Articles by Abdel R. Hamad in JoVE
腎臓からの二重否定αβT細胞の分離 Maria N. Martina1, Samatha Bandapalle2, Hamid Rabb2, Abdel R. Hamad1 1Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 2Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine DNabT細胞は、末梢T細胞の中で稀であり;しかし、彼らは、特定の非リンパ組織に豊富に存在する。非リンパ組織からDN T細胞を単離することの難しさを認識病態生理学的有意性を増加させるにもかかわらず、それらの機能解析を妨げる。我々は、マウスの腎臓からの高度に精製されたDN T細胞の単離のための新規なプロトコルを記載している。
Other articles by Abdel R. Hamad on PubMed
Induction of Persistent Colitis by a Human Commensal, Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides Fragilis, in Wild-type C57BL/6 Mice Infection and Immunity. Apr, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19188353 Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis (ETBF) causes diarrhea and is implicated in inflammatory bowel diseases and colorectal cancer. The only known ETBF virulence factor is the Bacteroides fragilis toxin (BFT), which induces E-cadherin cleavage, interleukin-8 secretion, and epithelial cell proliferation. A murine model for ETBF has not been characterized. Specific pathogen-free (SPF) C57BL/6J or germfree 129S6/SvEv mice were orally inoculated with wild-type ETBF (WT-ETBF) strains, a nontoxigenic WT strain of B. fragilis (WT-NTBF), WT-NTBF overexpressing bft (rETBF), or WT-NTBF overexpressing a biologically inactive mutated bft (rNTBF). In SPF and germfree mice, ETBF caused colitis but was lethal only in germfree mice. Colonic histopathology demonstrated mucosal thickening with inflammatory cell infiltration, crypt abscesses, and epithelial cell exfoliation, erosion, and ulceration. SPF mice colonized with rETBF mimicked WT-ETBF, whereas rNTBF caused no histopathology. Intestinal epithelial E-cadherin was rapidly cleaved in vivo in WT-ETBF-colonized mice and in vitro in intestinal tissues cultured with purified BFT. ETBF mice colonized for 16 months exhibited persistent colitis. BFT did not directly induce lymphocyte proliferation, dendritic cell stimulation, or Toll-like receptor activation. In conclusion, WT-ETBF induced acute then persistent colitis in SPF mice and rapidly lethal colitis in WT germfree mice. Our data support the hypothesis that chronic colonization with the human commensal ETBF can induce persistent, subclinical colitis in humans.
Extracellular Matrix Lumican Promotes Bacterial Phagocytosis, and Lum-/- Mice Show Increased Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Lung Infection Severity The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Oct, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22865855 Phagocytosis is central to bacterial clearance, but the exact mechanism is incompletely understood. Here, we show a novel and critical role for lumican, the connective tissue extracellular matrix small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycan, in CD14-mediated bacterial phagocytosis. In Psuedomonas aeruginosa lung infections, lumican-deficient (Lum(-/-)) mice failed to clear the bacterium from lungs, tissues, and showed a dramatic increase in mortality. In vitro, phagocytosis of nonopsonized gram-negative Escherichia coli and P. aeruginosa was inhibited in Lum(-/-) peritoneal macrophages (MΦs). Lumican co-localized with CD14, CD18, and bacteria on Lum(+/+) MΦ surfaces. Using two different P. aeruginosa strains that require host CD14 (808) or CD18/CR3 (P1) for phagocytosis, we showed that lumican has a larger role in CD14-mediated phagocytosis. Recombinant lumican (rLum) restored phagocytosis in Lum(-/-) MΦs. Surface plasmon resonance showed specific binding of rLum to CD14 (K(A) = 2.15 × 10(6) M(-1)), whereas rLumY20A, and not rLumY21A, where a tyrosine in each was replaced with an alanine, showed 60-fold decreased binding. The rLumY20A variant also failed to restore phagocytosis in Lum(-/-) MΦs, indicating Tyr-20 to be functionally important. Thus, in addition to a structural role in connective tissues, lumican has a major protective role in gram-negative bacterial infections, a novel function for small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycans.
Extracellular Matrix Protein Lumican Promotes Clearance and Resolution of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Keratitis in a Mouse Model PloS One. 2013 | Pubmed ID: 23358433 Lumican is an extracellular protein that associates with CD14 on the surface of macrophages and neutrophils, and promotes CD14-TLR4 mediated response to bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Lumican-deficient (Lum(-/-)) mice and macrophages are impaired in TLR4 signals; raising the possibility that lumican may regulate host response to live bacterial infections. In a recent study we showed that invitro Lum(-/-) macrophages are impaired in phagocytosis of gram-negative bacteria and in a lung infection model the Lum(-/-) mice showed poor survival. The cornea is an immune privileged barrier tissue that relies primarily on innate immunity to protect against ocular infections. Lumican is a major component of the cornea, yet its role in counteracting live bacteria in the cornea remains poorly understood. Here we investigated Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections of the cornea in Lum(-/-) mice. By flow cytometry we found that 24 hours after infection macrophage and neutrophil counts were lower in the cornea of Lum(-/-) mice compared to wild types. Infected Lum(-/-) corneas showed lower levels of the leukocyte chemoattractant CXCL1 by 24-48 hours of infection, and increased bacterial counts up to 5 days after infection, compared to Lum(+/-) mice. The pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α was comparably low 24 hours after infection, but significantly higher in the Lum(-/-) compared to Lum(+/-) infected corneas by 2-5 days after infection. Taken together, the results indicate that lumican facilitates development of an innate immune response at the earlier stages of infection and lumican deficiency leads to poor bacterial clearance and resolution of corneal inflammation at a later stage.