Articles by Alexa M. Bolock in JoVE
Breast Milk Enhances Growth of Enteroids: An Ex Vivo Model of Cell Proliferation Wyatt E. Lanik1, Lily Xu2, Cliff J. Luke1, Elise Z. Hu2, Pranjal Agrawal2, Victoria S. Liu2, Rajesh Kumar1, Alexa M. Bolock1, Congrong Ma3, Misty Good1 1Division of Newborn Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, Washington University School of Medicine, 2Washington University, 3Division of Newborn Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine This protocol describes how to establish an enteroid culture system from neonatal mouse or premature human intestine as well as an efficient method to collect milk from mice.
Other articles by Alexa M. Bolock on PubMed
Enteroviruses Infect Human Enteroids and Induce Antiviral Signaling in a Cell Lineage-specific Manner Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. | Pubmed ID: 28137842 Enteroviruses are among the most common viral infectious agents of humans and are primarily transmitted by the fecal-oral route. However, the events associated with enterovirus infections of the human gastrointestinal tract remain largely unknown. Here, we used stem cell-derived enteroids from human small intestines to study enterovirus infections of the intestinal epithelium. We found that enteroids were susceptible to infection by diverse enteroviruses, including echovirus 11 (E11), coxsackievirus B (CVB), and enterovirus 71 (EV71), and that contrary to an immortalized intestinal cell line, enteroids induced antiviral and inflammatory signaling pathways in response to infection in a virus-specific manner. Furthermore, using the Notch inhibitor dibenzazepine (DBZ) to drive cellular differentiation into secretory cell lineages, we show that although goblet cells resist E11 infection, enteroendocrine cells are permissive, suggesting that enteroviruses infect specific cell populations in the human intestine. Taken together, our studies provide insights into enterovirus infections of the human intestine, which could lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets and/or strategies to prevent or treat infections by these highly clinically relevant viruses.
The Role of Mucosal Immunity in the Pathogenesis of Necrotizing Enterocolitis Frontiers in Pediatrics. | Pubmed ID: 28316967 Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most devastating gastrointestinal disease of prematurity. Although the precise cause is not well understood, the main risk factors thought to contribute to NEC include prematurity, formula feeding, and bacterial colonization. Recent evidence suggests that NEC develops as a consequence of intestinal hyper-responsiveness to microbial ligands upon bacterial colonization in the preterm infant, initiating a cascade of aberrant signaling events, and a robust pro-inflammatory mucosal immune response. We now have a greater understanding of important mechanisms of disease pathogenesis, such as the role of cytokines, immunoglobulins, and immune cells in NEC. In this review, we will provide an overview of the mucosal immunity of the intestine and the relationship between components of the mucosal immune system involved in the pathogenesis of NEC, while highlighting recent advances in the field that have promise as potential therapeutic targets. First, we will describe the cellular components of the intestinal epithelium and mucosal immune system and their relationship to NEC. We will then discuss the relationship between the gut microbiota and cell signaling that underpins disease pathogenesis. We will conclude our discussion by highlighting notable therapeutic advancements in NEC that target the intestinal mucosal immunity.
IL-33 and the Intestine: The Good, the Bad, and the Inflammatory Cytokine. | Pubmed ID: 28687373 Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is a member of the IL-1 cytokine family that has been widely studied since its discovery in 2005 for its dichotomous functions in homeostasis and inflammation. IL-33, along with its receptor suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (ST2), has been shown to modulate both the innate and adaptive immune system. Originally, the IL-33/ST2 signaling axis was studied in the context of inducing type 2 immune responses with the expression of ST2 by T helper 2 (TH2) cells. However, the role of IL-33 is not limited to TH2 responses. Rather, IL-33 is a potent activator of TH1 cells, group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s), regulatory T (Treg) cells, and CD8+ T cells. The intestine is uniquely important in this discussion, as the intestinal epithelium is distinctively positioned to interact with both pathogens and the immune cells housed in the mucosa. In the intestine, IL-33 is expressed by the pericryptal fibroblasts and its expression is increased particularly in disease states. Moreover, IL-33/ST2 signaling aberrancy is implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Accordingly, for this review, we will focus on the role of IL-33 in the regulation of intestinal immunity, involvement in intestinal disease, and implication in potential therapeutics.