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Cellular MicroRNA Let-7a Suppresses KSHV Replication through Targeting MAP4K4 Signaling Pathways.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2015
Kaposi's sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent of KS, the most common AIDS-related malignancy. The majority of KS tumor cells harbor latent KSHV virus but only a small percentage undergoes spontaneous lytic replication. Viral reactivation from latency is crucial for the pathogenesis and development of KS, but the cellular mechanisms underlying the switch between viral latency and replication are not well understood.
Authors: Xiaonan Dong, Pinghui Feng.
Published: 10-07-2011
In response to viral infection, a host develops various defensive responses, such as activating innate immune signaling pathways that lead to antiviral cytokine production1,2. In order to colonize the host, viruses are obligate to evade host antiviral responses and manipulate signaling pathways. Unraveling the host-virus interaction will shed light on the development of novel therapeutic strategies against viral infection. Murine γHV68 is closely related to human oncogenic Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus and Epsten-Barr virus3,4. γHV68 infection in laboratory mice provides a tractable small animal model to examine the entire course of host responses and viral infection in vivo, which are not available for human herpesviruses. In this protocol, we present a panel of methods for phenotypic characterization and molecular dissection of host signaling components in γHV68 lytic replication both in vivo and ex vivo. The availability of genetically modified mouse strains permits the interrogation of the roles of host signaling pathways during γHV68 acute infection in vivo. Additionally, mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) isolated from these deficient mouse strains can be used to further dissect roles of these molecules during γHV68 lytic replication ex vivo. Using virological and molecular biology assays, we can pinpoint the molecular mechanism of host-virus interactions and identify host and viral genes essential for viral lytic replication. Finally, a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) system facilitates the introduction of mutations into the viral factor(s) that specifically interrupt the host-virus interaction. Recombinant γHV68 carrying these mutations can be used to recapitulate the phenotypes of γHV68 lytic replication in MEFs deficient in key host signaling components. This protocol offers an excellent strategy to interrogate host-pathogen interaction at multiple levels of intervention in vivo and ex vivo. Recently, we have discovered that γHV68 usurps an innate immune signaling pathway to promote viral lytic replication5. Specifically, γHV68 de novo infection activates the immune kinase IKKβ and activated IKKβ phosphorylates the master viral transcription factor, replication and transactivator (RTA), to promote viral transcriptional activation. In doing so, γHV68 efficiently couples its transcriptional activation to host innate immune activation, thereby facilitating viral transcription and lytic replication. This study provides an excellent example that can be applied to other viruses to interrogate host-virus interaction.
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Identifying Dysregulated Genes Induced by Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated Herpesvirus (KSHV)
Authors: Donald Alcendor, Susan Knobel.
Institutions: Meharry Medical College.
Currently KS is the most predominant HIV/AIDS related malignancy in Southern Africa and hence the world.1,2 It is characterized as an angioproliferative tumor of vascular endothelial cells and produces rare B cell lymphoproliferative diseases in the form of pleural effusion lymphomas (PEL) and some forms of multicentric Castleman's disease.3-5 Only 1-5% of cells in KS lesions actively support lytic replication of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), the etiological agent associated with KS, and it is clear that cellular factors must interact with viral factors in the process of oncogenesis and tumor progression.6,7 Identifying novel host-factor determinants which contribute to KS pathology is essential for developing prognostic markers for tumor progression and metastasis as well as for developing novel therapeutics for the treatment of KS.8 The accompanying video details the methods we use to identify host cell gene expression programs altered in dermal microvascular endothelial cells (DMVEC) after KSHV infection and in KS tumor tissue.9 Once dysregulated genes are identified by microarray analysis, changes in protein expression are confirmed by immunoblot and dual labeled immunofluorescence. Changes in transcriptional expression of dysregulated genes are confirmed in vitro by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Validation of in vitro findings using archival KS tumor tissue is also performed by dual labeled immunochemistry and tissue microarrays.8,10 Our approach to identifying dysregulated genes in the KS tumor tissue microenvironment will allow the development of in vitro and subsequently in vivo model systems for discovery and evaluation of potential novel therapeutic for the treatment of KS.
Immunology, Issue 43, virology, Kaposi's sarcoma, microarrays, infection, microscopy
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Dissecting Innate Immune Signaling in Viral Evasion of Cytokine Production
Authors: Junjie Zhang, Lining Zhu, Pinghui Feng.
Institutions: Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California.
In response to a viral infection, the host innate immune response is activated to up-regulate gene expression and production of antiviral cytokines. Conversely, viruses have evolved intricate strategies to evade and exploit host immune signaling for survival and propagation. Viral immune evasion, entailing host defense and viral evasion, provides one of the most fascinating and dynamic interfaces to discern the host-virus interaction. These studies advance our understanding in innate immune regulation and pave our way to develop novel antiviral therapies. Murine γHV68 is a natural pathogen of murine rodents. γHV68 infection of mice provides a tractable small animal model to examine the antiviral response to human KSHV and EBV of which perturbation of in vivo virus-host interactions is not applicable. Here we describe a protocol to determine the antiviral cytokine production. This protocol can be adapted to other viruses and signaling pathways. Recently, we have discovered that γHV68 hijacks MAVS and IKKβ, key innate immune signaling components downstream of the cytosolic RIG-I and MDA5, to abrogate NFΚB activation and antiviral cytokine production. Specifically, γHV68 infection activates IKKβ and that activated IKKβ phosphorylates RelA to accelerate RelA degradation. As such, γHV68 efficiently uncouples NFΚB activation from its upstream activated IKKβ, negating antiviral cytokine gene expression. This study elucidates an intricate strategy whereby the upstream innate immune activation is intercepted by a viral pathogen to nullify the immediate downstream transcriptional activation and evade antiviral cytokine production.
Immunology, Issue 85, Herpesviridae, Cytokines, Antiviral Agents, Innate, gamma-HV68, mice infection, MEF, antiviral cytokine
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Monitoring Plasmid Replication in Live Mammalian Cells over Multiple Generations by Fluorescence Microscopy
Authors: Kathryn Norby, Ya-Fang Chiu, Bill Sugden.
Institutions: University of Wisconsin - Madison.
Few naturally-occurring plasmids are maintained in mammalian cells. Among these are genomes of gamma-herpesviruses, including Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi's Sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), which cause multiple human malignancies 1-3. These two genomes are replicated in a licensed manner, each using a single viral protein and cellular replication machinery, and are passed to daughter cells during cell division despite their lacking traditional centromeres 4-8. Much work has been done to characterize the replications of these plasmid genomes using methods such as Southern blotting and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). These methods are limited, though. Quantitative PCR and Southern blots provide information about the average number of plasmids per cell in a population of cells. FISH is a single-cell assay that reveals both the average number and the distribution of plasmids per cell in the population of cells but is static, allowing no information about the parent or progeny of the examined cell. Here, we describe a method for visualizing plasmids in live cells. This method is based on the binding of a fluorescently tagged lactose repressor protein to multiple sites in the plasmid of interest 9. The DNA of interest is engineered to include approximately 250 tandem repeats of the lactose operator (LacO) sequence. LacO is specifically bound by the lactose repressor protein (LacI), which can be fused to a fluorescent protein. The fusion protein can either be expressed from the engineered plasmid or introduced by a retroviral vector. In this way, the DNA molecules are fluorescently tagged and therefore become visible via fluorescence microscopy. The fusion protein is blocked from binding the plasmid DNA by culturing cells in the presence of IPTG until the plasmids are ready to be viewed. This system allows the plasmids to be monitored in living cells through several generations, revealing properties of their synthesis and partitioning to daughter cells. Ideal cells are adherent, easily transfected, and have large nuclei. This technique has been used to determine that 84% of EBV-derived plasmids are synthesized each generation and 88% of the newly synthesized plasmids partition faithfully to daughter cells in HeLa cells. Pairs of these EBV plasmids were seen to be tethered to or associated with sister chromatids after their synthesis in S-phase until they were seen to separate as the sister chromatids separated in Anaphase10. The method is currently being used to study replication of KSHV genomes in HeLa cells and SLK cells. HeLa cells are immortalized human epithelial cells, and SLK cells are immortalized human endothelial cells. Though SLK cells were originally derived from a KSHV lesion, neither the HeLa nor SLK cell line naturally harbors KSHV genomes11. In addition to studying viral replication, this visualization technique can be used to investigate the effects of the addition, removal, or mutation of various DNA sequence elements on synthesis, localization, and partitioning of other recombinant plasmid DNAs.
Genetics, Issue 70, Molecular Biology, Cellular Biology, Genomics, DNA synthesis, DNA partitioning, plasmids, lac operator, lac repressor, mammalian cells, fluorescence microscopy
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Adenoviral Transduction of Naive CD4 T Cells to Study Treg Differentiation
Authors: Sebastian C. Warth, Vigo Heissmeyer.
Institutions: Helmholtz Zentrum München.
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are essential to provide immune tolerance to self as well as to certain foreign antigens. Tregs can be generated from naive CD4 T cells in vitro with TCR- and co-stimulation in the presence of TGFβ and IL-2. This bears enormous potential for future therapies, however, the molecules and signaling pathways that control differentiation are largely unknown. Primary T cells can be manipulated through ectopic gene expression, but common methods fail to target the most important naive state of the T cell prior to primary antigen recognition. Here, we provide a protocol to express ectopic genes in naive CD4 T cells in vitro before inducing Treg differentiation. It applies transduction with the replication-deficient adenovirus and explains its generation and production. The adenovirus can take up large inserts (up to 7 kb) and can be equipped with promoters to achieve high and transient overexpression in T cells. It effectively transduces naive mouse T cells if they express a transgenic Coxsackie adenovirus receptor (CAR). Importantly, after infection the T cells remain naive (CD44low, CD62Lhigh) and resting (CD25-, CD69-) and can be activated and differentiated into Tregs similar to non-infected cells. Thus, this method enables manipulation of CD4 T cell differentiation from its very beginning. It ensures that ectopic gene expression is already in place when early signaling events of the initial TCR stimulation induces cellular changes that eventually lead into Treg differentiation.
Immunology, Issue 78, Cellular Biology, Molecular Biology, Medicine, Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, Infection, Genetics, Microbiology, Virology, T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory, CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory, Adenoviruses, Human, MicroRNAs, Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte, Gene Transfer Techniques, Transduction, Genetic, Transfection, Adenovirus, gene transfer, microRNA, overexpression, knock down, CD4 T cells, in vitro differentiation, regulatory T cell, virus, cell, flow cytometry
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Targeted Expression of GFP in the Hair Follicle Using Ex Vivo Viral Transduction
Authors: Robert M. Hoffman, Lingna Li.
Institutions: AntiCancer, Inc..
There are many cell types in the hair follicle, including hair matrix cells which form the hair shaft and stem cells which can initiate the hair shaft during early anagen, the growth phase of the hair cycle, as well as pluripotent stem cells that play a role in hair follicle growth but have the potential to differentiate to non-follicle cells such as neurons. These properties of the hair follicle are discussed. The various cell types of the hair follicle are potential targets for gene therapy. Gene delivery system for the hair follicle using viral vectors or liposomes for gene targeting to the various cell types in the hair follicle and the results obtained are also discussed.
Cellular Biology, Issue 13, Springer Protocols, hair follicles, liposomes, adenovirus, genes, stem cells
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Detection of the Genome and Transcripts of a Persistent DNA Virus in Neuronal Tissues by Fluorescent In situ Hybridization Combined with Immunostaining
Authors: Frédéric Catez, Antoine Rousseau, Marc Labetoulle, Patrick Lomonte.
Institutions: CNRS UMR 5534, Université de Lyon 1, LabEX DEVweCAN, CNRS UPR 3296, CNRS UMR 5286.
Single cell codetection of a gene, its RNA product and cellular regulatory proteins is critical to study gene expression regulation. This is a challenge in the field of virology; in particular for nuclear-replicating persistent DNA viruses that involve animal models for their study. Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) establishes a life-long latent infection in peripheral neurons. Latent virus serves as reservoir, from which it reactivates and induces a new herpetic episode. The cell biology of HSV-1 latency remains poorly understood, in part due to the lack of methods to detect HSV-1 genomes in situ in animal models. We describe a DNA-fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) approach efficiently detecting low-copy viral genomes within sections of neuronal tissues from infected animal models. The method relies on heat-based antigen unmasking, and directly labeled home-made DNA probes, or commercially available probes. We developed a triple staining approach, combining DNA-FISH with RNA-FISH and immunofluorescence, using peroxidase based signal amplification to accommodate each staining requirement. A major improvement is the ability to obtain, within 10 µm tissue sections, low-background signals that can be imaged at high resolution by confocal microscopy and wide-field conventional epifluorescence. Additionally, the triple staining worked with a wide range of antibodies directed against cellular and viral proteins. The complete protocol takes 2.5 days to accommodate antibody and probe penetration within the tissue.
Neuroscience, Issue 83, Life Sciences (General), Virology, Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV), Latency, In situ hybridization, Nuclear organization, Gene expression, Microscopy
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High-throughput Screening for Broad-spectrum Chemical Inhibitors of RNA Viruses
Authors: Marianne Lucas-Hourani, Hélène Munier-Lehmann, Olivier Helynck, Anastassia Komarova, Philippe Desprès, Frédéric Tangy, Pierre-Olivier Vidalain.
Institutions: Institut Pasteur, CNRS UMR3569, Institut Pasteur, CNRS UMR3523, Institut Pasteur.
RNA viruses are responsible for major human diseases such as flu, bronchitis, dengue, Hepatitis C or measles. They also represent an emerging threat because of increased worldwide exchanges and human populations penetrating more and more natural ecosystems. A good example of such an emerging situation is chikungunya virus epidemics of 2005-2006 in the Indian Ocean. Recent progresses in our understanding of cellular pathways controlling viral replication suggest that compounds targeting host cell functions, rather than the virus itself, could inhibit a large panel of RNA viruses. Some broad-spectrum antiviral compounds have been identified with host target-oriented assays. However, measuring the inhibition of viral replication in cell cultures using reduction of cytopathic effects as a readout still represents a paramount screening strategy. Such functional screens have been greatly improved by the development of recombinant viruses expressing reporter enzymes capable of bioluminescence such as luciferase. In the present report, we detail a high-throughput screening pipeline, which combines recombinant measles and chikungunya viruses with cellular viability assays, to identify compounds with a broad-spectrum antiviral profile.
Immunology, Issue 87, Viral infections, high-throughput screening assays, broad-spectrum antivirals, chikungunya virus, measles virus, luciferase reporter, chemical libraries
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A Restriction Enzyme Based Cloning Method to Assess the In vitro Replication Capacity of HIV-1 Subtype C Gag-MJ4 Chimeric Viruses
Authors: Daniel T. Claiborne, Jessica L. Prince, Eric Hunter.
Institutions: Emory University, Emory University.
The protective effect of many HLA class I alleles on HIV-1 pathogenesis and disease progression is, in part, attributed to their ability to target conserved portions of the HIV-1 genome that escape with difficulty. Sequence changes attributed to cellular immune pressure arise across the genome during infection, and if found within conserved regions of the genome such as Gag, can affect the ability of the virus to replicate in vitro. Transmission of HLA-linked polymorphisms in Gag to HLA-mismatched recipients has been associated with reduced set point viral loads. We hypothesized this may be due to a reduced replication capacity of the virus. Here we present a novel method for assessing the in vitro replication of HIV-1 as influenced by the gag gene isolated from acute time points from subtype C infected Zambians. This method uses restriction enzyme based cloning to insert the gag gene into a common subtype C HIV-1 proviral backbone, MJ4. This makes it more appropriate to the study of subtype C sequences than previous recombination based methods that have assessed the in vitro replication of chronically derived gag-pro sequences. Nevertheless, the protocol could be readily modified for studies of viruses from other subtypes. Moreover, this protocol details a robust and reproducible method for assessing the replication capacity of the Gag-MJ4 chimeric viruses on a CEM-based T cell line. This method was utilized for the study of Gag-MJ4 chimeric viruses derived from 149 subtype C acutely infected Zambians, and has allowed for the identification of residues in Gag that affect replication. More importantly, the implementation of this technique has facilitated a deeper understanding of how viral replication defines parameters of early HIV-1 pathogenesis such as set point viral load and longitudinal CD4+ T cell decline.
Infectious Diseases, Issue 90, HIV-1, Gag, viral replication, replication capacity, viral fitness, MJ4, CEM, GXR25
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Recurrent Herpetic Stromal Keratitis in Mice, a Model for Studying Human HSK
Authors: Jessica Morris, Patrick M. Stuart, Megan Rogge, Chloe Potter, Nipun Gupta, Xiao-Tang Yin.
Institutions: Saint Louis University.
Herpetic eye disease, termed herpetic stromal keratitis (HSK), is a potentially blinding infection of the cornea that results in over 300,000 clinical visits each year for treatment. Between 1 and 2 percent of those patients with clinical disease will experience loss of vision of the infected cornea. The vast majority of these cases are the result of reactivation of a latent infection by herpes simplex type I virus and not due to acute disease. Interestingly, the acute infection is the model most often used to study this disease. However, it was felt that a recurrent model of HSK would be more reflective of what occurs during clinical disease. The recurrent animal models for HSK have employed both rabbits and mice. The advantage of rabbits is that they experience reactivation from latency absent any known stimulus. That said, it is difficult to explore the role that many immunological factors play in recurrent HSK because the rabbit model does not have the immunological and genetic resources that the mouse has. We chose to use the mouse model for recurrent HSK because it has the advantage of there being many resources available and also we know when reactivation will occur because reactivation is induced by exposure to UV-B light. Thus far, this model has allowed those laboratories using it to define several immunological factors that are important to this disease. It has also allowed us to test both therapeutic and vaccine efficacy.
Infection, Issue 70, Immunology, Virology, Medicine, Infectious Diseases, Ophthalmology, Herpes, herpetic stromal keratitis, HSK, keratitis, pathogenesis, clinical evaluation, virus, eye, mouse, animal model
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Detection of MicroRNAs in Microglia by Real-time PCR in Normal CNS and During Neuroinflammation
Authors: Tatiana Veremeyko, Sarah-Christine Starossom, Howard L. Weiner, Eugene D. Ponomarev.
Institutions: Harvard Medical School.
Microglia are cells of the myeloid lineage that reside in the central nervous system (CNS)1. These cells play an important role in pathologies of many diseases associated with neuroinflammation such as multiple sclerosis (MS)2. Microglia in a normal CNS express macrophage marker CD11b and exhibit a resting phenotype by expressing low levels of activation markers such as CD45. During pathological events in the CNS, microglia become activated as determined by upregulation of CD45 and other markers3. The factors that affect microglia phenotype and functions in the CNS are not well studied. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a growing family of conserved molecules (~22 nucleotides long) that are involved in many normal physiological processes such as cell growth and differentiation4 and pathologies such as inflammation5. MiRNAs downregulate the expression of certain target genes by binding complementary sequences of their mRNAs and play an important role in the activation of innate immune cells including macrophages6 and microglia7. In order to investigate miRNA-mediated pathways that define the microglial phenotype, biological function, and to distinguish microglia from other types of macrophages, it is important to quantitatively assess the expression of particular microRNAs in distinct subsets of CNS-resident microglia. Common methods for measuring the expression of miRNAs in the CNS include quantitative PCR from whole neuronal tissue and in situ hybridization. However, quantitative PCR from whole tissue homogenate does not allow the assessment of the expression of miRNA in microglia, which represent only 5-15% of the cells of neuronal tissue. Hybridization in situ allows the assessment of the expression of microRNA in specific cell types in the tissue sections, but this method is not entirely quantitative. In this report we describe a quantitative and sensitive method for the detection of miRNA by real-time PCR in microglia isolated from normal CNS or during neuroinflammation using experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse model for MS. The described method will be useful to measure the level of expression of microRNAs in microglia in normal CNS or during neuroinflammation associated with various pathologies including MS, stroke, traumatic injury, Alzheimer's disease and brain tumors.
Immunology, Issue 65, Neuroscience, Genetics, microglia, macrophages, microRNA, brain, mouse, real-time PCR, neuroinflammation
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A Primary Neuron Culture System for the Study of Herpes Simplex Virus Latency and Reactivation
Authors: Mariko Kobayashi, Ju-Youn Kim, Vladimir Camarena, Pamela C. Roehm, Moses V. Chao, Angus C. Wilson, Ian Mohr.
Institutions: New York University School of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine.
Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) establishes a life-long latent infection in peripheral neurons. This latent reservoir is the source of recurrent reactivation events that ensure transmission and contribute to clinical disease. Current antivirals do not impact the latent reservoir and there are no vaccines. While the molecular details of lytic replication are well-characterized, mechanisms controlling latency in neurons remain elusive. Our present understanding of latency is derived from in vivo studies using small animal models, which have been indispensable for defining viral gene requirements and the role of immune responses. However, it is impossible to distinguish specific effects on the virus-neuron relationship from more general consequences of infection mediated by immune or non-neuronal support cells in live animals. In addition, animal experimentation is costly, time-consuming, and limited in terms of available options for manipulating host processes. To overcome these limitations, a neuron-only system is desperately needed that reproduces the in vivo characteristics of latency and reactivation but offers the benefits of tissue culture in terms of homogeneity and accessibility. Here we present an in vitro model utilizing cultured primary sympathetic neurons from rat superior cervical ganglia (SCG) (Figure 1) to study HSV-1 latency and reactivation that fits most if not all of the desired criteria. After eliminating non-neuronal cells, near-homogeneous TrkA+ neuron cultures are infected with HSV-1 in the presence of acyclovir (ACV) to suppress lytic replication. Following ACV removal, non-productive HSV-1 infections that faithfully exhibit accepted hallmarks of latency are efficiently established. Notably, lytic mRNAs, proteins, and infectious virus become undetectable, even in the absence of selection, but latency-associated transcript (LAT) expression persists in neuronal nuclei. Viral genomes are maintained at an average copy number of 25 per neuron and can be induced to productively replicate by interfering with PI3-Kinase / Akt signaling or the simple withdrawal of nerve growth factor1. A recombinant HSV-1 encoding EGFP fused to the viral lytic protein Us11 provides a functional, real-time marker for replication resulting from reactivation that is readily quantified. In addition to chemical treatments, genetic methodologies such as RNA-interference or gene delivery via lentiviral vectors can be successfully applied to the system permitting mechanistic studies that are very difficult, if not impossible, in animals. In summary, the SCG-based HSV-1 latency / reactivation system provides a powerful, necessary tool to unravel the molecular mechanisms controlling HSV1 latency and reactivation in neurons, a long standing puzzle in virology whose solution may offer fresh insights into developing new therapies that target the latent herpesvirus reservoir.
Immunology, Issue 62, neuron cell culture, Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV), molecular biology, virology
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Measurement of γHV68 Infection in Mice
Authors: Sara Dolatshahi Pirooz, Joo-Hyung Lee, Zhen Zhao, Duojiao Ni, Soohwan Oh, Chengyu Liang.
Institutions: University of Southern California, Los Angeles.
γ-Herpesviruses (γ-HVs) are notable for their ability to establish latent infections of lymphoid cells1. The narrow host range of human γ-HVs, such as EBV and KSHV, has severely hindered detailed pathogenic studies. Murine γ-herpesvirus 68 (γHV68) shares extensive genetic and biological similarities with human γ-HVs and is a natural pathogen of murid rodents2. As such, evaluation of γHV68 infection of mice inbred strains at different stages of viral infection provides an important model for understanding viral lifecycle and pathogenesis during γ-HVs infection. Upon intranasal inoculation, γHV68 infection results in acute viremia in the lung that is later resolved into a latent infection of splenocytes and other cells, which may be reactivated throughout the life of the host3,4. In this protocol, we will describe how to use the plaque assay to assess infectious virus titer in the lung homogenates on Vero cell monolayers at the early stage (5 - 7 days) of post-intranasal infection (dpi). While acute infection is largely cleared 2 - 3 weeks postinfection, a latent infection of γHV68 is established around 14 dpi and maintained later on in the spleen of the mice. Latent infection usually affects a very small population of cells in the infected tissues, whereby the virus stays dormant and shuts off most of its gene expression. Latently-infected splenocytes spontaneously reactivate virus upon explanting into tissue culture, which can be recapitulated by an infectious center (IC) assay to determine the viral latent load. To further estimate the amount of viral genome copies in the acutely and/or latently infected tissues, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is used for its maximal sensitivity and accuracy. The combined analyses of the results of qPCR and plaque assay, and/or IC assay will reveal the spatiotemporal profiles of viral replication and infectivity in vivo.
Immunology, Issue 57, γHV68, herpesvirus, viral infection, plaque assay, infectious center assay, PCR, qPCR, host-virus interaction
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Identifying Targets of Human microRNAs with the LightSwitch Luciferase Assay System using 3'UTR-reporter Constructs and a microRNA Mimic in Adherent Cells
Authors: Shelley Force Aldred, Patrick Collins, Nathan Trinklein.
Institutions: SwitchGear Genomics.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of gene expression and play a role in many biological processes. More than 700 human miRNAs have been identified so far with each having up to hundreds of unique target mRNAs. Computational tools, expression and proteomics assays, and chromatin-immunoprecipitation-based techniques provide important clues for identifying mRNAs that are direct targets of a particular miRNA. In addition, 3'UTR-reporter assays have become an important component of thorough miRNA target studies because they provide functional evidence for and quantitate the effects of specific miRNA-3'UTR interactions in a cell-based system. To enable more researchers to leverage 3'UTR-reporter assays and to support the scale-up of such assays to high-throughput levels, we have created a genome-wide collection of human 3'UTR luciferase reporters in the highly-optimized LightSwitch Luciferase Assay System. The system also includes synthetic miRNA target reporter constructs for use as positive controls, various endogenous 3'UTR reporter constructs, and a series of standardized experimental protocols. Here we describe a method for co-transfection of individual 3'UTR-reporter constructs along with a miRNA mimic that is efficient, reproducible, and amenable to high-throughput analysis.
Genetics, Issue 55, MicroRNA, miRNA, mimic, Clone, 3' UTR, Assay, vector, LightSwitch, luciferase, co-transfection, 3'UTR REPORTER, mirna target, microrna target, reporter, GoClone, Reporter construct
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Genome-wide Screen for miRNA Targets Using the MISSION Target ID Library
Authors: Matthew J. Coussens, Kevin Forbes, Carol Kreader, Jack Sago, Carrie Cupp, John Swarthout.
Institutions: Sigma-Aldrich.
The Target ID Library is designed to assist in discovery and identification of microRNA (miRNA) targets. The Target ID Library is a plasmid-based, genome-wide cDNA library cloned into the 3'UTR downstream from the dual-selection fusion protein, thymidine kinase-zeocin (TKzeo). The first round of selection is for stable transformants, followed with introduction of a miRNA of interest, and finally, selecting for cDNAs containing the miRNA's target. Selected cDNAs are identified by sequencing (see Figure 1-3 for Target ID Library Workflow and details). To ensure broad coverage of the human transcriptome, Target ID Library cDNAs were generated via oligo-dT priming using a pool of total RNA prepared from multiple human tissues and cell lines. Resulting cDNA range from 0.5 to 4 kb, with an average size of 1.2 kb, and were cloned into the p3΄TKzeo dual-selection plasmid (see Figure 4 for plasmid map). The gene targets represented in the library can be found on the Sigma-Aldrich webpage. Results from Illumina sequencing (Table 3), show that the library includes 16,922 of the 21,518 unique genes in UCSC RefGene (79%), or 14,000 genes with 10 or more reads (66%).
Genetics, Issue 62, Target ID, miRNA, ncRNA, RNAi, genomics
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Isolation of Fidelity Variants of RNA Viruses and Characterization of Virus Mutation Frequency
Authors: Stéphanie Beaucourt, Antonio V. Bordería, Lark L. Coffey, Nina F. Gnädig, Marta Sanz-Ramos, Yasnee Beeharry, Marco Vignuzzi.
Institutions: Institut Pasteur .
RNA viruses use RNA dependent RNA polymerases to replicate their genomes. The intrinsically high error rate of these enzymes is a large contributor to the generation of extreme population diversity that facilitates virus adaptation and evolution. Increasing evidence shows that the intrinsic error rates, and the resulting mutation frequencies, of RNA viruses can be modulated by subtle amino acid changes to the viral polymerase. Although biochemical assays exist for some viral RNA polymerases that permit quantitative measure of incorporation fidelity, here we describe a simple method of measuring mutation frequencies of RNA viruses that has proven to be as accurate as biochemical approaches in identifying fidelity altering mutations. The approach uses conventional virological and sequencing techniques that can be performed in most biology laboratories. Based on our experience with a number of different viruses, we have identified the key steps that must be optimized to increase the likelihood of isolating fidelity variants and generating data of statistical significance. The isolation and characterization of fidelity altering mutations can provide new insights into polymerase structure and function1-3. Furthermore, these fidelity variants can be useful tools in characterizing mechanisms of virus adaptation and evolution4-7.
Immunology, Issue 52, Polymerase fidelity, RNA virus, mutation frequency, mutagen, RNA polymerase, viral evolution
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Profiling of Pre-micro RNAs and microRNAs using Quantitative Real-time PCR (qPCR) Arrays
Authors: Pauline Chugh, Kristen Tamburro, Dirk P Dittmer.
Institutions: University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Quantitative real-time PCR (QPCR) has emerged as an accurate and valuable tool in profiling gene expression levels. One of its many advantages is a lower detection limit compared to other methods of gene expression profiling while using smaller amounts of input for each assay. Automated qPCR setup has improved this field by allowing for greater reproducibility. Its convenient and rapid setup allows for high-throughput experiments, enabling the profiling of many different genes simultaneously in each experiment. This method along with internal plate controls also reduces experimental variables common to other techniques. We recently developed a qPCR assay for profiling of pre-microRNAs (pre-miRNAs) using a set of 186 primer pairs. MicroRNAs have emerged as a novel class of small, non-coding RNAs with the ability to regulate many mRNA targets at the post-transcriptional level. These small RNAs are first transcribed by RNA polymerase II as a primary miRNA (pri-miRNA) transcript, which is then cleaved into the precursor miRNA (pre-miRNA). Pre-miRNAs are exported to the cytoplasm where Dicer cleaves the hairpin loop to yield mature miRNAs. Increases in miRNA levels can be observed at both the precursor and mature miRNA levels and profiling of both of these forms can be useful. There are several commercially available assays for mature miRNAs; however, their high cost may deter researchers from this profiling technique. Here, we discuss a cost-effective, reliable, SYBR-based qPCR method of profiling pre-miRNAs. Changes in pre-miRNA levels often reflect mature miRNA changes and can be a useful indicator of mature miRNA expression. However, simultaneous profiling of both pre-miRNAs and mature miRNAs may be optimal as they can contribute nonredundant information and provide insight into microRNA processing. Furthermore, the technique described here can be expanded to encompass the profiling of other library sets for specific pathways or pathogens.
Biochemistry, Issue 46, pre-microRNAs, qPCR, profiling, Tecan Freedom Evo, robot
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Titration of Human Coronaviruses Using an Immunoperoxidase Assay
Authors: Francine Lambert, Helene Jacomy, Gabriel Marceau, Pierre J. Talbot.
Institutions: INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier.
Determination of infectious viral titers is a basic and essential experimental approach for virologists. Classical plaque assays cannot be used for viruses that do not cause significant cytopathic effects, which is the case for prototype strains 229E and OC43 of human coronavirus (HCoV). Therefore, an alternative indirect immunoperoxidase assay (IPA) was developed for the detection and titration of these viruses and is described herein. Susceptible cells are inoculated with serial logarithmic dilutions of virus-containing samples in a 96-well plate format. After viral growth, viral detection by IPA yields the infectious virus titer, expressed as 'Tissue Culture Infectious Dose 50 percent' (TCID50). This represents the dilution of a virus-containing sample at which half of a series of laboratory wells contain infectious replicating virus. This technique provides a reliable method for the titration of HCoV-229E and HCoV-OC43 in biological samples such as cells, tissues and fluids. This article is based on work first reported in Methods in Molecular Biology (2008) volume 454, pages 93-102.
Microbiology, Issue 14, Springer Protocols, Human coronavirus, HCoV-229E, HCoV-OC43, cell and tissue sample, titration, immunoperoxidase assay, TCID50
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Pairwise Growth Competition Assay for Determining the Replication Fitness of Human Immunodeficiency Viruses
Authors: Siriphan Manocheewa, Erinn C. Lanxon-Cookson, Yi Liu, J. Victor Swain, Jan McClure, Ushnal Rao, Brandon Maust, Wenjie Deng, Justine E. Sunshine, Moon Kim, Morgane Rolland, James I. Mullins.
Institutions: University of Washington, University of Washington, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Henry M. Jackson Foundation.
In vitro fitness assays are essential tools for determining viral replication fitness for viruses such as HIV-1. Various measurements have been used to extrapolate viral replication fitness, ranging from the number of viral particles per infectious unit, growth rate in cell culture, and relative fitness derived from multiple-cycle growth competition assays. Growth competition assays provide a particularly sensitive measurement of fitness since the viruses are competing for cellular targets under identical growth conditions. There are several experimental factors to consider when conducting growth competition assays, including the multiplicity of infection (MOI), sampling times, and viral detection and fitness calculation methods. Each factor can affect the end result and hence must be considered carefully during the experimental design. The protocol presented here includes steps from constructing a new recombinant HIV-1 clone to performing growth competition assays and analyzing the experimental results. This protocol utilizes experimental parameter values previously shown to yield consistent and robust results. Alternatives are discussed, as some parameters need to be adjusted according to the cell type and viruses being studied. The protocol contains two alternative viral detection methods to provide flexibility as the availability of instruments, reagents and expertise varies between laboratories.
Immunology, Issue 99, HIV-1, Recombinant, Mutagenesis, Viral replication fitness, Growth competition, Fitness calculation
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