In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (7)
- Environmental Science & Technology
- Applied and Environmental Microbiology
- Applied Geochemistry : Journal of the International Association of Geochemistry and Cosmochemistry
- Environmental Science & Technology
- Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
- Environmental Chemistry (Collingwood, Vic.)
- Environmental Geochemistry and Health
Articles by Alison R. Keimowitz in JoVE
Other articles by Alison R. Keimowitz on PubMed
Arsenic Redistribution Between Sediments and Water Near a Highly Contaminated Source Environmental Science & Technology. Nov, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16329197 Mechanisms controlling arsenic partitioning between sediment, groundwater, porewaters, and surface waters were investigated at the Vineland Chemical Company Superfund site in southern New Jersey. Extensive inorganic and organic arsenic contamination at this site (historical total arsenic > 10 000 microg L(-1) or > 130 microM in groundwater) has spread downstream to the Blackwater Branch, Maurice River, and Union Lake. Stream discharge was measured in the Blackwater Branch, and water samples and sediment cores were obtained from both the stream and the lake. Porewaters and sediments were analyzed for arsenic speciation as well as total arsenic, iron, manganese, and sulfur, and they indicate that geochemical processes controlling mobility of arsenic were different in these two locations. Arsenic partitioning in the Blackwater Branch was consistent with arsenic primarily being controlled by sulfur, whereas in Union Lake, the data were consistent with arsenic being controlled largely by iron. Stream discharge and arsenic concentrations indicate that despite large-scale groundwater extraction and treatment, > 99% of arsenic transport away from the site results from continued discharge of high arsenic groundwater to the stream, rather than remobilization of arsenic in stream sediments. Changing redox conditions would be expected to change arsenic retention on sediments. In sulfur-controlled stream sediments, more oxic conditions could oxidize arsenic-bearing sulfide minerals, thereby releasing arsenic to porewaters and streamwaters; in iron-controlled lake sediments, more reducing conditions could release arsenic from sediments via reductive dissolution of arsenic-bearing iron oxides.
Microbial Mineral Weathering for Nutrient Acquisition Releases Arsenic Applied and Environmental Microbiology. Apr, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19251899 Tens of millions of people in Southeast Asia drink groundwater contaminated with naturally occurring arsenic. How arsenic is released from the sediment into the water remains poorly understood. Here, we show in laboratory experiments that phosphate-limited cells of Burkholderia fungorum mobilize ancillary arsenic from apatite. We hypothesize that arsenic mobilization is a by-product of mineral weathering for nutrient acquisition. The released arsenic does not undergo a redox transformation but appears to be solubilized from the apatite mineral lattice during weathering. Analysis of apatite from the source area in the Himalayan basin indicates the presence of elevated levels of arsenic, with an average concentration of 210 mg/kg. The rate of arsenic release is independent of the initial dissolved arsenic concentration and occurs at phosphate levels observed in Bangladesh aquifers. We also demonstrate the presence of the microbial phenotype that releases arsenic from apatite in Bangladesh aquifer sediments and groundwater. These results suggest that microbial mineral weathering for nutrient acquisition could be an important mechanism for arsenic mobilization.
Chemical Treatments for Mobilizing Arsenic from Contaminated Aquifer Solids to Accelerate Remediation Applied Geochemistry : Journal of the International Association of Geochemistry and Cosmochemistry. Oct, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 21076621 Arsenic is a prevalent contaminant at US Superfund sites where remediation by pump and treat systems is often complicated by slow desorption of As from Fe and Al (hydr)oxides in aquifer solids. Chemical amendments that either compete with As for sorption sites or dissolve Fe and Al (hydr)oxides can increase As mobility and improve pump and treat remediation efficiency. The goal of this work was to determine optimal amendments for improving pump and treat at As contaminated sites such as the Vineland Chemical Co. Superfund site in southern New Jersey. Extraction and column experiments were performed using As contaminated aquifer solids (81 ± 1 mg/kg), site groundwater, and either phosphate (NaH(2)PO(4)·H(2)O) or oxalic acid (C(2)H(2)O(4)·2H(2)O). In extraction experiments, phosphate mobilized between 11% and 94% of As from the aquifer solids depending on phosphate concentration and extraction time (1 mM-1 M; 1-24 h) and oxalic acid mobilized between 38 and 102% depending on oxalic acid concentration and extraction time (1-400 mM; 1-24 h). In column experiments, phosphate additions induced more As mobilization in the first few pore volumes but oxalic acid was more effective at mobilizing As overall and at lower amendment concentrations. At the end of the laboratory column experiments, 48% of As had been mobilized from the aquifer sediments with 100 mM phosphate and 88% had been mobilized with 10 mM oxalic acid compared with 5% with ambient groundwater alone. Furthermore, simple extrapolations based on pore volumes suggest that chemical treatments could lower the time necessary for clean up at the Vineland site from 600 a with ambient groundwater alone to potentially as little as 4 a with 10 mM oxalic acid.
Level and Degradation of Deepwater Horizon Spilled Oil in Coastal Marsh Sediments and Pore-water Environmental Science & Technology. Jun, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22571231 This research investigates the level and degradation of oil at ten selected Gulf saltmarsh sites months after the 2010 BP Macondo-1 well oil spill. Very high levels (10-28%) of organic carbon within the heavily oiled sediments are clearly distinguished from those in pristine sediments (
Hydrogeochemistry of the Catskill Mountains of New York Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Sep, 2013 | Pubmed ID: 24033485 Major ion chemistry of Catskill region groundwater is characterized on the basis of 207 analyses compiled from three sources, including a web-based U.S. Geological Survey database, state agency regulatory compliance data, and sampling of trailside springs performed by the authors. All samples were analyzed for the complete set of major ions, including calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, chloride, sulfate, and nitrate. Groundwater in pristine, high-elevation areas of the Catskill Peaks was found to be predominantly of calcium bicarbonate, calcium sulfate, or calcium bicarbonate-sulfate types, with relatively low ionic strength. Groundwater at lower elevations along the margins of the region or in valley bottoms was predominantly of sodium-chloride or sodium-bicarbonate types, showing the effects of road salt and other local pollution sources. Nitrate and sulfate enrichment attributable to regional air pollution sources were most evident in the high-elevation spring samples, owing to the generally low concentrations of other major ions. Trailside springs appear to be viable low-cost sources for obtaining samples representative of groundwater, especially in remote and inaccessible areas of the Catskill forest preserve.
In Situ Oxalic Acid Injection to Accelerate Arsenic Remediation at a Superfund Site in New Jersey Environmental Chemistry (Collingwood, Vic.). Sep, 2014 | Pubmed ID: 25598701 Arsenic is a prevalent contaminant at a large number of US Superfund sites; establishing techniques that accelerate As remediation could benefit many sites. Hundreds of tons of As were released into the environment by the Vineland Chemical Co. in southern New Jersey during its manufacturing lifetime (1949-1994), resulting in extensive contamination of surface and subsurface soils and sediments, groundwater, and the downstream watershed. Despite substantial intervention at this Superfund site, sufficient aquifer cleanup could require many decades if based on traditional pump and treat technologies only. Laboratory column experiments have suggested that oxalic acid addition to contaminated aquifer solids could promote significant As release from the solid phase. To evaluate the potential of chemical additions to increase As release in situ and boost treatment efficiency, a forced gradient pilot scale study was conducted on the Vineland site. During spring/summer 2009, oxalic acid and bromide tracer were injected into a small portion (~50 m(2)) of the site for 3 months. Groundwater samples indicate that introduction of oxalic acid led to increased As release. Between 2.9 and 3.6 kg of As were removed from the sampled wells as a result of the oxalic acid treatment during the 3-month injection. A comparison of As concentrations on sediment cores collected before and after treatment and analyzed using X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy suggested reduction in As concentrations of ~36% (median difference) to 48% (mean difference). While further study is necessary, the addition of oxalic acid shows potential for accelerating treatment of a highly contaminated site and decreasing the As remediation time-scale.
Chemical Contamination of Soils in the New York City Area Following Hurricane Sandy Environmental Geochemistry and Health. Oct, 2015 | Pubmed ID: 26486130 This paper presents a unique data set of lead, arsenic, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in soil samples collected from the metropolitan New York City area in the aftermath of Hurricane Sandy. Initial samples were collected by citizen scientists recruited via social media, a relatively unusual approach for a sample collection project. Participants in the affected areas collected 63 usable samples from basements, gardens, roads, and beaches. Results indicate high levels of arsenic, lead, PCBs, and PAHs in an area approximately 800 feet south of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) Superfund site at Newtown Creek. A location adjacent to the Gowanus Canal, another Superfund site, was found to have high PCB concentrations. Areas of high PAH contamination tended to be near high traffic areas or next to sites of known contamination. While contamination as a direct result of Hurricane Sandy cannot be demonstrated conclusively, the presence of high levels of contamination close to known contamination sites, evidence for co-contamination, and decrease in number of samples containing measureable amounts of semi-volatile compounds from samples collected at similar locations 9 months after the storm suggest that contaminated particles may have migrated to residential areas as a result of flooding.