Articles by Alanna Gilmour in JoVE
Detection of Neu1 Sialidase Activity in Regulating TOLL-like Receptor Activation Schammim R. Amith*1, Preethi Jayanth*1, Trisha Finlay*1, Susan Franchuk*1, Alanna Gilmour*1, Samar Abdulkhalek1, Myron R. Szewczuk*1 1Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Queen's University - Kingston, Ontario The sialidase assay is a simple technical approach that will elucidate novel molecular mechanism(s) of TLR sensors of microbial infections and involvement in inflammatory diseases at the receptor level on the cell surface of live macrophages.
Other articles by Alanna Gilmour on PubMed
Thymoquinone from Nutraceutical Black Cumin Oil Activates Neu4 Sialidase in Live Macrophage, Dendritic, and Normal and Type I Sialidosis Human Fibroblast Cells Via GPCR Galphai Proteins and Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Glycoconjugate Journal. Apr, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20213245 Anti-inflammatory activities of thymoquinone (TQ) have been demonstrated in in vitro and in vivo studies. However, the precise mechanism(s) of TQ in these anti-inflammatory activities is not well understood. Using a newly developed assay to detect sialidase activity in live macrophage cells (Glycoconj J doi: 10.1007/s10719-009-9239-8 ), here we show that TQ has no inhibitory effect on endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced sialidase activity in live BMC-2 macrophage cells. In contrast, the parent black seed oil (BSO) and another constituent of BSO para-cymene (p-CY) completely block LPS induced sialidase activity. All of these compounds had no effect on cell viability. On the other hand, TQ induces a vigorous sialidase activity in live BMC-2 macrophage cells in a dose dependent manner as well in live DC-2.4 dendritic cells, HEK-TLR4/MD2, HEK293, SP1 mammary adenocarcinoma cells, human WT and 1140F01 and WG0544 type I sialidosis fibroblast cells. Tamiflu (oseltamivir phosphate) inhibits TQ-induced sialidase activity in live BMC-2 cells with an IC(50) of 0.0194 microM compared to an IC(50) of 19.1 microM for neuraminidase inhibitor DANA (2-deoxy-2,3-dehydro-N-acetylneuraminic acid). Anti-Neu1, -2 and -3 antibodies have no inhibition of TQ-induced sialidase activity in live BMC-2 and human THP-1 macrophage cells but anti-Neu4 antibodies completely block this activity. There is a vigorous sialidase activity associated with TQ treated live primary bone marrow (BM) macrophage cells derived from WT and hypomorphic cathepsin A mice with a secondary Neu1 deficiency (NeuI KD), but not from Neu4 knockout (Neu4 KO) mice. Pertussis toxin (PTX), a specific inhibitor of Galphai proteins of G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) and the broad range inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) galardin and piperazine applied to live BMC-2, THP-1 and primary BM macrophage cells completely block TQ-induced sialidase activity. These same inhibitory effects are not observed with the GM1 ganglioside specific cholera toxin subunit B (CTXB) as well as with CTX, tyrosine kinase inhibitor K252a, and the broad range GPCR inhibitor suramin. The specific inhibitor of MMP-9, anti-MMP-9 antibody and anti-Neu4 antibody, but not the specific inhibitor of MMP-3 completely block TQ-induced sialidase activity in live THP-1 cells, which express Neu4 and MMP-9 on the cell surface. Neu4 sialidase activity in cell lysates from TQ-treated live THP-1 cells desialylates natural gangliosides and mucin substrates. RT-PCR and western blot analyses reveal no correlation between mRNA and protein values for Neu3 and Neu4 in human monocytic THP-1 cells, suggesting for the first time a varied post-transcriptional mechanism for these two mammalian sialidases independent of TQ activation. Our findings establish an unprecedented activation of Neu4 sialidase on the cell surface by thymoquinone, which is derived from the nutraceutical black cumin oil. The potentiation of GPCR-signaling by TQ via membrane targeting of Galphai subunit proteins and matrix metalloproteinase-9 activation may be involved in the activation process of Neu4 sialidase on the cell surface.
Thymoquinone-induced Neu4 Sialidase Activates NFÎºB in Macrophage Cells and Pro-inflammatory Cytokines in Vivo Glycoconjugate Journal. Aug, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20697956 Thymoquinone (TQ) derived from the nutraceutical black cumin oil has been reported to be a novel agonist of Neu4 sialidase activity in live cells (Glycoconj J DOI 10.1007/s10719-010-9281-6). The activation of Neu4 sialidase on the cell surface by TQ was found to involve GPCR-signaling via membrane targeting of GÎ±i subunit proteins and matrix metalloproteinase-9 activation. Contrary to other reports, TQ had no anti-inflammatory effects in vitro. Here, we show that MyD88/TLR4 complex formation and subsequent NFÎºB activation are induced by the Neu4 activity associated with TQ-stimulated live primary bone marrow (BM) macrophage cells from WT and Neu1-deficient mice, HEK-TLR4/MD2 cells and BMC-2 macrophage cell line but not with primary macrophage cells from Neu4-knockout mice. Tamiflu (oseltamivir phosphate), pertussis toxin (PTX), a specific inhibitor of GÎ±i proteins of G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) and the broad range inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) galardin applied to live primary BM macrophage cells completely block TQ-induced MyD88/TLR4 complex formation. Using immunocytochemistry and western blot analyses, Tamiflu, galardin and PTX inhibit NFÎºB activation induced by Neu4 activity associated with TQ-stimulated BMC-2 cells, HEK-TLR4/MD2 cells and primary BM macrophages from WT mice. EMSA analyses on HEK-TLR4/MD2 nuclear cell extracts confirm the nuclear localization and DNA binding of TQ-induced NFÎºB activation in a biphasic manner within 30Â min. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments reveal for the first time that MMP-9 may be an important intermediate link in the TQ-induced Neu4 activity circuitously targeting TLR4 receptors. Central to this process is that Neu4 forms a complex with MMP-9, which is already bound to TLR4 receptors. Fluorescence spectrophotometer analyses of live CD14-THP1 cells treated with TQ show Neu4 sialidase activity over 5Â min. Using flow cytometry analyses, CD14-THP1 cells treated with TQ express stable protein levels of Neu4, TLR4 and MMP9 on the cell surface over 30Â min except for a marked diminution of MMP9 at 15Â min. Using cytokine array profiling analyses of serum, Neu4-knockout mice respond poorly to TQ in producing pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines after 5-h treatment compared to the wild-type or hypomorphic cathepsin A mice with a secondary 90% Neu1 deficient mice. Our findings establish an unprecedented signaling paradigm for TQ-induced Neu4 sialidase activity. It signifies that MMP-9 forms an important molecular signaling platform in complex with TLR4 receptors at the ectodomain and acts as the intermediate link for TQ-induced Neu4 sialidase in generating a functional receptor with subsequent NFÎºB activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production in vivo.
Neu1 Sialidase and Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Cross-talk is Essential for Toll-like Receptor Activation and Cellular Signaling The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21873432 The signaling pathways of mammalian Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are well characterized, but the precise mechanism(s) by which TLRs are activated upon ligand binding remains poorly defined. Recently, we reported a novel membrane sialidase-controlling mechanism that depends on ligand binding to its TLR to induce mammalian neuraminidase-1 (Neu1) activity, to influence receptor desialylation, and subsequently to induce TLR receptor activation and the production of nitric oxide and proinflammatory cytokines in dendritic and macrophage cells. The Î±-2,3-sialyl residue of TLR was identified as the specific target for hydrolysis by Neu1. Here, we report a membrane signaling paradigm initiated by endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) binding to TLR4 to potentiate G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling via membrane GÎ±(i) subunit proteins and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) activation to induce Neu1. Central to this process is that a Neu1-MMP9 complex is bound to TLR4 on the cell surface of naive macrophage cells. Specific inhibition of MMP9 and GPCR GÎ±(i)-signaling proteins blocks LPS-induced Neu1 activity and NFÎºB activation. Silencing MMP9 mRNA using lentivirus MMP9 shRNA transduction or siRNA transfection of macrophage cells and MMP9 knock-out primary macrophage cells significantly reduced Neu1 activity and NFÎºB activation associated with LPS-treated cells. These findings uncover a molecular organizational signaling platform of a novel Neu1 and MMP9 cross-talk in alliance with TLR4 on the cell surface that is essential for ligand activation of TLRs and subsequent cellular signaling.