The optimization of a Ugi reaction involving the mixing of furfurylamine, benzaldehyde, boc-glycine and t-butylisocyanide is described. Triplicate runs of 48 parallel experiments are reported, varying concentration, solvent and the excess of some of the reagents. The isolation of the product was achieved by a simple filtration and wash procedure. The highest yield obtained was 66% from 0.4 M methanol with 1.2 eq. of imine. This is significantly above the 49% yield obtained from the initial reaction under equimolar concentration at 0.4 M in methanol. Methanol solutions with reagent concentrations of 0.4M or 0.2M gave superior yields while all solvent systems at 0.07M performed poorly. At 0.2M, methanol and ethanol/methanol (60/40) mixtures were statistically equally good while THF/methanol (60/40) was poor and acetonitrile/methanol (60/40) was intermediate. Good reproducibility of the precipitate yields was obtained in these replicate experiments, allowing for subtle interaction effects to be positively identified.
23 Related JoVE Articles!
Capture Compound Mass Spectrometry - A Powerful Tool to Identify Novel c-di-GMP Effector Proteins
Institutions: Biozentrum of the University of Basel, Biozentrum of the University of Basel.
Considerable progress has been made during the last decade towards the identification and characterization of enzymes involved in the synthesis (diguanylate cyclases) and degradation (phosphodiesterases) of the second messenger c-di-GMP. In contrast, little information is available regarding the molecular mechanisms and cellular components through which this signaling molecule regulates a diverse range of cellular processes. Most of the known effector proteins belong to the PilZ family or are degenerated diguanylate cyclases or phosphodiesterases that have given up on catalysis and have adopted effector function. Thus, to better define the cellular c-di-GMP network in a wide range of bacteria experimental methods are required to identify and validate novel effectors for which reliable in silico
We have recently developed a novel Capture Compound Mass Spectrometry (CCMS) based technology as a powerful tool to biochemically identify and characterize c-di-GMP binding proteins. This technique has previously been reported to be applicable to a wide range of organisms1
. Here we give a detailed description of the protocol that we utilize to probe such signaling components. As an example, we use Pseudomonas aeruginosa
, an opportunistic pathogen in which c-di-GMP plays a critical role in virulence and biofilm control. CCMS identified 74% (38/51) of the known or predicted components of the c-di-GMP network. This study explains the CCMS procedure in detail, and establishes it as a powerful and versatile tool to identify novel components involved in small molecule signaling.
Chemistry, Issue 97, Capture compound, photoactivable crosslinker, mass spectrometry, c-di-GMP effector, EAL, GGDEF, PilZ, Pseudomonas aeruginosa
High Throughput Quantitative Expression Screening and Purification Applied to Recombinant Disulfide-rich Venom Proteins Produced in E. coli
Institutions: Aix-Marseille Université, Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives (CEA) Saclay, France.
Escherichia coli (E. coli)
is the most widely used expression system for the production of recombinant proteins for structural and functional studies. However, purifying proteins is sometimes challenging since many proteins are expressed in an insoluble form. When working with difficult or multiple targets it is therefore recommended to use high throughput (HTP) protein expression screening on a small scale (1-4 ml cultures) to quickly identify conditions for soluble expression. To cope with the various structural genomics programs of the lab, a quantitative (within a range of 0.1-100 mg/L culture of recombinant protein) and HTP protein expression screening protocol was implemented and validated on thousands of proteins. The protocols were automated with the use of a liquid handling robot but can also be performed manually without specialized equipment.
Disulfide-rich venom proteins are gaining increasing recognition for their potential as therapeutic drug leads. They can be highly potent and selective, but their complex disulfide bond networks make them challenging to produce. As a member of the FP7 European Venomics project (www.venomics.eu), our challenge is to develop successful production strategies with the aim of producing thousands of novel venom proteins for functional characterization. Aided by the redox properties of disulfide bond isomerase DsbC, we adapted our HTP production pipeline for the expression of oxidized, functional venom peptides in the E. coli
cytoplasm. The protocols are also applicable to the production of diverse disulfide-rich proteins. Here we demonstrate our pipeline applied to the production of animal venom proteins. With the protocols described herein it is likely that soluble disulfide-rich proteins will be obtained in as little as a week. Even from a small scale, there is the potential to use the purified proteins for validating the oxidation state by mass spectrometry, for characterization in pilot studies, or for sensitive micro-assays.
Bioengineering, Issue 89, E. coli, expression, recombinant, high throughput (HTP), purification, auto-induction, immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC), tobacco etch virus protease (TEV) cleavage, disulfide bond isomerase C (DsbC) fusion, disulfide bonds, animal venom proteins/peptides
Scalable High Throughput Selection From Phage-displayed Synthetic Antibody Libraries
Institutions: The Recombinant Antibody Network, University of Toronto, University of California, San Francisco at Mission Bay, The University of Chicago.
The demand for antibodies that fulfill the needs of both basic and clinical research applications is high and will dramatically increase in the future. However, it is apparent that traditional monoclonal technologies are not alone up to this task. This has led to the development of alternate methods to satisfy the demand for high quality and renewable affinity reagents to all accessible elements of the proteome. Toward this end, high throughput methods for conducting selections from phage-displayed synthetic antibody libraries have been devised for applications involving diverse antigens and optimized for rapid throughput and success. Herein, a protocol is described in detail that illustrates with video demonstration the parallel selection of Fab-phage clones from high diversity libraries against hundreds of targets using either a manual 96 channel liquid handler or automated robotics system. Using this protocol, a single user can generate hundreds of antigens, select antibodies to them in parallel and validate antibody binding within 6-8 weeks. Highlighted are: i) a viable antigen format, ii) pre-selection antigen characterization, iii) critical steps that influence the selection of specific and high affinity clones, and iv) ways of monitoring selection effectiveness and early stage antibody clone characterization. With this approach, we have obtained synthetic antibody fragments (Fabs) to many target classes including single-pass membrane receptors, secreted protein hormones, and multi-domain intracellular proteins. These fragments are readily converted to full-length antibodies and have been validated to exhibit high affinity and specificity. Further, they have been demonstrated to be functional in a variety of standard immunoassays including Western blotting, ELISA, cellular immunofluorescence, immunoprecipitation and related assays. This methodology will accelerate antibody discovery and ultimately bring us closer to realizing the goal of generating renewable, high quality antibodies to the proteome.
Immunology, Issue 95, Bacteria, Viruses, Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins, Nucleic Acids, Nucleotides, and Nucleosides, Life Sciences (General), phage display, synthetic antibodies, high throughput, antibody selection, scalable methodology
Extraction of Venom and Venom Gland Microdissections from Spiders for Proteomic and Transcriptomic Analyses
Institutions: University of Massachusetts Lowell.
Venoms are chemically complex secretions typically comprising numerous proteins and peptides with varied physiological activities. Functional characterization of venom proteins has important biomedical applications, including the identification of drug leads or probes for cellular receptors. Spiders are the most species rich clade of venomous organisms, but the venoms of only a few species are well-understood, in part due to the difficulty associated with collecting minute quantities of venom from small animals. This paper presents a protocol for the collection of venom from spiders using electrical stimulation, demonstrating the procedure on the Western black widow (Latrodectus hesperus
). The collected venom is useful for varied downstream analyses including direct protein identification via mass spectrometry, functional assays, and stimulation of venom gene expression for transcriptomic studies. This technique has the advantage over protocols that isolate venom from whole gland homogenates, which do not separate genuine venom components from cellular proteins that are not secreted as part of the venom. Representative results demonstrate the detection of known venom peptides from the collected sample using mass spectrometry. The venom collection procedure is followed by a protocol for dissecting spider venom glands, with results demonstrating that this leads to the characterization of venom-expressed proteins and peptides at the sequence level.
Genetics, Issue 93, spider, toxin, proteomics, transcriptomics, electrical stimulation, Latrodectus
DNA-affinity-purified Chip (DAP-chip) Method to Determine Gene Targets for Bacterial Two component Regulatory Systems
Institutions: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.
methods such as ChIP-chip are well-established techniques used to determine global gene targets for transcription factors. However, they are of limited use in exploring bacterial two component regulatory systems with uncharacterized activation conditions. Such systems regulate transcription only when activated in the presence of unique signals. Since these signals are often unknown, the in vitro
microarray based method described in this video article can be used to determine gene targets and binding sites for response regulators. This DNA-affinity-purified-chip method may be used for any purified regulator in any organism with a sequenced genome. The protocol involves allowing the purified tagged protein to bind to sheared genomic DNA and then affinity purifying the protein-bound DNA, followed by fluorescent labeling of the DNA and hybridization to a custom tiling array. Preceding steps that may be used to optimize the assay for specific regulators are also described. The peaks generated by the array data analysis are used to predict binding site motifs, which are then experimentally validated. The motif predictions can be further used to determine gene targets of orthologous response regulators in closely related species. We demonstrate the applicability of this method by determining the gene targets and binding site motifs and thus predicting the function for a sigma54-dependent response regulator DVU3023 in the environmental bacterium Desulfovibrio vulgaris
Genetics, Issue 89, DNA-Affinity-Purified-chip, response regulator, transcription factor binding site, two component system, signal transduction, Desulfovibrio, lactate utilization regulator, ChIP-chip
Amide Coupling Reaction for the Synthesis of Bispyridine-based Ligands and Their Complexation to Platinum as Dinuclear Anticancer Agents
Institutions: The University of Sydney, University of Western Sydney, Manchester Metropolitan University, Nature Publishing Group.
Amide coupling reactions can be used to synthesize bispyridine-based ligands for use as bridging linkers in multinuclear platinum anticancer drugs. Isonicotinic acid, or its derivatives, are coupled to variable length diaminoalkane chains under an inert atmosphere in anhydrous DMF or DMSO with the use of a weak base, triethylamine, and a coupling agent, 1-propylphosphonic anhydride. The products precipitate from solution upon formation or can be precipitated by the addition of water. If desired, the ligands can be further purified by recrystallization from hot water. Dinuclear platinum complex synthesis using the bispyridine ligands is done in hot water using transplatin. The most informative of the chemical characterization techniques to determine the structure and gross purity of both the bispyridine ligands and the final platinum complexes is 1
H NMR with particular analysis of the aromatic region of the spectra (7-9 ppm). The platinum complexes have potential application as anticancer agents and the synthesis method can be modified to produce trinuclear and other multinuclear complexes with different hydrogen bonding functionality in the bridging ligand.
Chemistry, Issue 87, BBR3464, picoplatin, bispyridine, amide coupling, inorganic synthesis, cancer
Measuring Attentional Biases for Threat in Children and Adults
Institutions: Rutgers University.
Investigators have long been interested in the human propensity for the rapid detection of threatening stimuli. However, until recently, research in this domain has focused almost exclusively on adult participants, completely ignoring the topic of threat detection over the course of development. One of the biggest reasons for the lack of developmental work in this area is likely the absence of a reliable paradigm that can measure perceptual biases for threat in children. To address this issue, we recently designed a modified visual search paradigm similar to the standard adult paradigm that is appropriate for studying threat detection in preschool-aged participants. Here we describe this new procedure. In the general paradigm, we present participants with matrices of color photographs, and ask them to find and touch a target on the screen. Latency to touch the target is recorded. Using a touch-screen monitor makes the procedure simple and easy, allowing us to collect data in participants ranging from 3 years of age to adults. Thus far, the paradigm has consistently shown that both adults and children detect threatening stimuli (e.g.,
snakes, spiders, angry/fearful faces) more quickly than neutral stimuli (e.g.,
flowers, mushrooms, happy/neutral faces). Altogether, this procedure provides an important new tool for researchers interested in studying the development of attentional biases for threat.
Behavior, Issue 92, Detection, threat, attention, attentional bias, anxiety, visual search
Synthesis of Indoxyl-glycosides for Detection of Glycosidase Activities
Institutions: University of Hamburg.
Indoxyl glycosides proved to be valuable and versatile tools for monitoring glycosidase activities. Indoxyls are released by enzymatic hydrolysis and are rapidly oxidized, for example by atmospheric oxygen, to indigo type dyes. This reaction enables fast and easy screening in vivo
without isolation or purification of enzymes, as well as rapid tests on agar plates or in solution (e.g.,
blue-white screening, micro-wells) and is used in biochemistry, histochemistry, bacteriology and molecular biology. Unfortunately the synthesis of such substrates proved to be difficult, due to various side reactions and the low reactivity of the indoxyl hydroxyl function. Especially for glucose type structures low yields were observed. Our novel approach employs indoxylic acid ester as key intermediates. Indoxylic acid esters with varied substitution patterns were prepared on scalable pathways. Phase transfer glycosylations with those acceptors and peracetylated glycosyl halides can be performed under common conditions in high yields. Ester cleavage and subsequent mild silver mediated glycosylation yields the peracetylated indoxyl glycosides in high yields. Finally deprotection is performed according to Zemplén.
Chemistry, Issue 99, Carbohydrates, Indoxyl-Glycosides, Indoxylic Acid Esters, Decarboxylation, Dyes/Pigments, Enzyme Activity, Nitrogen Heterocycles
Biofunctionalized Prussian Blue Nanoparticles for Multimodal Molecular Imaging Applications
Institutions: Children's National Medical Center, University of Maryland, George Washington University, George Washington University.
Multimodal, molecular imaging allows the visualization of biological processes at cellular, subcellular, and molecular-level resolutions using multiple, complementary imaging techniques. These imaging agents facilitate the real-time assessment of pathways and mechanisms in vivo
, which enhance both diagnostic and therapeutic efficacy. This article presents the protocol for the synthesis of biofunctionalized Prussian blue nanoparticles (PB NPs) - a novel class of agents for use in multimodal, molecular imaging applications. The imaging modalities incorporated in the nanoparticles, fluorescence imaging and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), have complementary features. The PB NPs possess a core-shell design where gadolinium and manganese ions incorporated within the interstitial spaces of the PB lattice generate MRI contrast, both in T1
-weighted sequences. The PB NPs are coated with fluorescent avidin using electrostatic self-assembly, which enables fluorescence imaging. The avidin-coated nanoparticles are modified with biotinylated ligands that confer molecular targeting capabilities to the nanoparticles. The stability and toxicity of the nanoparticles are measured, as well as their MRI relaxivities. The multimodal, molecular imaging capabilities of these biofunctionalized PB NPs are then demonstrated by using them for fluorescence imaging and molecular MRI in vitro
Bioengineering, Issue 98, Prussian blue, nanoparticles, multimodal imaging, molecular imaging, fluorescence, magnetic resonance imaging, gadolinium, manganese
Analyzing the Functions of Mast Cells In Vivo Using 'Mast Cell Knock-in' Mice
Institutions: Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine.
Mast cells (MCs) are hematopoietic cells which reside in various tissues, and are especially abundant at sites exposed to the external environment, such as skin, airways and gastrointestinal tract. Best known for their detrimental role in IgE-dependent allergic reactions, MCs have also emerged as important players in host defense against venom and invading bacteria and parasites. MC phenotype and function can be influenced by microenvironmental factors that may differ according to anatomic location and/or based on the type or stage of development of immune responses. For this reason, we and others have favored in vivo
approaches over in vitro
methods to gain insight into MC functions. Here, we describe methods for the generation of mouse bone marrow-derived cultured MCs (BMCMCs), their adoptive transfer into genetically MC-deficient mice, and the analysis of the numbers and distribution of adoptively transferred MCs at different anatomical sites. This method, named the ‘mast cell knock-in’
approach, has been extensively used over the past 30 years to assess the functions of MCs and MC-derived products in vivo
. We discuss the advantages and limitations of this method, in light of alternative approaches that have been developed in recent years.
Immunology, Issue 99, c-kit, stem cell factor, FcεRI, immunoglobulin E, mouse model, adoptive transfer, immunology, allergy
High-throughput Screening for Broad-spectrum Chemical Inhibitors of RNA Viruses
Institutions: Institut Pasteur, CNRS UMR3569, Institut Pasteur, CNRS UMR3523, Institut Pasteur.
RNA viruses are responsible for major human diseases such as flu, bronchitis, dengue, Hepatitis C or measles. They also represent an emerging threat because of increased worldwide exchanges and human populations penetrating more and more natural ecosystems. A good example of such an emerging situation is chikungunya virus epidemics of 2005-2006 in the Indian Ocean. Recent progresses in our understanding of cellular pathways controlling viral replication suggest that compounds targeting host cell functions, rather than the virus itself, could inhibit a large panel of RNA viruses. Some broad-spectrum antiviral compounds have been identified with host target-oriented assays. However, measuring the inhibition of viral replication in cell cultures using reduction of cytopathic effects as a readout still represents a paramount screening strategy. Such functional screens have been greatly improved by the development of recombinant viruses expressing reporter enzymes capable of bioluminescence such as luciferase. In the present report, we detail a high-throughput screening pipeline, which combines recombinant measles and chikungunya viruses with cellular viability assays, to identify compounds with a broad-spectrum antiviral profile.
Immunology, Issue 87, Viral infections, high-throughput screening assays, broad-spectrum antivirals, chikungunya virus, measles virus, luciferase reporter, chemical libraries
Measuring Changes in Tactile Sensitivity in the Hind Paw of Mice Using an Electronic von Frey Apparatus
Institutions: Macalester College.
Measuring inflammation-induced changes in thresholds of hind paw withdrawal from mechanical pressure is a useful technique to assess changes in pain perception in rodents. Withdrawal thresholds can be measured first at baseline and then following drug, venom, injury, allergen, or otherwise evoked inflammation by applying an accurate force on very specific areas of the skin. An electronic von Frey apparatus allows precise assessment of mouse hind paw withdrawal thresholds that are not limited by the available filament sizes in contrast to classical von Frey measurements. The ease and rapidity of measurements allow for incorporation of assessment of tactile sensitivity outcomes in diverse models of rapid-onset inflammatory and neuropathic pain as multiple measurements can be taken within a short time period. Experimental measurements for individual rodent subjects can be internally controlled against individual baseline responses and exclusion criteria easily established to standardize baseline responses within and across experimental groups. Thus, measurements using an electronic von Frey apparatus represent a useful modification of the well-established classical von Frey filament-based assays for rodent mechanical allodynia that may also be applied to other nonhuman mammalian models.
Neuroscience, Issue 82, Natural Science Disciplines, Life Sciences (General), Behavioral Sciences, mechanical hyperalgesia, mice, electronic pressure meter, inflammation, snake venom
Cellular Lipid Extraction for Targeted Stable Isotope Dilution Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Analysis
Institutions: University of Pennsylvania , University of Pennsylvania .
The metabolism of fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid (AA) and linoleic acid (LA), results in the formation of oxidized bioactive lipids, including numerous stereoisomers1,2
. These metabolites can be formed from free or esterified fatty acids. Many of these oxidized metabolites have biological activity and have been implicated in various diseases including cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, asthma, and cancer3-7
. Oxidized bioactive lipids can be formed enzymatically or by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Enzymes that metabolize fatty acids include cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (LO), and cytochromes P450 (CYPs)1,8
. Enzymatic metabolism results in enantioselective formation whereas ROS oxidation results in the racemic formation of products.
While this protocol focuses primarily on the analysis of AA- and some LA-derived bioactive metabolites; it could be easily applied to metabolites of other fatty acids. Bioactive lipids are extracted from cell lysate or media using liquid-liquid (l-l) extraction. At the beginning of the l-l extraction process, stable isotope internal standards are added to account for errors during sample preparation. Stable isotope dilution (SID) also accounts for any differences, such as ion suppression, that metabolites may experience during the mass spectrometry (MS) analysis9
. After the extraction, derivatization with an electron capture (EC) reagent, pentafluorylbenzyl bromide (PFB) is employed to increase detection sensitivity10,11
. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) is used to increase the selectivity of the MS analysis. Before MS analysis, lipids are separated using chiral normal phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The HPLC conditions are optimized to separate the enantiomers and various stereoisomers of the monitored lipids12
. This specific LC-MS method monitors prostaglandins (PGs), isoprostanes (isoPs), hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs), hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids (HODEs), oxoeicosatetraenoic acids (oxoETEs) and oxooctadecadienoic acids (oxoODEs); however, the HPLC and MS parameters can be optimized to include any fatty acid metabolites13
Most of the currently available bioanalytical methods do not take into account the separate quantification of enantiomers. This is extremely important when trying to deduce whether or not the metabolites were formed enzymatically or by ROS. Additionally, the ratios of the enantiomers may provide evidence for a specific enzymatic pathway of formation. The use of SID allows for accurate quantification of metabolites and accounts for any sample loss during preparation as well as the differences experienced during ionization. Using the PFB electron capture reagent increases the sensitivity of detection by two orders of magnitude over conventional APCI methods. Overall, this method, SID-LC-EC-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization APCI-MRM/MS, is one of the most sensitive, selective, and accurate methods of quantification for bioactive lipids.
Bioengineering, Issue 57, lipids, extraction, stable isotope dilution, chiral chromatography, electron capture, mass spectrometry
Solid Phase Synthesis of a Functionalized Bis-Peptide Using "Safety Catch" Methodology
Institutions: Temple University .
In 1962, R.B. Merrifield published the first procedure using solid-phase peptide synthesis as a novel route to efficiently synthesize peptides. This technique quickly proved advantageous over its solution-phase predecessor in both time and labor. Improvements concerning the nature of solid support, the protecting groups employed and the coupling methods employed over the last five decades have only increased the usefulness of Merrifield's original system. Today, use of a Boc-based protection and base/nucleophile cleavable resin strategy or Fmoc-based protection and acidic cleavable resin strategy, pioneered by R.C. Sheppard, are most commonly used for the synthesis of peptides1
Inspired by Merrifield's solid supported strategy, we have developed a Boc/tert-butyl solid-phase synthesis strategy for the assembly of functionalized bis-peptides2
, which is described herein. The use of solid-phase synthesis compared to solution-phase methodology is not only advantageous in both time and labor as described by Merrifield1
, but also allows greater ease in the synthesis of bis-peptide libraries. The synthesis that we demonstrate here incorporates a final cleavage stage that uses a two-step "safety catch" mechanism to release the functionalized bis-peptide from the resin by diketopiperazine formation.
Bis-peptides are rigid, spiro-ladder oligomers of bis-amino acids that are able to position functionality in a predictable and designable way, controlled by the type and stereochemistry of the monomeric units and the connectivity between each monomer. Each bis-amino acid is a stereochemically pure, cyclic scaffold that contains two amino acids (a carboxylic acid with an α-amine)3,4
. Our laboratory is currently investigating the potential of functional bis-peptides across a wide variety of fields including catalysis, protein-protein interactions and nanomaterials.
Chemistry, Issue 63, bis-peptides, solid phase peptide synthesis, bis-amino acids, safety catch, HMBA, DTRA
High-throughput Screening for Small-molecule Modulators of Inward Rectifier Potassium Channels
Institutions: Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine.
Specific members of the inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channel family are postulated drug targets for a variety of disorders, including hypertension, atrial fibrillation, and pain1,2
. For the most part, however, progress toward understanding their therapeutic potential or even basic physiological functions has been slowed by the lack of good pharmacological tools. Indeed, the molecular pharmacology of the inward rectifier family has lagged far behind that of the S4 superfamily of voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels, for which a number of nanomolar-affinity and highly selective peptide toxin modulators have been discovered3
. The bee venom toxin tertiapin and its derivatives are potent inhibitors of Kir1.1 and Kir3 channels4,5
, but peptides are of limited use therapeutically as well as experimentally due to their antigenic properties and poor bioavailability, metabolic stability and tissue penetrance. The development of potent and selective small-molecule probes with improved pharmacological properties will be a key to fully understanding the physiology and therapeutic potential of Kir channels.
The Molecular Libraries Probes Production Center Network (MLPCN) supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Common Fund has created opportunities for academic scientists to initiate probe discovery campaigns for molecular targets and signaling pathways in need of better pharmacology6
. The MLPCN provides researchers access to industry-scale screening centers and medicinal chemistry and informatics support to develop small-molecule probes to elucidate the function of genes and gene networks. The critical step in gaining entry to the MLPCN is the development of a robust target- or pathway-specific assay that is amenable for high-throughput screening (HTS).
Here, we describe how to develop a fluorescence-based thallium (Tl+
) flux assay of Kir channel function for high-throughput compound screening7,8,9,10
.The assay is based on the permeability of the K+
channel pore to the K+
. A commercially available fluorescent Tl+
reporter dye is used to detect transmembrane flux of Tl+
through the pore. There are at least three commercially available dyes that are suitable for Tl+
flux assays: BTC, FluoZin-2, and FluxOR7,8
. This protocol describes assay development using FluoZin-2. Although originally developed and marketed as a zinc indicator, FluoZin-2 exhibits a robust and dose-dependent increase in fluorescence emission upon Tl+
binding. We began working with FluoZin-2 before FluxOR was available7,8
and have continued to do so9,10
. However, the steps in assay development are essentially identical for all three dyes, and users should determine which dye is most appropriate for their specific needs. We also discuss the assay's performance benchmarks that must be reached to be considered for entry to the MLPCN. Since Tl+
readily permeates most K+
channels, the assay should be adaptable to most K+
Biochemistry, Issue 71, Molecular Biology, Chemistry, Cellular Biology, Chemical Biology, Pharmacology, Molecular Pharmacology, Potassium channels, drug discovery, drug screening, high throughput, small molecules, fluorescence, thallium flux, checkerboard analysis, DMSO, cell lines, screen, assay, assay development
Protein WISDOM: A Workbench for In silico De novo Design of BioMolecules
Institutions: Princeton University.
The aim of de novo
protein design is to find the amino acid sequences that will fold into a desired 3-dimensional structure with improvements in specific properties, such as binding affinity, agonist or antagonist behavior, or stability, relative to the native sequence. Protein design lies at the center of current advances drug design and discovery. Not only does protein design provide predictions for potentially useful drug targets, but it also enhances our understanding of the protein folding process and protein-protein interactions. Experimental methods such as directed evolution have shown success in protein design. However, such methods are restricted by the limited sequence space that can be searched tractably. In contrast, computational design strategies allow for the screening of a much larger set of sequences covering a wide variety of properties and functionality. We have developed a range of computational de novo
protein design methods capable of tackling several important areas of protein design. These include the design of monomeric proteins for increased stability and complexes for increased binding affinity.
To disseminate these methods for broader use we present Protein WISDOM (http://www.proteinwisdom.org), a tool that provides automated methods for a variety of protein design problems. Structural templates are submitted to initialize the design process. The first stage of design is an optimization sequence selection stage that aims at improving stability through minimization of potential energy in the sequence space. Selected sequences are then run through a fold specificity stage and a binding affinity stage. A rank-ordered list of the sequences for each step of the process, along with relevant designed structures, provides the user with a comprehensive quantitative assessment of the design. Here we provide the details of each design method, as well as several notable experimental successes attained through the use of the methods.
Genetics, Issue 77, Molecular Biology, Bioengineering, Biochemistry, Biomedical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Computational Biology, Genomics, Proteomics, Protein, Protein Binding, Computational Biology, Drug Design, optimization (mathematics), Amino Acids, Peptides, and Proteins, De novo protein and peptide design, Drug design, In silico sequence selection, Optimization, Fold specificity, Binding affinity, sequencing
One Minute, Sub-One-Watt Photothermal Tumor Ablation Using Porphysomes, Intrinsic Multifunctional Nanovesicles
Institutions: University of Toronto, University of Toronto, Campbell Family Institute For Cancer Research and Techna Institute, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York.
We recently developed porphysomes as intrinsically multifunctional nanovesicles. A photosensitizer, pyropheophorbide α, was conjugated to a phospholipid and then self-assembled to liposome-like spherical vesicles. Due to the extremely high density of porphyrin in the porphyrin-lipid bilayer, porphysomes generated large extinction coefficients, structure-dependent fluorescence self-quenching, and excellent photothermal efficacy. In our formulation, porphysomes were synthesized using high pressure extrusion, and displayed a mean particle size around 120 nm. Twenty-four hr post-intravenous injection of porphysomes, the local temperature of the tumor increased from 30 °C to 62 °C rapidly upon one minute exposure of 750 mW (1.18 W/cm2
), 671 nm laser irradiation. Following the complete thermal ablation of the tumor, eschars formed and healed within 2 weeks, while in the control groups the tumors continued to grow and all reached the defined end point within 3 weeks. These data show how porphysomes can be used as potent photothermal therapy (PTT) agents.
Bioengineering, Issue 79, Nanoparticles, Porphysome, photothermal therapy, nanoparticle, porphyrin
Polymalic Acid-based Nano Biopolymers for Targeting of Multiple Tumor Markers: An Opportunity for Personalized Medicine?
Institutions: Cedars-Sinai Medical Center.
Tumors with similar grade and morphology often respond differently to the same treatment because of variations in molecular profiling. To account for this diversity, personalized medicine is developed for silencing malignancy associated genes. Nano drugs fit these needs by targeting tumor and delivering antisense oligonucleotides for silencing of genes. As drugs for the treatment are often administered repeatedly, absence of toxicity and negligible immune response are desirable. In the example presented here, a nano medicine is synthesized from the biodegradable, non-toxic and non-immunogenic platform polymalic acid by controlled chemical ligation of antisense oligonucleotides and tumor targeting molecules. The synthesis and treatment is exemplified for human Her2-positive breast cancer using an experimental mouse model. The case can be translated towards synthesis and treatment of other tumors.
Chemistry, Issue 88, Cancer treatment, personalized medicine, polymalic acid, nanodrug, biopolymer, targeting, host compatibility, biodegradability
A Microplate Assay to Assess Chemical Effects on RBL-2H3 Mast Cell Degranulation: Effects of Triclosan without Use of an Organic Solvent
Institutions: University of Maine, Orono, University of Maine, Orono.
Mast cells play important roles in allergic disease and immune defense against parasites. Once activated (e.g.
by an allergen), they degranulate, a process that results in the exocytosis of allergic mediators. Modulation of mast cell degranulation by drugs and toxicants may have positive or adverse effects on human health. Mast cell function has been dissected in detail with the use of rat basophilic leukemia mast cells (RBL-2H3), a widely accepted model of human mucosal mast cells3-5
. Mast cell granule component and the allergic mediator β-hexosaminidase, which is released linearly in tandem with histamine from mast cells6
, can easily and reliably be measured through reaction with a fluorogenic substrate, yielding measurable fluorescence intensity in a microplate assay that is amenable to high-throughput studies1
. Originally published by Naal et al.1
, we have adapted this degranulation assay for the screening of drugs and toxicants and demonstrate its use here.
Triclosan is a broad-spectrum antibacterial agent that is present in many consumer products and has been found to be a therapeutic aid in human allergic skin disease7-11
, although the mechanism for this effect is unknown. Here we demonstrate an assay for the effect of triclosan on mast cell degranulation. We recently showed that triclosan strongly affects mast cell function2
. In an effort to avoid use of an organic solvent, triclosan is dissolved directly into aqueous buffer with heat and stirring, and resultant concentration is confirmed using UV-Vis spectrophotometry (using ε280
= 4,200 L/M/cm)12
. This protocol has the potential to be used with a variety of chemicals to determine their effects on mast cell degranulation, and more broadly, their allergic potential.
Immunology, Issue 81, mast cell, basophil, degranulation, RBL-2H3, triclosan, irgasan, antibacterial, β-hexosaminidase, allergy, Asthma, toxicants, ionophore, antigen, fluorescence, microplate, UV-Vis
Assays for the Identification of Novel Antivirals against Bluetongue Virus
Institutions: University of Alabama at Birmingham, Auburn University.
To identify potential antivirals against BTV, we have developed, optimized and validated three assays presented here. The CPE-based assay was the first assay developed to evaluate whether a compound showed any antiviral efficacy and have been used to screen large compound library. Meanwhile, cytotoxicity of antivirals could also be evaluated using the CPE-based assay. The dose-response assay was designed to determine the range of efficacy for the selected antiviral, i.e.
50% inhibitory concentration (IC50
) or effective concentration (EC50
), as well as its range of cytotoxicity (CC50
). The ToA assay was employed for the initial MoA study to determine the underlying mechanism of the novel antivirals during BTV viral lifecycle or the possible effect on host cellular machinery. These assays are vital for the evaluation of antiviral efficacy in cell culture system, and have been used for our recent researches leading to the identification of a number of novel antivirals against BTV.
Immunology, Issue 80, Drug Discovery, Drug Evaluation, Preclinical, Evaluation Studies as Topic, Drug Evaluation, Feasibility Studies, Biological Assay, Technology, Pharmaceutical, High-Throughput Screening Assays, Animal Diseases, Investigative Techniques, Antiviral, Efficacy, Bluetongue Virus, Cytopathic effect, Dose response, Time-of-Addition, Mechanism-of-Action
In vitro Coculture Assay to Assess Pathogen Induced Neutrophil Trans-epithelial Migration
Institutions: Harvard Medical School, MGH for Children, Massachusetts General Hospital.
Mucosal surfaces serve as protective barriers against pathogenic organisms. Innate immune responses are activated upon sensing pathogen leading to the infiltration of tissues with migrating inflammatory cells, primarily neutrophils. This process has the potential to be destructive to tissues if excessive or held in an unresolved state. Cocultured in vitro
models can be utilized to study the unique molecular mechanisms involved in pathogen induced neutrophil trans-epithelial migration. This type of model provides versatility in experimental design with opportunity for controlled manipulation of the pathogen, epithelial barrier, or neutrophil. Pathogenic infection of the apical surface of polarized epithelial monolayers grown on permeable transwell filters instigates physiologically relevant basolateral to apical trans-epithelial migration of neutrophils applied to the basolateral surface. The in vitro
model described herein demonstrates the multiple steps necessary for demonstrating neutrophil migration across a polarized lung epithelial monolayer that has been infected with pathogenic P. aeruginosa
(PAO1). Seeding and culturing of permeable transwells with human derived lung epithelial cells is described, along with isolation of neutrophils from whole human blood and culturing of PAO1 and nonpathogenic K12 E. coli
(MC1000). The emigrational process and quantitative analysis of successfully migrated neutrophils that have been mobilized in response to pathogenic infection is shown with representative data, including positive and negative controls. This in vitro
model system can be manipulated and applied to other mucosal surfaces. Inflammatory responses that involve excessive neutrophil infiltration can be destructive to host tissues and can occur in the absence of pathogenic infections. A better understanding of the molecular mechanisms that promote neutrophil trans-epithelial migration through experimental manipulation of the in vitro
coculture assay system described herein has significant potential to identify novel therapeutic targets for a range of mucosal infectious as well as inflammatory diseases.
Infection, Issue 83, Cellular Biology, Epithelium, Neutrophils, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Respiratory Tract Diseases, Neutrophils, epithelial barriers, pathogens, transmigration
Intralymphatic Immunotherapy and Vaccination in Mice
Institutions: University Hospital Zurich.
Vaccines are typically injected subcutaneously or intramuscularly for stimulation of immune responses. The success of this requires efficient drainage of vaccine to lymph nodes where antigen presenting cells can interact with lymphocytes for generation of the wanted immune responses. The strength and the type of immune responses induced also depend on the density or frequency of interactions as well as the microenvironment, especially the content of cytokines. As only a minute fraction of peripherally injected vaccines reaches the lymph nodes, vaccinations of mice and humans were performed by direct injection of vaccine into inguinal lymph nodes, i.e.
intralymphatic injection. In man, the procedure is guided by ultrasound. In mice, a small (5-10 mm) incision is made in the inguinal region of anesthetized animals, the lymph node is localized and immobilized with forceps, and a volume of 10-20 μl of the vaccine is injected under visual control. The incision is closed with a single stitch using surgical sutures. Mice were vaccinated with plasmid DNA, RNA, peptide, protein, particles, and bacteria as well as adjuvants, and strong improvement of immune responses against all type of vaccines was observed. The intralymphatic method of vaccination is especially appropriate in situations where conventional vaccination produces insufficient immunity or where the amount of available vaccine is limited.
Immunology, Issue 84, Vaccination, Immunization, intralymphatic immunotherapy, Lymph node injection, vaccines, adjuvants, surgery, anesthesia
Facile and Efficient Preparation of Tri-component Fluorescent Glycopolymers via RAFT-controlled Polymerization
Institutions: University of Missouri, University of Missouri, University of Missouri, University of Missouri.
Synthetic glycopolymers are instrumental and versatile tools used in various biochemical and biomedical research fields. An example of a facile and efficient synthesis of well-controlled fluorescent statistical glycopolymers using reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT)-based polymerization is demonstrated. The synthesis starts with the preparation of β-galactose-containing glycomonomer 2-lactobionamidoethyl methacrylamide obtained by reaction of lactobionolactone and N
-(2-aminoethyl) methacrylamide (AEMA). 2-Gluconamidoethyl methacrylamide (GAEMA) is used as a structural analog lacking a terminal β-galactoside. The following RAFT-mediated copolymerization reaction involves three different monomers: N
-(2-hydroxyethyl) acrylamide as spacer, AEMA as target for further fluorescence labeling, and the glycomonomers. Tolerant of aqueous systems, the RAFT agent used in the reaction is (4-cyanopentanoic acid)-4-dithiobenzoate. Low dispersities (≤1.32), predictable copolymer compositions, and high reproducibility of the polymerizations were observed among the products. Fluorescent polymers are obtained by modifying the glycopolymers with carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester targeting the primary amine functional groups on AEMA. Lectin-binding specificities of the resulting glycopolymers are verified by testing with corresponding agarose beads coated with specific glycoepitope recognizing lectins. Because of the ease of the synthesis, the tight control of the product compositions and the good reproducibility of the reaction, this protocol can be translated towards preparation of other RAFT-based glycopolymers with specific structures and compositions, as desired.
Chemistry, Issue 100, reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer agents, RAFT, glycopolymer, radical polymerization, carbohydrate, pendant sugar, multivalency, copolymerization, lectin, carbohydrate binding