Articles by Andrew V. Samuelson in JoVE
The Replica Set Method: A High-throughput Approach to Quantitatively Measure Caenorhabditis elegans Lifespan Adam B. Cornwell1, Jesse R. Llop1, Peter Salzman2,3, Juilee Thakar4, Andrew V. Samuelson1 1Department of Biomedical Genetics, University of Rochester Medical Center, 2Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, University of Rochester Medical Center, 3Non-Clinical Statistics, Bristol-Myers Squibb, 4Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester Medical Center Here we describe the Replica Set method, an approach to quantitatively measure C. elegans lifespan/survival and healthspan in a high-throughput and robust manner, thus allowing screening of many conditions without sacrificing data quality. This protocol details the strategy and provides a software tool for analysis of Replica Set data.
Other articles by Andrew V. Samuelson on PubMed
Autolysosome Biogenesis and Developmental Senescence Are Regulated by Both Spns1 and V-ATPase Autophagy. | Pubmed ID: 27875093 Spns1 (Spinster homolog 1 [Drosophila]) in vertebrates, as well as Spin (Spinster) in Drosophila, is a hypothetical lysosomal H+-carbohydrate transporter, which functions at a late stage of macroautophagy (hereafter autophagy). The Spin/Spns1 defect induces aberrant autolysosome formation that leads to developmental senescence in the embryonic stage and premature aging symptoms in adulthood. However, the molecular mechanism by which loss of Spin/Spns1 leads to the specific pathogenesis remains to be elucidated. Using chemical, genetic and CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome-editing approaches in zebrafish, we investigated and determined a mechanism that suppresses embryonic senescence as well as autolysosomal impairment mediated by Spns1 deficiency. Unexpectedly, we found that a concurrent disruption of the vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (v-ATPase) subunit gene, atp6v0ca (ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal, V0 subunit ca) led to suppression of the senescence induced by the Spns1 defect, whereas the sole loss of Atp6v0ca led to senescent embryos similar to the single spns1 mutation. Moreover, we discovered that the combined stable defect seen in the presence of both the spns1 and atp6v0ca mutant genes still subsequently induced premature autophagosome-lysosome fusion marked by insufficient acidity, while extending developmental life span, compared with the solely mutated spns1 defect. Our data suggest that Spns1 and the v-ATPase orchestrate proper autolysosomal biogenesis with optimal acidification that is critically linked to developmental senescence and survival.
The Homeodomain-interacting Protein Kinase HPK-1 Preserves Protein Homeostasis and Longevity Through Master Regulatory Control of the HSF-1 Chaperone Network and TORC1-restricted Autophagy in Caenorhabditis Elegans PLoS Genetics. | Pubmed ID: 29036198 An extensive proteostatic network comprised of molecular chaperones and protein clearance mechanisms functions collectively to preserve the integrity and resiliency of the proteome. The efficacy of this network deteriorates during aging, coinciding with many clinical manifestations, including protein aggregation diseases of the nervous system. A decline in proteostasis can be delayed through the activation of cytoprotective transcriptional responses, which are sensitive to environmental stress and internal metabolic and physiological cues. The homeodomain-interacting protein kinase (hipk) family members are conserved transcriptional co-factors that have been implicated in both genotoxic and metabolic stress responses from yeast to mammals. We demonstrate that constitutive expression of the sole Caenorhabditis elegans Hipk homolog, hpk-1, is sufficient to delay aging, preserve proteostasis, and promote stress resistance, while loss of hpk-1 is deleterious to these phenotypes. We show that HPK-1 preserves proteostasis and extends longevity through distinct but complementary genetic pathways defined by the heat shock transcription factor (HSF-1), and the target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1). We demonstrate that HPK-1 antagonizes sumoylation of HSF-1, a post-translational modification associated with reduced transcriptional activity in mammals. We show that inhibition of sumoylation by RNAi enhances HSF-1-dependent transcriptional induction of chaperones in response to heat shock. We find that hpk-1 is required for HSF-1 to induce molecular chaperones after thermal stress and enhances hormetic extension of longevity. We also show that HPK-1 is required in conjunction with HSF-1 for maintenance of proteostasis in the absence of thermal stress, protecting against the formation of polyglutamine (Q35::YFP) protein aggregates and associated locomotory toxicity. These functions of HPK-1/HSF-1 undergo rapid down-regulation once animals reach reproductive maturity. We show that HPK-1 fortifies proteostasis and extends longevity by an additional independent mechanism: induction of autophagy. HPK-1 is necessary for induction of autophagosome formation and autophagy gene expression in response to dietary restriction (DR) or inactivation of TORC1. The autophagy-stimulating transcription factors pha-4/FoxA and mxl-2/Mlx, but not hlh-30/TFEB or the nuclear hormone receptor nhr-62, are necessary for extended longevity resulting from HPK-1 overexpression. HPK-1 expression is itself induced by transcriptional mechanisms after nutritional stress, and post-transcriptional mechanisms in response to thermal stress. Collectively our results position HPK-1 at a central regulatory node upstream of the greater proteostatic network, acting at the transcriptional level by promoting protein folding via chaperone expression, and protein turnover via expression of autophagy genes. HPK-1 therefore provides a promising intervention point for pharmacological agents targeting the protein homeostasis system as a means of preserving robust longevity.
The Role of the Antioxidant and Longevity-promoting Nrf2 Pathway in Metabolic Regulation Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care. Jan, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21102319 The vertebrate cap'n'collar family transcription factor Nrf2 and its invertebrate homologues SKN-1 (in worms) and CncC (in flies) function as master mediators of antioxidant and detoxification responses and regulators of the cellular redox state. Nrf2 controls gene expression programs that defend various tissues against diverse electrophilic stressors and oxidative insults, thus protecting the organism from disorders that are caused or exacerbated by such stresses. Moreover, studies on model organisms implicate the Nrf2 pathway in the prevention of aging-related diseases and suggest that SKN-1-regulated and CncC-regulated gene expression can promote longevity. These facets of Nrf2 signaling have been thoroughly reviewed. This article discusses another aspect of the Nrf2 pathway's function that has not yet received the same degree of attention, but emerges as a topic of increasing interest and potential clinical impact: its role in metabolic regulation and its interaction with central signaling systems that respond to nutritional inputs.