In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (41)

Articles by Adyary Fallarero in JoVE

Other articles by Adyary Fallarero on PubMed

Studies on the Toxicity of Punica Granatum L. (Punicaceae) Whole Fruit Extracts

Journal of Ethnopharmacology. Dec, 2003  |  Pubmed ID: 14611895

Current investigation focuses on the toxicity evaluation of whole fruit hydroalcoholic extract of Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae), used in Cuban traditional medicine a.o. for the treatment of respiratory diseases. Previous findings on the anti-influenza activity of Punica granatum extracts has given support to the ethnopharmacological application. In our study, in chick embryo model, it was found that doses of the extract of less than 0.1 mg per embryo are not toxic. The LD50 of the extract, determined in OF-1 mice of both sexes after intraperitoneal administration, was 731 mg/kg. Confidence limits were 565-945 mg/kg. At the doses of 0.4 and 1.2 mg/kg of extract, the repeated intranasal administration to Wistar rats produced no toxic effects in terms of food intake, weight gain, behavioural or biochemical parameters, or results of histopathological studies. We conclude that toxic effects of Punica granatum fruit extract occurred at higher doses than those effective in the models where the anti-viral activity has been studied or than those doses used in Cuban folk medicine.

Effect of High Concentration of Co (II) on Enterobacter Liquefaciens Strain C-1: a Bacterium Highly Resistant to Heavy Metals with an Unknown Genome

Proteomics. May, 2004  |  Pubmed ID: 15188394

Heavy metals are required as nutrients for essential functions in microorganisms. However, higher concentrations of these cations are generally toxic and may produce contrasting effects on living organisms. Enterobacter liquefaciens strain C-1, a bacterium isolated from the Moa mine in Cuba, is able to survive in the presence of high concentrations of heavy metals. The proteomes of Enterobacter liquefaciens strain C-1, grown under aerobic conditions in the presence and absence of Co (II) were compared using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis in the isoelectric point range of 4-7 and the mass range of 15-120 kDa. Significant changes in the expression level (> two-fold) were detected for 13 spots: seven and six were up- and down-regulated, respectively. Because the genome of this bacterium is unknown, identification by peptide mass fingerprinting only succeeded in four cases and most of the cross-species identifications were supported by de novo sequencing of tryptic peptides followed by sequence alignment using the MS BLAST program. Twelve different proteins were identified, ten are involved in cellular antioxidant defence probably induced by the presence of Co (II). This is the first step towards understanding the role of proteins participating in the mechanism of resistance to heavy metals in this bacterium.

Living Cells of Staphylococcus Aureus Immobilized Onto the Capillary Surface in Electrochromatography: a Tool for Screening of Biofilms

Analytical Chemistry. Jul, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18505269

Microorganisms attach to nonliving surfaces in many natural, industrial, and medical environments, enveloped within extracellular polymeric substances. The result is a biofilm. Biofilms are reported to exist in 65-80% of bacterial infections refractory to host defenses and antibiotics therapy and are regarded as a central problem in present-day medical microbiology. Understanding of the parameters governing the interaction of antimicrobials with biofilms is thus of great interest in any attempt to increase biocide efficacy. In this work, study was made of the feasibility of using open tubular capillary electrochromatography (CEC) in bacterial biofilm studies with living cells. Staphylococcus aureus was selected as model bacterium. First, S. aureus was shown, under various conditions, to form a biofilm on the inner wall of a fused-silica capillary coated with poly(L-lysine). Optimal conditions for biofilm formation, such as bacterial concentration, growing time, and the stability of the ensemble, were preliminarily defined with conventional 96-microtiter well plates. Continuous flushing of the capillary with fresh cells meant that no growth medium was needed. The presence of biofilm in the capillary was confirmed by atomic force microscopy. Interactions between S. aureus biofilms and different antibiomicrobial agents were studied by capillary electrochromatography. The effect of five antibiotics (penicillin G, oxacillin, fusidic acid, rifampicin, vancomycin) on biofilms was examined in terms of retention factors and reduced mobilities of the antibiotics. The antibiotic susceptibility profile for S. aureus is similar as the result of minimal inhibitory concentrations registered on the 96-microtiter well plates for both planktonic and biofilm cells. The results show, for the first time, that bacterial biofilms can be studied by CEC. The technique allows highly efficient and easy characterization of interactions between S. aureus biofilms and potentially active antimicrobial compounds under different conditions. Reagent and cell consumption are minimal.

Automating a 96-well Microtitre Plate Model for Staphylococcus Aureus Biofilms: an Approach to Screening of Natural Antimicrobial Compounds

International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents. Sep, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18640013

The purpose of this study was to establish and automate an assay to be used for screening novel antimicrobial agents against biofilm-forming Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. The selected assay was based on crystal violet staining, which is a well used method for staining bacterial biofilms. The method was first optimised manually, antibiotic susceptibility was established and biofilm formation in plates was confirmed using atomic force microscopy. Automation of the assay was done using a Thermo Scientific Multidrop((R)) Combi dispenser and Biomek((R)) 3000 liquid handling workstation. A detailed comparison of the performance between the manual and the automated method was made in terms of screening window coefficient as well as other statistical parameters and repeatability measurements, such as plate-to-plate and day-to-day variability. Automated screening of an in-house library of natural products gave the same positive hits as previously reported, therefore the developed assay can be regarded as a reliable screening tool.

Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase by Coumarins: the Case of Coumarin 106

Pharmacological Research. Sep-Oct, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18778776

In this contribution, from a coumarin library consisting of 29 compounds including natural and synthetic derivatives, an active acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor (coumarin 106) was found. This circumstance leaded us to continue with the pharmacological characterization of coumarin 106. The first study with the coumarin library was performed using a 96-microtiter well plate assay based on Ellman's reaction. Coumarins were assayed at 5 and 30 microM, and coumarin 106 was found the most active inhibitor at both concentrations. The follow-up analysis using kinetic studies demonstrated that coumarin 106 displays mixed-type AChE inhibition with a pIC(50)=4.97+/-0.09 and K(i)=2.36+/-0.17 microM. The ability of this molecule to interact with AChE was further confirmed through computational studies, in which a primary binding was proved to occur at the active gorge site, while a secondary binding was demonstrated at the peripheral anionic site. Also, coumarin 106 was shown to inhibit butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) with slightly lower potency (pIC(50)=4.56+/-0.06), and found to be non-toxic in Caco-2 cells. The combination of these findings makes coumarin 106 an attractive molecule for further investigation. This is the first report where AChE inhibitory activity has been associated with coumarin 106, and proof has been given of its convenience as a lead molecule.

Coumarins Permeability in Caco-2 Cell Model

The Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology. Feb, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19178764

The presence of coumarins in human diet, their multiple pharmacological properties and occurrence in various herbal remedies represent significant reasons to explore their membrane permeability, as a first event contributing to coumarins oral bioavailability. Thus, we evaluated the permeability and cytotoxicity of 18 coumarins, with different substitution patterns involving OH, OCH3 and CH3 groups.

Pros and Cons of Using Resazurin Staining for Quantification of Viable Staphylococcus Aureus Biofilms in a Screening Assay

Journal of Microbiological Methods. Jul, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19427338

Staining of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms with 20 microM resazurin during 20 min was shown to provide a good screening assay in 96-well micro titer plates. However, data quality was found to be dependent on the staining duration and biofilm concentration. Also, the inadequacy of using resazurin calibration curves with planktonic cells to estimate S. aureus biofilm concentrations was demonstrated.

GT1-7 Cell-based Cytoxicity Screening Assay on 96-well Microplates As a Platform for the Safety Assessment of Genetically Modified Gerbera Hybrida Extracts

Drug and Chemical Toxicology. 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19514948

In this investigation, a GT1-7 cell-based cytotoxicity screening assay in 96-well microplates was set up. The assay, using propidium iodide fluorescence, was proven to be reliable, with good quality (Z' = 0.51) and low plate-to-plate and day-to-day variations. Further on, a library containing extracts from 227 genetic modification (GM) Gerbera hybrida and 42 Gerbera varieties was screened; however, no differences between them were found. Based on these findings, we propose the use of the current assay within the first-tier screening studies of large collections. Also, these results provide valuable information for GM Gerbera risk-assessment purposes and offer a model for the toxicity cell-based screening of GM crops.

Interaction of (benzylidene-hydrazono)-1,4-dihydropyridines with Beta-amyloid, Acetylcholine, and Butyrylcholine Esterases

Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. Mar, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20149667

Approved drugs for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease belong to the group of inhibitors of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and NMDA receptor inhibitors. However none of the drugs is able to combat or reverse the progression of the disease. Thus, the recently reported promising multitarget-directed molecule approach was applied here. Using the lead compound DUO3, which was found to be a potent inhibitor of the AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) as well as an inhibitor of the formation of the amyloid (Abeta) plaque, new non-permanently positively charged derivatives were synthesized and biologically characterized. In contrast to DUO3 the new bisphenyl-substituted pyridinylidene hydrazones 5 are appropriate to cross the blood-brain barrier due to their pK(a) values and lipophilicity, and to inhibit both the AChE and BuChE. More important some of the pyridinylidene hydrazones inhibit the Abeta fibril formation completely and destruct the already formed fibrils significantly.

Miniaturization and Validation of the Ellman's Reaction Based Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Assay into 384-well Plate Format and Screening of a Chemical Library

Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening. Mar, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20230371

The aim of this study was to screen for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors from a large chemical library of commercially available compounds. For this purpose, the Ellman's reaction based assay was miniaturized into 384-well plate format, and two modifications of the kinetic protocol were studied with the aim of developing a rapid screening platform that could ensure high efficiency in finding true hits. It was proven that when starting the kinetic reaction by addition of the substrate, better assay performance was achieved and more practical benefits obtained. Using the optimized automated protocol, a chemical library of 56,320 compounds was screened. A total of 350 positive hits were identified and their IC50 calculated. Three highly active compounds were identified with IC50 values close or even lower to physostigmine (< 0.1 microM). The activity towards butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) of these three most active hits was also evaluated. The most active hit (IC(50(AChE)) = 0.019 microM), was identified as a new inhibitor, belonging to ChemDiv chemical library: (N-[3-(3,5-dimethyl-1-piperidinyl)propyl]-5-ethyl-2-methyl-8-oxo-thieno[2',3':4,5]pyrrolo[1,2-d] [1,2,4] triazine-7(8H)-acetamid), with no other biological activities reported until now. The interactions of this hit with both cholinesterases were further analyzed using computational docking studies. To our knowledge, this is the largest published screening campaign of commercially available compounds that has focused on finding new AChE inhibitors. The miniaturized 384-well plate format of the Ellman's method was proven to be robust and to perform reliably.

Potency Determinations of Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors Using Ellman's Reaction-based Assay in Screening: Effect of Assay Variants

Analytical Biochemistry. Jan, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 20851093

In primary drug discovery screenings and potency determinations of active acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors, different variations of the Ellman's reaction-based assay are extensively applied. However, these are prone to produce variable results. Here we studied how assay variants differing in the order of reagent addition and substrate concentrations influence potency measurements of AChE inhibitors. Three model compounds were used: tacrine, physostigmine, and a newly reported inhibitor, 1-[5-[4-[(hexahydro-1H-azepin-1-yl)carbonyl]-1-piperidinyl]-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl]-2-pyrrolidinone. Different patterns of potency changes related to the different inhibition mechanisms of the compounds were detected. Recognizing this, better judgment can be applied when publishing results and selecting optimal screening assays.

Alpha- and β-casein Components of Host Milk Induce Biofilm Formation in the Mastitis Bacterium Streptococcus Uberis

Veterinary Microbiology. May, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21130586

Streptococcus uberis is an environmental udder pathogen that infects cattle and can cause persistent intramammary infection (IMI), despite the fact that isolates are mainly susceptible to antibiotics. As biofilm growth can cause persistent infection, the ability of ten S. uberis isolates from clinical and subclinical IMIs to form biofilms on the polystyrene surface of a conventional 96-microplates model was examined. Biofilm formation was judged by different staining methods (crystal violet and resazurin) and by atomic force and fluorescence microscopy. These analyses revealed that two out of ten S. uberis strains tested were able to form biofilms. Upon treatment with Proteinase K, biofilms of S. uberis were completely disintegrated, which indicates that biofilm formation is protein-mediated in these strains. Addition of trace amounts of milk, the natural growth medium of S. uberis, significantly increased biofilm formation by most of the strains initially classified as non-biofilm producers. Alpha-casein and β-casein were the primary inducers of biofilm growth, and casein degradation by serine protease activity was required to achieve maximal biofilm production. These results suggest that the extracellular proteolytic activity of S. uberis contributes to an increased biofilm formation. Such a mode of growth induced by host proteins might help to explain the persistence of IMIs caused by this pathogen.

Discovery of Dual Binding Site Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors Identified by Pharmacophore Modeling and Sequential Virtual Screening Techniques

Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. Feb, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21273074

Dual binding site acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are promising for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). They alleviate the cognitive deficits and AD-modifying agents, by inhibiting the β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide aggregation, through binding to both the catalytic and peripheral anionic sites, the so called dual binding site of the AChE enzyme. In this Letter, chemical features based 3D-pharmacophore models were developed based on the eight potent and structurally diverse AChE inhibitors (I-VIII) obtained from high-throughput in vitro screening technique. The best 3D-pharmacophore model, Hypo1, consists of two hydrogen-bond acceptor lipid, one hydrophobe, and two hydrophobic aliphatic features obtained by Catalyst/HIPHOP algorithm adopted in Discovery studio program. Hypo1 was used as a 3D query in sequential virtual screening study to filter three small compound databases. Further, a total of nine compounds were selected and followed on in vitro analysis. Finally, we identified two leads--Specs1 (IC(50)=3.279 μM) and Spec2 (IC(50)=5.986 μM) dual binding site compounds from Specs database, having good AChE enzyme inhibitory activity.

Molecular Docking Guided Comparative GFA, G/PLS, SVM and ANN Models of Structurally Diverse Dual Binding Site Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors

Molecular Informatics. Aug, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 27467261

Recently discovered 42 AChE inhibitors binding at the catalytic and peripheral anionic site were identified on the basis of molecular docking approach, and its comparative quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models were developed. These structurally diverse inhibitors were obtained by our previously reported high-throughput in vitro screening technique using 384-well plate's assay based on colorimetric method of Ellman. QSAR models were developed using (i) genetic function algorithm, (ii) genetic partial least squares, (iii) support vector machine and (iv) artificial neural network techniques. The QSAR model robustness and significance was critically assessed using different cross-validation techniques on test data set. The generated QSAR models using thermodynamic, electrotopological and electronic descriptors showed that nonlinear methods are more robust than linear methods, and provide insight into the structural features of compounds that are important for AChE inhibition.

Identification and Characterization of Diarylimidazoles As Hybrid Inhibitors of Butyrylcholinesterase and Amyloid Beta Fibril Formation

European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences : Official Journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences. Jan, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22108346

In this contribution, a chemical collection of aromatic compounds was screened for inhibition on butyrylcholinesterase (BChE)'s hydrolase activity using Ellman's reaction. A set of diarylimidazoles was identified as highly selective inhibitors of BChE hydrolase activity and amyloid β (Aβ) fibril formation. New derivatives were synthesized resulting in several additional hits, from which the most active was 6c, 4-(3-ethylthiophenyl)-2-(3-thienyl)-1H-imidazole, an uncompetitive inhibitor of BChE hydrolase activity (IC₅₀ BChE=0.10 μM; K(i)=0.073 ± 0.011 μM) acting also on Aβ fibril formation (IC₅₀=5.8 μM). With the aid of structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies, chemical motifs influencing the BChE inhibitory activity of these imidazoles were proposed. These bifunctional inhibitors represent good tools in basic studies of BChE and/or promising lead molecules for AD therapy.

Homogeneous Screening Assay for Human Tankyrase

Journal of Biomolecular Screening. Jun, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22357873

Tankyrase, a member of human PARP protein superfamily, catalyzes a covalent post-translational modification of substrate proteins. This modification, poly(ADP-ribos)ylation, leads to changes in protein interactions and modifies downstream signaling events. Tankyrase 1 is a potential drug target due to its functions in telomere homeostasis and in Wnt signaling. We describe here optimization and application of an activity-based homogenous assay for tankyrase inhibitors in a high-throughput screening format. The method measures the consumption of substrate by the chemical conversion of the remaining NAD(+) into a stable fluorescent condensation product. Conditions were optimized to measure the enzymatic auto-modification of a recombinant catalytic fragment of tankyrase 1. The fluorescence assay is inexpensive, operationally easy and performs well according to the statistical analysis (Z'= 0.7). A validatory screen with a natural product library confirmed suitability of the assay for finding new tankyrase inhibitors. Flavone was the most potent (IC(50)=325 nM) hit from the natural compounds. A flavone derivative, apigenin, and isopropyl gallate showed potency on the micromolar range, but displayed over 30-fold selectivity for tankyrase over the studied isoenzymes PARP1 and PARP2. The assay is robust and will be useful for screening new tankyrase inhibitors.

The Exploration of Thienothiazines As Selective Butyrylcholinesterase Inhibitors

European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences : Official Journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences. Aug, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22683890

The role of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) in the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has recently become more crucial. In the AD brain, selective BChE inhibitors have been demonstrated to have a beneficial effect in vivo, probably by recovering cholinergic activity and/or by restoring AChE:BChE activity ratios to the levels observed in the healthy brain. Thienothiazines are compounds sharing some structural features with phenothiazines, which are known to be potent BChE inhibitors. Thus, in this contribution 45 thienothiazines were investigated for their BChE inhibitory activity. Six of them were proven to be potent and selective inhibitors of equine BChE's hydrolase activity. Structure-activity relationships were laid out, and a tentative pharmacophore model for BChE inhibitors of the thienothiazine type was proposed. The most active compound, 3f, displayed a mixed type of inhibition and was also active against the human BChE (huBChE) with an IC(50) huBChE of 0.51 ± 0.07 μM. Computational studies suggested that 3f likely binds to the catalytic site and nearby to the peripheral site of the huBChE in an extended form. In addition, the chemical space occupied by the active thienothiazines, as opposed to phenothiazines and other representative chemical classes of BChE inhibitors, was explored with the aid of ChemGPS-NP, and the relevant chemical space regions were identified. This study shows for the first time that thienothiazines represent a new group of BChE inhibitors that can be used as molecular probes for studying the role of BChE in the brain or for developing newer drug leads for AD therapy.

Combining Biofilm Matrix Measurements with Biomass and Viability Assays in Susceptibility Assessments of Antimicrobials Against Staphylococcus Aureus Biofilms

The Journal of Antibiotics. Sep, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22739537

Despite that three types of assays (measuring biofilm viability, biomass, or matrix) are described to assess anti-biofilm activity, they are rarely used together. As infections can easily reappear if the matrix is not affected after antibiotic treatments, our goal was to explore the simultaneous effects of antibiotics on the viability, biomass and matrix of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms (ATCC 25923). Viability and biomass were quantified using resazurin and crystal violet staining sequentially in the same plate, while matrix staining was conducted with a wheat germ agglutinin-Alexa Fluor 488 fluorescent conjugate. Establishment of the detection limits and linearity ranges allowed concluding that all three methods were able to estimate biofilm formation in a similar fashion. In a susceptibility study with 18-h biofilms, two model compounds (penicillin G and ciprofloxacin) caused a reduction on the viability and biomass accompanied by an increase or not changed levels of the matrix, respectively. This response pattern was also proven for S. aureus Newman, S. epidermidis and E. coli biofilms. A classification of antibiotics based on five categories according to their effects on viability and matrix has been proposed earlier. Our data suggests a sixth group, represented by penicillin, causing decrease in bacterial viability but showing stimulatory effects on the matrix. Further, if effects on the matrix are not taken into account, the long-term chemotherapeutic effect of antibiotics can be jeopardized in spite of the positive effects on biofilms viability and biomass. Thus, measuring all these three endpoints simultaneously provide a more complete and accurate picture.

High-throughput Screening with a Miniaturized Radioligand Competition Assay Identifies New Modulators of Human α2-adrenoceptors

European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences : Official Journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences. Dec, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22982401

Human α(2)-adrenoceptors (α(2)-ARs) are rhodopsin-like G-protein coupled receptors, and potential drug targets. The three different human α(2)-AR subtypes α(2A), α(2B) and α(2C) are widely distributed in tissues, but so far only a few subtype-selective ligands have been identified. In this project, we set off to conduct a large chemical screen for activity on the human α(2B)-AR and studied the selectivity of the active compounds towards the human α(2A)- and α(2C)-AR subtypes. We employed a radioligand competition binding assay that was optimized and miniaturized into a robotic environment. Membrane fractions containing recombinant human receptor subtypes were prepared from stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines. Initially identified hits were followed up and characterized, and chemoinformatics tools were applied to gain better understanding of the relevance of the results. After a primary screen against α(2B)-AR, 176 compounds of the 17,952 included in the library were declared as active at 10 μM, of which 89 compounds were further selected for potency and affinity determinations using the three human α(2)-AR subtypes. One of the identified positive hits was 2″,2″″-Bisepigallocatechin digallate, which was found to have high affinity at all three human α(2)-AR subtypes. This represents the first non-protonable molecule identified as able to interact with these receptors. Additionally, results obtained with a functional assay (agonist-induced stimulation of [(35)S]GTPγS binding) supported the identification of another positive hit, lysergol, as a partial agonist of the human α(2)-AR subtypes. The dataset of confirmed active chemical species represents a readily available, high quality source for follow-up studies. Altogether, these results provide novel research approaches for drug discovery of modulators of the α(2)-AR subtypes.

Exploration of Natural Compounds As Sources of New Bifunctional Scaffolds Targeting Cholinesterases and Beta Amyloid Aggregation: the Case of Chelerythrine

Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. Nov, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 23062825

The presented project started by screening a library consisting of natural and natural based compounds for their acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activity. Active compounds were chemically clustered into groups and further tested on the human cholinesterases isoforms. The aim of the presented study was to identify compounds that could be used as leads to target two key mechanisms associated with the AD's pathogenesis simultaneously: cholinergic depletion and beta amyloid (Aβ) aggregation. Berberin, palmatine and chelerythrine, chemically clustered in the so-called isoquinoline group, showed promising cholinesterase inhibitory activity and were therefore further investigated. Moreover, the compounds demonstrated moderate to good inhibition of Aβ aggregation as well as the ability to disaggregate already preformed Aβ aggregates in an experimental set-up using HFIP as promotor of Aβ aggregates. Analysis of the kinetic mechanism of the AChE inhibition revealed chelerythrine as a mixed inhibitor. Using molecular docking studies, it was further proven that chelerythrine binds on both the catalytic site and the peripheral anionic site (PAS) of the AChE. In view of this, we went on to investigate its effect on inhibiting Aβ aggregation stimulated by AChE. Chelerythrine showed inhibition of fibril formation in the same range as propidium iodide. This approach enabled for the first time to identify a cholinesterase inhibitor of natural origin-chelerythrine-acting on AChE and BChE with a dual ability to inhibit Aβ aggregation as well as to disaggregate preformed Aβ aggregates. This compound could be an excellent starting point paving the way to develop more successful anti-AD drugs.

Evaluation of Antibacterial and Anti-biofilm Activities of Cinchona Alkaloid Derivatives Against Staphylococcus Aureus

Natural Product Communications. Sep, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 23074900

Bacterial biofilms are resistant to most of the commonly available antibacterial chemotherapies. Thus, an enormous need exists to meet the demands of effective anti-biofilm therapy. In this study, a small library of cinchona alkaloids, including the naturally occurring compounds cinchonidine and cinchonine, as well as various synthetic derivatives and analogues was screened for antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity against the Staphylococcus aureus biofilm producing strain ATCC 25923. Two methods were used to evaluate activity against biofilms, namely crystal violet staining to measure biomass and resazurin assay to measure biofilms viability. Cinchonidine was found to be inactive, whereas a synthetic derivative, 11-triphenylsilyl-10,11-dihydrocinchonidine (11-TPSCD), was effective against planktonic bacteria as well as in preventing biofilm formation at low micromolar concentrations. Higher concentrations were required to eradicate mature biofilms.

Activity-based Assay for Human Mono-ADP-ribosyltransferases ARTD7/PARP15 and ARTD10/PARP10 Aimed at Screening and Profiling Inhibitors

European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences : Official Journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences. May, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23485441

Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) or diphtheria toxin like ADP-ribosyl transferases (ARTDs) are enzymes that catalyze the covalent modification of proteins by attachment of ADP-ribose units to the target amino acid residues or to the growing chain of ADP-ribose. A subclass of the ARTD superfamily consists of mono-ADP-ribosyl transferases that are thought to modify themselves and other substrate proteins by covalently adding only a single ADP-ribose moiety to the target. Many of the ARTD enzymes are either established or potential drug targets and a functional activity assay for them will be a valuable tool to identify selective inhibitors for each enzyme. Existing assays are not directly applicable for screening of inhibitors due to the different nature of the reaction and different target molecules. We modified and applied a fluorescence-based assay previously described for PARP1/ARTD1 and tankyrase/ARTD5 for screening of PARP10/ARTD10 and PARP15/ARTD7 inhibitors. The assay measures the amount of NAD(+) present after chemically converting it to a fluorescent analog. We demonstrate that by using an excess of a recombinant acceptor protein the performance of the activity-based assay is excellent for screening of compound libraries. The assay is homogenous and cost effective, making it possible to test relatively large compound libraries. This method can be used to screen inhibitors of mono-ARTDs and profile inhibitors of the enzyme class. The assay was optimized for ARTD10 and ARTD7, but it can be directly applied to other mono-ARTDs of the ARTD superfamily. Profiling of known ARTD inhibitors against ARTD10 and ARTD7 in a validatory screening identified the best inhibitors with submicromolar potencies. Only few of the tested ARTD inhibitors were potent, implicating that there is a need to screen new compound scaffolds. This is needed to create small molecules that could serve as biological probes and potential starting points for drug discovery projects against mono-ARTDs.

Screening and Structural Analysis of Flavones Inhibiting Tankyrases

Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. May, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23574272

Flavonoids are known for their beneficial effects on human health, and therefore the therapeutic potential of these compounds have been extensively studied. Flavone has been previously identified as a tankyrase inhibitor, and to further elucidate whether tankyrases would be inhibited by other flavonoids, we performed a systematic screening of tankyrase 2 inhibitory activity using 500 natural and naturally derived flavonoids covering nine different flavonoid classes. All identified tankyrase inhibitors were flavones. We report crystal structures of all the hit compounds in complex with the catalytic domain of human tankyrase 2. Flavone derivatives in all 10 crystal structures bind to the nicotinamide binding site of tankyrase 2. Potencies of the active flavones toward tankyrases vary between 50 nM and 1.1 μM, and flavones show up to 200-fold selectivity for tankyrases over ARTD1. The molecular details of the interactions revealed by cocrystal structures efficiently describe the properties of potent flavone derivatives inhibiting tankyrases.

1,4-Substituted 4-(1H)-pyridylene-hydrazone-type Inhibitors of AChE, BuChE, and Amyloid-β Aggregation Crossing the Blood-brain Barrier

European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences : Official Journal of the European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences. Jul, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23643737

Given the fundamentally multifactorial character of Alzheimer's disease (AD), addressing more than one target for disease modification or therapy is expected to be highly advantageous. Here, following the cholinergic hypothesis, we aimed to inhibit both acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase (AChE and BuChE) in order to increase the concentration of acetylcholine in the synaptic cleft. In addition, the formation of the amyloid β fibrils should be inhibited and already preformed fibrils should be destroyed. Based on a recently identified AChE inhibitor with a 1,4-substituted 4-(1H)-pyridylene-hydrazone skeleton, a substance library has been generated and tested for inhibition of AChE, BuChE, and fibril formation. Blood-brain barrier mobility was ensured by a transwell assay. Whereas the p-nitrosubstituted compound 18C shows an anti-AChE activity in the nanomolar range of concentration (IC₅₀=90 nM), the bisnaphthyl substituted compound 20L was found to be the best overall inhibitor of AChE/BuChE and enhances the fibril destruction.

(+)-Dehydroabietic Acid, an Abietane-type Diterpene, Inhibits Staphylococcus Aureus Biofilms in Vitro

International Journal of Molecular Sciences. Jun, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23739682

Potent drugs are desperately needed to counteract bacterial biofilm infections, especially those caused by gram-positive organisms, such as Staphylococcus aureus. Moreover, anti-biofilm compounds/agents that can be used as chemical tools are also needed for basic in vitro or in vivo studies aimed at exploring biofilms behavior and functionability. In this contribution, a collection of naturally-occurring abietane-type diterpenes and their derivatives was tested against S. aureus biofilms using a platform consisting of two phenotypic assays that have been previously published by our group. Three active compounds were identified: nordehydroabietylamine (1), (+)-dehydroabietic acid (2) and (+)-dehydroabietylamine (3) that prevented biofilm formation in the low micromolar range, and unlike typical antibiotics, only 2 to 4-fold higher concentrations were needed to significantly reduce viability and biomass of existing biofilms. Compound 2, (+)-dehydroabietic acid, was the most selective towards biofilm bacteria, achieving high killing efficacy (based on log Reduction values) and it was best tolerated by three different mammalian cell lines. Since (+)-dehydroabietic acid is an easily available compound, it holds great potential to be used as a molecular probe in biofilms-related studies as well as to serve as inspirational chemical model for the development of potent drug candidates.

Systematic Exploration of Natural and Synthetic Flavonoids for the Inhibition of Staphylococcus Aureus Biofilms

International Journal of Molecular Sciences. Sep, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 24071942

When single-cell (or suspended) bacteria switch into the biofilm lifestyle, they become less susceptible to antimicrobials, imposing the need for anti-biofilms research. Flavonoids are among the most extensively studied natural compounds with an unprecedented amount of bioactivity claims. Most studies focus on the antibacterial effects against suspended cells; fewer reports have researched their anti-biofilm properties. Here, a high throughput phenotypic platform was utilized to screen for the inhibitory activity of 500 flavonoids, including natural and synthetic derivatives, against Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. Since discrepancies among results from earlier antibacterial studies on flavonoids had been noted, the current study aimed to minimize sources of variations. After the first screen, flavonoids were classified as inactive (443), moderately active (47) or highly active (10). Further, exclusion criteria combining bioactivity and selectivity identified two synthetic flavans as the most promising. The body of data reported here serves three main purposes. First, it offers an improved methodological workflow for anti-biofilm screens of chemical libraries taking into account the (many times ignored) connections between anti-biofilm and antibacterial properties. This is particularly relevant for the study of flavonoids and other natural products. Second, it provides a large and freely available anti-biofilm bioactivity dataset that expands the knowledge on flavonoids and paves the way for future structure-activity relationship studies and structural optimizations. Finally, it identifies two new flavans that can successfully act on biofilms, as well as on suspended bacteria and represent more feasible antibacterial candidates.

Liposomes-in-hydrogel Delivery System with Mupirocin: in Vitro Antibiofilm Studies and in Vivo Evaluation in Mice Burn Model

BioMed Research International. 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 24369533

Previously, we have proposed mupirocin-in-liposomes-in-hydrogel delivery system as advanced delivery system with the potential in treatment of burns. In the current studies, we evaluated the system for its cytotoxicity, ability to prevent biofilm formation, act on the mature biofilms, and finally determined its potential as wound treatment in in vivo mice burn model. The system was found to be nontoxic against HaCaT cells, that is, keratinocytes. It was safe for use and exhibited antibiofilm activity against S. aureus biofilms, although the activity was more significant against planktonic bacteria and prior to biofilm formation than against mature biofilms as shown in the resazurin and the crystal violet assays. An in vivo mice burn model was used to evaluate the biological potential of the system and the healing of burns observed over 28 days. The in vivo data suggest that the delivery system enhances wound healing and is equally potent as the marketed product of mupirocin. Histological examination showed no difference in the quality of the healed scar tissue, whereas the healing time for the new delivery system was shorter as compared to the marketed product. Further animal studies and development of more sophisticated in vivo model are needed for complete evaluation.

Towards Fabrication of 3D Printed Medical Devices to Prevent Biofilm Formation

International Journal of Pharmaceutics. Jan, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24239831

The use of three-dimensional (3D) printing technologies is transforming the way that materials are turned into functional devices. We demonstrate in the current study the incorporation of anti-microbial nitrofurantoin in a polymer carrier material and subsequent 3D printing of a model structure, which resulted in an inhibition of biofilm colonization. The approach taken is very promising and can open up new avenues to manufacture functional medical devices in the future.

Staphylococcus Aureus Biofilm Susceptibility to Small and Potent β(2,2)-amino Acid Derivatives

Biofouling. Jan, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24256295

Small antimicrobial β(2,2)-amino acid derivatives (Mw < 500 Da) are reported to display high antibacterial activity against suspended Gram-positive strains combined with low hemolytic activity. In the present study, the anti-biofilm activity of six β(2,2)-amino acid derivatives (A1-A6) against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) was investigated. The derivatives displayed IC50 values between 5.4 and 42.8 μM for inhibition of biofilm formation, and concentrations between 22.4 and 38.4 μM had substantial effects on preformed biofilms. The lead derivative A2 showed high killing capacity (log R), and it caused distinct ultrastructural changes in the biofilms as shown by electron and atomic force microscopy. The anti-biofilm properties of A2 was preserved under high salinity conditions. Extended screening showed also high activity of A2 against Escherichia coli (XL1 Blue) biofilms. These advantageous features together with high activity against preformed biofilms make β(2,2)-amino acid derivatives a promising class of compounds for further development of anti-biofilm agents.

Chemical Modifications of Cinchona Alkaloids Lead to Enhanced Inhibition of Human Butyrylcholinesterase

Natural Product Communications. Apr, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24868853

Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitors were identified from a collection containing cinchonine, cinchonidine and synthetic derivatives, and further characterized using cytotoxicity and molecular docking studies. The most active ones were: (10 triple bond)-10,11-dibromo-10,11-dihydrocinchonidine (11), a competitive inhibitor with Ki = 3.45 +/- 0.39 microM, and IC50 BChE = 9.83 +/- 0.30 microM/human (h)BChE = 34.47 +/- 4.63 and O-(trimethylsilyl)cinchonine (15), a mixed inhibitor with Kiuc = 1.73 +/- 0.46 microM and Kic = 0.85 +/- 0.26 microM, and IC50 BChE = 0.56 +/- 0.14 microM/hBChE = 0.24 +/- 0.04. In cytotoxicity experiments, > or = 80% of the cells remained viable when exposed to concentrations of up to 80 microM of both inhibitors in four different cell lines, including neurons. Due to the bulkier trimethylsilyl side group of 15, it covered the active site of hBChE better than 11 with an OH-group while not being able to fit into the active site gorge of hAChE, thus explaining the selectivity of 15 towards hBChE.

Printed Paper-based Arrays As Substrates for Biofilm Formation

AMB Express. 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 25006538

The suitability of paper-based arrays for biofilm formation studies by Staphylococcus aureus is demonstrated. Laboratory-coated papers with different physicochemical properties were used as substrates. The array platform was fabricated by patterning the coated papers with vinyl-substituted polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) -based ink. The affinity of bacteria onto the flexographically printed hydrophobic and smooth PDMS film was very low whereas bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation occurred preferentially on the unprinted areas, i.e. in the reaction arrays. The concentration of the attached bacteria was quantified by determining the viable colony forming unit (CFU/cm(2)) numbers. The distribution and the extent of surface coverage of the biofilms were determined by atomic force microscopy. In static conditions, the highest bacterial concentration and most highly organized biofilms were observed on substrates with high polarity. On a rough paper surface with low polarity, the biofilm formation was most hindered. Biofilms were effectively removed from a polar substrate upon exposure to (+)-dehydroabietic acid, an anti-biofilm compound.

How to Translate a Bioassay into a Screening Assay for Natural Products: General Considerations and Implementation of Antimicrobial Screens

Planta Medica. Sep, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 25221978

Natural product sources have been a valuable provider of molecular diversity in many drug discovery programs and several therapeutically important drugs have been isolated from these. However, the screening of such materials can be very complicated due to the fact that they contain a complex mixture of secondary metabolites, but also the purified natural compounds exert a challenge for bioactivity screening. Success in identifying new therapeutics using in vitro bioassays is largely dependent upon the proper design, validation, and implementation of the screening assay. In this review, we discuss some aspects which are of significant concern when screening natural products in a microtiter plate-based format, being partly applicable to other assay formats as well, such as validation parameters, layouts for assay protocols, and common interferences caused by natural products samples, as well as various troubleshooting strategies. Examples from the field of natural product drug discovery of antibacterial compounds are discussed, and contributions from the realm of academic screenings are highlighted.

Revisiting an Agar-based Plate Method: What the Static Biofilm Method Can Offer for Biofilm Research

Journal of Microbiological Methods. Dec, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 25455020

The development of biofilms in static plates was monitored. Glass coupons were placed on agar covered with filter paper, which was inoculated with suspended bacteria. The viable cell density, biofilms matrix and biomass were quantified. The method is excellent for adhesion and material studies, due to its simplicity and flexibility.

Effective Antibiofilm Polyketides Against Staphylococcus Aureus from the Pyranonaphthoquinone Biosynthetic Pathways of Streptomyces Species

Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. Oct, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26195520

Streptomyces bacteria are renowned for their ability to produce bioactive secondary metabolites. Recently, synthetic biology has enabled the production of intermediates and shunt products, which may have altered biological activities compared to the end products of the pathways. Here, we have evaluated the potential of recently isolated alnumycins and other closely related pyranonaphthoquinone (PNQ) polyketides against Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. The antimicrobial potency of the compounds against planktonic cells and biofilms was determined by redox dye-based viability staining, and the antibiofilm efficacy of the compounds was confirmed by viable counting. A novel antistaphylococcal polyketide, alnumycin D, was identified. Unexpectedly, the C-ribosylated pathway shunt product alnumycin D was more active against planktonic and biofilm cells than the pathway end product alnumycin A, where a ribose unit has been converted into a dioxane moiety. The evaluation of the antibiofilm potential of other alnumycins revealed that the presence of the ribose moiety in pyranose form is essential for high activity against preformed biofilms. Furthermore, the antibiofilm potential of other closely related PNQ polyketides was examined. Based on their previously reported activity against planktonic S. aureus cells, granaticin B, kalafungin, and medermycin were also selected for testing, and among them, granaticin B was found to be the most potent against preformed biofilms. The most active antibiofilm PNQs, alnumycin D and granaticin B, share several structural features that may be important for their antibiofilm activity. They are uncharged, glycosylated, and also contain a similar oxygenation pattern of the lateral naphthoquinone ring. These findings highlight the potential of antibiotic biosynthetic pathways as a source of effective antibiofilm compounds.

New Derivatives of Dehydroabietic Acid Target Planktonic and Biofilm Bacteria in Staphylococcus Aureus and Effectively Disrupt Bacterial Membrane Integrity

European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. Sep, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26241878

The combination of the dehydroabietic acid scaffold with different amino acids resulted in the discovery of a new class of hybrid compounds that targets both planktonic and biofilms bacteria in Staphylococcus aureus strains and are far more potent anti-biofilm agents than conventional antibiotics. Unlike dehydroabietic acid, these compounds can disrupt biofilms within a short time period and compromise the integrity of the bacterial membrane. Two of the compounds identified in our study are the most potent abietane-type anti-biofilm agents reported so far and display robust activity against pre-formed biofilms at concentrations only 3-6-fold higher than those required to inhibit biofilm formation. Their easy preparation based on proteolysis-resistant d- and unusual amino acids makes them useful chemical probes to gain a deeper understanding of bacterial biofilms and outstanding candidates for further development into new drugs to fight infections.

Protein and Bacterial Interactions with Nanostructured Polymer Coatings

Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces. Dec, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26454542

Adsorption of proteins and adhesion of bacteria to a surface is affected by chemical and physical interactions. In this study, polymer coatings and their ability to adsorb avidin and Staphylococcus aureus were investigated. The surface chemistry and topography of the polymer coatings was modified by changing the weight ratio of the hydrophobic polystyrene (PS) and the hydrophilic acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) components in the polymer blend. Avidin adsorbed less to the ABS phase compared with the PS phase. The side-on orientation of avidin on the ABS surface, however, resulted in a higher specific binding of biotinylated bovine serum albumin. Steric effects and hydrophobic protein-surface interactions decreased the activity of avidin on the PS phase. The increased hydrophobicity and roughness of the polymer coatings enhanced the adhesion of S. aureus. The avidin-coated latex surface with 55% relative surface coverage of the PS phase showed anti-microbial behavior.

Phenotypic Screening Identifies Protein Synthesis Inhibitors As H-Ras-Nanocluster-Increasing Tumor Growth Inducers

Biochemistry. Dec, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26568031

Ras isoforms H-, N-, and K-ras are each mutated in specific cancer types at varying frequencies and have different activities in cell fate control. On the plasma membrane, Ras proteins are laterally segregated into isoform-specific nanoscale signaling hubs, termed nanoclusters. As Ras nanoclusters are required for Ras signaling, chemical modulators of nanoclusters represent ideal candidates for the specific modulation of Ras activity in cancer drug development. We therefore conducted a chemical screen with commercial and in-house natural product libraries using a cell-based H-ras-nanoclustering FRET assay. Next to established Ras inhibitors, such as a statin and farnesyl-transferase inhibitor, we surprisingly identified five protein synthesis inhibitors as positive regulators. Using commonly employed cycloheximide as a representative compound, we show that protein synthesis inhibition increased nanoclustering and effector recruitment specifically of active H-ras but not of K-ras. Consistent with these data, cycloheximide treatment activated both Erk and Akt kinases and specifically promoted H-rasG12V-induced, but not K-rasG12V-induced, PC12 cell differentiation. Intriguingly, cycloheximide increased the number of mammospheres, which are enriched for cancer stem cells. Depletion of H-ras in combination with cycloheximide significantly reduced mammosphere formation, suggesting an exquisite synthetic lethality. The potential of cycloheximide to promote tumor cell growth was also reflected in its ability to increase breast cancer cell tumors grown in ovo. These results illustrate the possibility of identifying Ras-isoform-specific modulators using nanocluster-directed screening. They also suggest an unexpected feedback from protein synthesis inhibition to Ras signaling, which might present a vulnerability in certain tumor cell types.

Online Measurement of Real-Time Cytotoxic Responses Induced by Multi-Component Matrices, Such As Natural Products, Through Electric Cell-Substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS)

International Journal of Molecular Sciences. Nov, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26569236

Natural products are complex matrices of compounds that are prone to interfere with the label-dependent methods that are typically used for cytotoxicity screenings. Here, we developed a label-free Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS)-based cytotoxicity assay that can be applied in the assessment of the cytotoxicity of natural extracts. The conditions to measure the impedance using ECIS were first optimized in mice immortalized hypothalamic neurons GT1-7 cells. The performance of four natural extracts when tested using three conventional cytotoxicity assays in GT1-7 cells, was studied. Betula pendula (silver birch tree) was found to interfere with all of the cytotoxicity assays in which labels were applied. The silver birch extract was also proven to be cytotoxic and, thus, served as a proof-of-concept for the use of ECIS. The extract was fractionated and the ECIS method permitted the distinction of specific kinetic patterns of cytotoxicity on the fractions as well as the extract's pure constituents. This study offers evidence that ECIS is an excellent tool for real-time monitoring of the cytotoxicity of complex extracts that are difficult to work with using conventional (label-based) assays. Altogether, it offers a very suitable cytotoxicity-screening assay making the work with natural products less challenging within the drug discovery workflow.

Penicillin G Increases the Synthesis of a Suicidal Marker (CidC) and Virulence (HlgBC) Proteins in Staphylococcus Aureus Biofilm Cells

International Journal of Medical Microbiology : IJMM. Jan, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 26725755

The present study reports the effect of Penicillin G (PenG) on the proteome dynamics of the Staphylococcus aureus strain Newman during biofilm mode of growth. The viability of the 18-h-old biofilm cells challenged with PenG at the concentration of 1mgmL(-1) was first assessed by plate counting, resazurin and LIVE/DEAD fluorescence staining, which indicated that the viability was reduced by ∼35% and ∼90% at 2h and 24h, respectively, after the addition of PenG. Subsequent two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE) assay of the treated and non-treated biofilm cells at the indicated time points revealed 45 proteins showing time- and treatment-specific change (1.5-fold, p<0.01). The 2D DIGE results suggested that the PenG-induced decrease in viability was accompanied by an increased synthesis of pyruvate oxidase (CidC), a suicidal marker known to potentiate acetate-dependent cell death in S. aureus. Increased abundance was also found for the TCA cycle associated malate-quinone oxidoreductase (Mqo), the ClpC ATPase, the HlgBC toxin and phage-associated proteins, which suggests that surviving cells have induced these activities as a last effort to overcome lethal doses of PenG. Proteomic results also revealed that the surviving cells were likely to strengthen their peptidoglycan due to the increased abundance of cell-wall biogenesis associated proteins, FemA and Pbp2; a phenomenon associated with dormancy in S. aureus.

Bioactive Glass Combined with Bisphosphonates Provides Protection Against Biofilms Formed by the Periodontal Pathogen Aggregatibacter Actinomycetemcomitans

International Journal of Pharmaceutics. Mar, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 26854428

Biofilms play a pivotal role in the progression of periodontitis and they can be treated with antiseptics (i.e. chlorhexidine) or antibiotics, but these therapeutic alternatives are unable of ameliorating periodontal alveolar bone loss, which has been, on the other hand, successfully treated with bone-preserving agents. The improved bone formation achieved in animal models by the combination of two such agents: bioactive glass (BAG) and bisphosphonates has attracted the interest for further exploring dental applications. However, the antimicrobial effects that may result from combining them have not been yet investigated. Here, our aim was to explore the anti-biofilm effects that could result from combining BAG with bisphosphonates, particularly in a dental biofilm model. The experiments were performed with an oral cavity single-specie (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans) biofilm assay, which was optimized in this contribution. Risedronate displayed an intrinsic anti-biofilm effect, and all bisphosphonates, except clodronate, reduced biofilm formation when combined with BAG. In particular, the anti-biofilm activity of risedronate was significantly increased by the combination with BAG. Since it has been proposed that some of the antimicrobial effects of BAG are caused by local pH changes, studies of pH variations were performed to gain a mechanistic understanding. However, the observed anti-biofilm effects could not be explained with lowered pHs. Overall, these results do provide further support for the promising use of bisphosphonate-BAG combinations in dental applications. These findings are particularly relevant for patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy, or osteoporotic patients, which are known to be more vulnerable to periodontitis. In such cases, bisphosphonate treatment could play a double positive effect: local treatment of periodontitis (in combination with BAG) and systemic treatment of osteoporosis, prevention of hypercalcemia and metastases.

Flavones As Quorum Sensing Inhibitors Identified by a Newly Optimized Screening Platform Using Chromobacterium Violaceum As Reporter Bacteria

Molecules (Basel, Switzerland). Sep, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27626397

Quorum sensing (QS) is the process by which bacteria produce and detect signal molecules to coordinate their collective behavior. This intercellular communication is a relevant target for anti-biofilm therapies. Here we have optimized a screening-applicable assay to search for new quorum sensing inhibitors from natural compound libraries. In this system, QS is correlated with the production of violacein, which is directly controlled by the LuxI/LuxR system in Chromobacterium violaceum ATCC 31532. The parallel use of C. violaceum Tn5-mutant CV026, which depends on auto-inducer addition, allows simultaneous discrimination of compounds that act as quenchers of the AHL signal (quorum quenchers). The incorporation of a redox stain into the platform allowed further distinction between QS inhibitors, quorum quenchers and antibacterial compounds. A pilot screening was performed with 465 natural and synthetic flavonoids. All the most active compounds were flavones and they displayed potencies (IC50) in the range of 3.69 to 23.35 μM. These leads were particularly promising as they inhibited the transition from microcolonies into mature biofilms from Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. This approach can be very effective in identifying new antimicrobials posing lesser risks of resistance.

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