Articles by Amma B. Addai in JoVE
Measurement of In Vitro Integration Activity of HIV-1 Preintegration Complexes Muthukumar Balasubramaniam1,2, Benem Davids1,2, Amma B. Addai1,2, Jui Pandhare1,3,4, Chandravanu Dash1,2,5 1Center for AIDS Health Disparities Research, Meharry Medical College, 2Department of Biochemistry and Cancer Biology, Meharry Medical College, 3School of Graduate Studies and Research, Meharry Medical College, 4Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Meharry Medical College, 5Tennessee Center for AIDS Research (TN-CFAR), Meharry Medical College This report describes an in vitro assay for measuring the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) preintegration complex (PIC)-associated integration activity in the cytoplasmic extracts of acutely infected cells. The integration of PIC-associated HIV-1 DNA into heterologous target DNA is quantified by using a nested real-time polymerase chain reaction strategy.
Other articles by Amma B. Addai on PubMed
Effect of Dietary Fat on Metabolism and DNA Adduct Formation After Acute Oral Exposure of F-344 Rats to Fluoranthene The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry. Apr, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 16781860 Adverse health effects such as cancer and toxicity may be attributed to consumption of chemically contaminated food rich in fat. This leads to a larger intake and retention of lipophilic toxic chemicals in the body with an increase in risks to human health. The objective of this study was to characterize the effect of dietary fat on disposition and metabolism of fluoranthene (FLA), a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compound. FLA was administered to F-344 rats in monounsaturated (peanut oil), polyunsaturated (corn oil) and saturated (coconut oil) fats at doses of 50 and 100 microg/kg via oral gavage. Blood, small intestine, liver, lung, testis, adipose tissue, urine and feces were collected at various time points' post-FLA exposure. Samples were analyzed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography for FLA parent compound and metabolites. DNA was isolated from the tissues and subjected to (32)P-post labeling to measure FLA-DNA adducts. The concentrations of unchanged FLA (FLA parent compound) and its metabolites showed an increase for the saturated fat treatment group compared with mono- and polyunsaturated fat groups. The FLA-DNA adduct concentrations were high in tissues of rats that received FLA through saturated fat. The toxicokinetic parameters, concentrations of FLA metabolites and FLA-DNA adduct showed a dose-dependent increase, and this increase was statistically significant (P
Cocaine Enhances HIV-1-induced CD4(+) T-cell Apoptosis: Implications in Disease Progression in Cocaine-abusing HIV-1 Patients The American Journal of Pathology. Apr, 2014 | Pubmed ID: 24486327 Substance abuse is a major barrier in eradication of the HIV epidemic because it serves as a powerful cofactor for viral transmission, disease progression, and AIDS-related mortality. Cocaine, one of the commonly abused drugs among HIV-1 patients, has been suggested to accelerate HIV disease progression. However, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Therefore, we tested whether cocaine augments HIV-1-associated CD4(+) T-cell decline, a predictor of HIV disease progression. We examined apoptosis of resting CD4(+) T cells from HIV-1-negative and HIV-1-positive donors in our study, because decline of uninfected cells plays a major role in HIV-1 disease progression. Treatment of resting CD4(+) T cells with cocaine (up to 100 μmol/L concentrations) did not induce apoptosis, but 200 to 1000 μmol/L cocaine induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Notably, treatment of CD4(+) T cells isolated from healthy donors with both HIV-1 virions and cocaine significantly increased apoptosis compared with the apoptosis induced by cocaine or virions alone. Most important, our biochemical data suggest that cocaine induces CD4(+) T-cell apoptosis by increasing intracellular reactive oxygen species levels and inducing mitochondrial depolarization. Collectively, our results provide evidence of a synergy between cocaine and HIV-1 on CD4(+) T-cell apoptosis that may, in part, explain the accelerated disease observed in HIV-1-infected drug abusers.
Cocaine Modulates HIV-1 Integration in Primary CD4+ T Cells: Implications in HIV-1 Pathogenesis in Drug-abusing Patients Journal of Leukocyte Biology. Apr, 2015 | Pubmed ID: 25691383 Epidemiologic studies suggest that cocaine abuse worsens HIV-1 disease progression. Increased viral load has been suggested to play a key role for the accelerated HIV disease among cocaine-abusing patients. The goal of this study was to investigate whether cocaine enhances proviral DNA integration as a mechanism to increase viral load. We infected CD4(+) T cells that are the primary targets of HIV-1 in vivo and treated the cells with physiologically relevant concentrations of cocaine (1 µM-100 µM). Proviral DNA integration in the host genome was measured by nested qPCR. Our results illustrated that cocaine from 1 µM through 50 µM increased HIV-1 integration in CD4(+) T cells in a dose-dependent manner. As integration can be modulated by several early postentry steps of HIV-1 infection, we examined the direct effects of cocaine on viral integration by in vitro integration assays by use of HIV-1 PICs. Our data illustrated that cocaine directly increases viral DNA integration. Furthermore, our MS analysis showed that cocaine is able to enter CD4(+) T cells and localize to the nucleus-. In summary, our data provide strong evidence that cocaine can increase HIV-1 integration in CD4(+) T cells. Therefore, we hypothesize that increased HIV-1 integration is a novel mechanism by which cocaine enhances viral load and worsens disease progression in drug-abusing HIV-1 patients.