In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (9)
- Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
- Journal of Ocular Biology, Diseases, and Informatics
- Visual Neuroscience
- The Journal of Comparative Neurology
- The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
- Molecular Endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.)
- Neural Development
- Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
- Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.)
Articles by Anda-Alexandra Calinescu in JoVE
Transposon Mediated Integration of Plasmid DNA into the Subventricular Zone of Neonatal Mice to Generate Novel Models of Glioblastoma Anda-Alexandra Calinescu1, Felipe Javier Núñez1, Carl Koschmann2, Bradley L. Kolb1, Pedro R. Lowenstein1,3, Maria G. Castro1,3 1Department of Neurosurgery, University of Michigan School of Medicine, 2Department of Pediatrics, Division of Hematology-Oncology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, 3Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan Here we describe an efficient and versatile protocol to induce, monitor and analyze novel glioblastomas (GBM) using transposon DNA injected into the ventricles of neonatal mice. Cells of the subventricular zone, which take up the plasmid, transform, proliferate and generate tumors with histo-pathological characteristics of human GBM.
Other articles by Anda-Alexandra Calinescu on PubMed
Multiple Mechanisms of Growth Hormone-regulated Gene Transcription Molecular Genetics and Metabolism. Feb, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17129742 Diverse physiological actions of growth hormone (GH) are mediated by changes in gene transcription. Transcription can be regulated at several levels, including post-translational modification of transcription factors, and formation of multiprotein complexes involving transcription factors, co-regulators and additional nuclear proteins; these serve as targets for regulation by hormones and signaling pathways. Evidence that GH regulates transcription at multiple levels is exemplified by analysis of the proto-oncogene c-fos. Among the GH-regulated transcription factors on c-fos, C/EBPbeta appears to be key, since depletion of C/EBPbeta by RNA interference blocks the stimulation of c-fos by GH. The phosphorylation state of C/EBPbeta and its ability to activate transcription are regulated by GH through MAPK and PI3K/Akt-mediated signaling cascades. The acetylation of C/EBPbeta also contributes to its ability to activate c-fos transcription. These and other post-translational modifications of C/EBPbeta appear to be integrated for regulation of transcription by GH. The formation of nuclear proteins into complexes associated with DNA-bound transcription factors is also regulated by GH. Both C/EBPbeta and the co-activator p300 are recruited to c-fos in response to GH, altering c-fos promoter activation. In addition, GH rapidly induces spatio-temporal re-localization of C/EBPbeta within the nucleus. Thus, GH-regulated gene transcription mediated by C/EBPbeta reflects the integration of diverse mechanisms including post-translational modifications, modulation of protein complexes associated with DNA and re-localization of gene regulatory proteins. Similar integration involving other transcription factors, including Stats, appears to be a feature of regulation by GH of other gene targets.
Identification of the Molecular Signatures Integral to Regenerating Photoreceptors in the Retina of the Zebra Fish Journal of Ocular Biology, Diseases, and Informatics. Dec, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 20072637 Investigating neuronal and photoreceptor regeneration in the retina of zebra fish has begun to yield insights into both the cellular and molecular means by which this lower vertebrate is able to repair its central nervous system. However, knowledge about the signaling molecules in the local microenvironment of a retinal injury and the transcriptional events they activate during neuronal death and regeneration is still lacking. To identify genes involved in photoreceptor regeneration, we combined light-induced photoreceptor lesions, laser-capture microdissection of the outer nuclear layer (ONL) and analysis of gene expression to characterize transcriptional changes for cells in the ONL as photoreceptors die and are regenerated. Using this approach, we were able to characterize aspects of the molecular signature of injured and dying photoreceptors, cone photoreceptor progenitors, and microglia within the ONL. We validated changes in gene expression and characterized the cellular expression for three novel, extracellular signaling molecules that we hypothesize are involved in regulating regenerative events in the retina.
Midkine Expression is Regulated by the Circadian Clock in the Retina of the Zebrafish Visual Neuroscience. Nov, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19860997 The retina displays numerous processes that follow a circadian rhythm. These processes are coordinated through the direct action of light on photoreceptive molecules and, in the absence of light, through autocrine/paracrine actions of extracellular neuromodulators. We previously described the expression of the genes encoding the secreted heparin-binding growth factors, midkine-a (mdka) and midkine-b (mdkb), in the retina of the zebrafish. Here, we provide evidence that the expression of mdka and mdkb follows a daily rhythm, which is independent of the presence or absence of light, and we propose that the expression of mdka is regulated by the circadian clock. Both qualitative and quantitative measures show that for mdka, the levels of mRNA and protein decrease during the night and increase during the subjective day. Qualitative measures show that the expression of mdkb increases during the second half of the subjective night and decreases during the second half of the subjective day. Within horizontal cells, the two midkine paralogs show asynchronous circadian regulation. Though intensely studied in the contexts of physiology and disease, this is the first study to provide evidence for the circadian regulation of midkines in the vertebrate nervous system.
Cellular Expression of Midkine-a and Midkine-b During Retinal Development and Photoreceptor Regeneration in Zebrafish The Journal of Comparative Neurology. May, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19263476 In the retina of adult teleosts, stem cells are sustained in two specialized niches: the ciliary marginal zone (CMZ) and the microenvironment surrounding adult MÃ¼ller glia. Recently, MÃ¼ller glia were identified as the regenerative stem cells in the teleost retina. Secreted signaling molecules that regulate neuronal regeneration in the retina are largely unknown. In a microarray screen to discover such factors, we identified midkine-b (mdkb). Midkine is a highly conserved heparin-binding growth factor with numerous biological functions. The zebrafish genome encodes two distinct midkine genes: mdka and mdkb. Here we describe the cellular expression of mdka and mdkb during retinal development and the initial, proliferative phase of photoreceptor regeneration. The results show that in the embryonic and larval retina mdka and mdkb are expressed in stem cells, retinal progenitors, and neurons in distinct patterns that suggest different functions for the two molecules. Following the selective death of photoreceptors in the adult, mdka and mdkb are coexpressed in horizontal cells and proliferating MÃ¼ller glia and their neurogenic progeny. These data reveal that Mdka and Mdkb are signaling factors present in the retinal stem cell niches in both embryonic and mature retinas, and that their cellular expression is actively modulated during retinal development and regeneration.
Transsynaptic Activity-dependent Regulation of Axon Branching and Neurotrophin Expression in Vivo The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Sep, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21900550 The two major classes of activity-dependent neuroplasticity predict different consequences of activity alteration on circuit response. Hebbian plasticity (positive feedback) posits that alteration of neuronal activity causes a parallel response within a circuit. In contrast, homeostatic plasticity (negative feedback) predicts that altering neuronal activity results in compensatory responses within a circuit. The relative roles of these modes of plasticity in vivo are unclear, since neuronal circuits are difficult to manipulate in the intact organism. In this study, we tested the in vivo effects of activity deprivation in the superior cervical ganglion-pineal circuit of adult rats, which can be noninvasively silenced by exposing animals to constant light. We demonstrated that total deprivation of sympathetic activity markedly decreased the presence of axonal proteins in the pineal and reduced the density and thickness of sympathetic axonal arbors. In addition, we demonstrated that sympathetic inactivity eliminated pineal function and markedly decreased pineal expression of neurotrophins. Administration of β-adrenergic agonist restored the expression of presynaptic and postsynaptic proteins. Furthermore, compensatory axonal growth through collateral sprouting, normally seen following unilateral denervation of the pineal, was profoundly impaired in the absence of neural activity. Thus, these data suggest that sympathetic axonal terminals are maintained by neural activity that induces neurotrophins, which may act through a retrograde mechanism to preserve the integrity of axonal arbors via a positive feedback loop. Conversely, by using Hebbian-like neuroplasticity, silent yet intact circuits enter a hibernation mode marked by reduction of presynaptic axonal structures and dramatically reduced postsynaptic expression of neurotrophins.
C/EBPβ Mediates Growth Hormone-regulated Expression of Multiple Target Genes Molecular Endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.). Apr, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21292824 Regulation of c-Fos transcription by GH is mediated by CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ). This study examines the role of C/EBPβ in mediating GH activation of other early response genes, including Cyr61, Btg2, Socs3, Zfp36, and Socs1. C/EBPβ depletion using short hairpin RNA impaired responsiveness of these genes to GH, as seen for c-Fos. Rescue with wild-type C/EBPβ led to GH-dependent recruitment of the coactivator p300 to the c-Fos promoter. In contrast, rescue with C/EBPβ mutated at the ERK phosphorylation site at T188 failed to induce GH-dependent recruitment of p300, indicating that ERK-mediated phosphorylation of C/EBPβ at T188 is required for GH-induced recruitment of p300 to c-Fos. GH also induced the occupancy of phosphorylated C/EBPβ and p300 on Cyr61, Btg2, and Socs3 at predicted C/EBP-cAMP response element-binding protein motifs in their promoters. Consistent with a role for ERKs in GH-induced expression of these genes, treatment with U0126 to block ERK phosphorylation inhibited their GH-induced expression. In contrast, GH-dependent expression of Zfp36 and Socs1 was not inhibited by U0126. Thus, induction of multiple early response genes by GH in 3T3-F442A cells is mediated by C/EBPβ. A subset of these genes is regulated similarly to c-Fos, through a mechanism involving GH-stimulated ERK 1/2 activation, phosphorylation of C/EBPβ, and recruitment of p300. Overall, these studies suggest that C/EBPβ, like the signal transducer and activator of transcription proteins, regulates multiple genes in response to GH.
Midkine-A Functions Upstream of Id2a to Regulate Cell Cycle Kinetics in the Developing Vertebrate Retina Neural Development. 2012 | Pubmed ID: 23111152 Midkine is a small heparin binding growth factor expressed in numerous tissues during development. The unique midkine gene in mammals has two paralogs in zebrafish: midkine-a (mdka) and midkine-b (mdkb). In the zebrafish retina, during both larval development and adult photoreceptor regeneration, mdka is expressed in retinal stem and progenitor cells and functions as a molecular component of the retina's stem cell niche. In this study, loss-of-function and conditional overexpression were used to investigate the function of Mdka in the retina of the embryonic zebrafish.
Circadian Regulation of Pineal Gland Rhythmicity Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 21782887 The pineal gland is a neuroendocrine organ of the brain. Its main task is to synthesize and secrete melatonin, a nocturnal hormone with diverse physiological functions. This review will focus on the central and pineal mechanisms in generation of mammalian pineal rhythmicity including melatonin production. In particular, this review covers the following topics: (1) local control of serotonin and melatonin rhythms; (2) neurotransmitters involved in central control of melatonin; (3) plasticity of the neural circuit controlling melatonin production; (4) role of clock genes in melatonin formation; (5) phase control of pineal rhythmicity; (6) impact of light at night on pineal rhythms; and (7) physiological function of the pineal rhythmicity.
Mechanisms of Glioma Formation: Iterative Perivascular Glioma Growth and Invasion Leads to Tumor Progression, VEGF-independent Vascularization, and Resistance to Antiangiogenic Therapy Neoplasia (New York, N.Y.). Jul, 2014 | Pubmed ID: 25117977 As glioma cells infiltrate the brain they become associated with various microanatomic brain structures such as blood vessels, white matter tracts, and brain parenchyma. How these distinct invasion patterns coordinate tumor growth and influence clinical outcomes remain poorly understood. We have investigated how perivascular growth affects glioma growth patterning and response to antiangiogenic therapy within the highly vascularized brain. Orthotopically implanted rodent and human glioma cells are shown to commonly invade and proliferate within brain perivascular space. This form of brain tumor growth and invasion is also shown to characterize de novo generated endogenous mouse brain tumors, biopsies of primary human glioblastoma (GBM), and peripheral cancer metastasis to the human brain. Perivascularly invading brain tumors become vascularized by normal brain microvessels as individual glioma cells use perivascular space as a conduit for tumor invasion. Agent-based computational modeling recapitulated biological perivascular glioma growth without the need for neoangiogenesis. We tested the requirement for neoangiogenesis in perivascular glioma by treating animals with angiogenesis inhibitors bevacizumab and DC101. These inhibitors induced the expected vessel normalization, yet failed to reduce tumor growth or improve survival of mice bearing orthotopic or endogenous gliomas while exacerbating brain tumor invasion. Our results provide compelling experimental evidence in support of the recently described failure of clinically used antiangiogenics to extend the overall survival of human GBM patients.