabling calculation of lesion volume and maximal cross-sectional area. Data generated using OPT were consistent with measurements obtained using histology, confirming the accuracy of the technique and its potential as a complement (rather than alternative) to traditional methods of analysis.
This work demonstrates the potential of OPT for imaging atherosclerotic and neointimal lesions. It provides a rapid, much needed ex vivo
technique for the routine 3-dimensional quantification of vascular remodelling.
Medicine, Issue 99, neointima, mouse femoral artery, atherosclerosis, brachiocephalic trunk, optical projection tomography
Isolation of Microvascular Endothelial Tubes from Mouse Resistance Arteries
Institutions: University of Missouri, Dalton Cardiovascular Research Center.
The control of blood flow by the resistance vasculature regulates the supply of oxygen and nutrients concomitant with the removal of metabolic by-products, as exemplified by exercising skeletal muscle. Endothelial cells (ECs) line the intima of all resistance vessels and serve a key role in controlling diameter (e.g.
endothelium-dependent vasodilation) and, thereby, the magnitude and distribution of tissue blood flow. The regulation of vascular resistance by ECs is effected by intracellular Ca2+
signaling, which leads to production of diffusible autacoids (e.g.
nitric oxide and arachidonic acid metabolites)1-3
that elicit smooth muscle cell relaxation. Thus understanding the dynamics of endothelial Ca2+
signaling is a key step towards understanding mechanisms governing blood flow control. Isolating endothelial tubes eliminates confounding variables associated with blood in the vessel lumen and with surrounding smooth muscle cells and perivascular nerves, which otherwise influence EC structure and function. Here we present the isolation of endothelial tubes from the superior epigastric artery (SEA) using a protocol optimized for this vessel.
To isolate endothelial tubes from an anesthetized mouse, the SEA is ligated in situ
to maintain blood within the vessel lumen (to facilitate visualizing it during dissection), and the entire sheet of abdominal muscle is excised. The SEA is dissected free from surrounding skeletal muscle fibers and connective tissue, blood is flushed from the lumen, and mild enzymatic digestion is performed to enable removal of adventitia, nerves and smooth muscle cells using gentle trituration. These freshly-isolated preparations of intact endothelium retain their native morphology, with individual ECs remaining functionally coupled to one another, able to transfer chemical and electrical signals intercellularly through gap junctions6,7
. In addition to providing new insight into calcium signaling and membrane biophysics, these preparations enable molecular studies of gene expression and protein localization within native microvascular endothelium.
Basic Protocol, Issue 81, endothelial tubes, microcirculation, calcium signaling, resistance vasculature, Confocal microscopy
Quantitative Analysis and Characterization of Atherosclerotic Lesions in the Murine Aortic Sinus
Institutions: McMaster University, McMaster University.
Atherosclerosis is a disease of the large arteries and a major underlying cause of myocardial infarction and stroke. Several different mouse models have been developed to facilitate the study of the molecular and cellular pathophysiology of this disease. In this manuscript we describe specific techniques for the quantification and characterization of atherosclerotic lesions in the murine aortic sinus and ascending aorta. The advantage of this procedure is that it provides an accurate measurement of the cross-sectional area and total volume of the lesion, which can be used to compare atherosclerotic progression across different treatment groups. This is possible through the use of the valve leaflets as an anatomical landmark, together with careful adjustment of the sectioning angle. We also describe basic staining methods that can be used to begin to characterize atherosclerotic progression. These can be further modified to investigate antigens of specific interest to the researcher. The described techniques are generally applicable to a wide variety of existing and newly created dietary and genetically-induced models of atherogenesis.
Medicine, Issue 82, atherosclerosis, atherosclerotic lesion, Mouse Model, aortic sinus, tissue preparation and sectioning, Immunohistochemistry
Mouse Model of Alloimmune-induced Vascular Rejection and Transplant Arteriosclerosis
Institutions: Simon Fraser University.
Vascular rejection that leads to transplant arteriosclerosis (TA) is the leading representation of chronic heart transplant failure. In TA, the immune system of the recipient causes damage of the arterial wall and dysfunction of endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells. This triggers a pathological repair response that is characterized by intimal thickening and luminal occlusion. Understanding the mechanisms by which the immune system causes vasculature rejection and TA may inform the development of novel ways to manage graft failure. Here, we describe a mouse aortic interposition model that can be used to study the pathogenic mechanisms of vascular rejection and TA. The model involves grafting of an aortic segment from a donor animal into an allogeneic recipient. Rejection of the artery segment involves alloimmune reactions and results in arterial changes that resemble vascular rejection. The basic technical approach we describe can be used with different mouse strains and targeted interventions to answer specific questions related to vascular rejection and TA.
Medicine, Issue 99, Transplantation, Vascular rejection, Transplant arteriosclerosis, Artery, Aorta