Articles by Ann G. Matthysse in JoVE
Other articles by Ann G. Matthysse on PubMed
The Effect of Cellulose Overproduction on Binding and Biofilm Formation on Roots by Agrobacterium Tumefaciens Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions : MPMI. | Pubmed ID: 16167770 Agrobacterium tumefaciens growing in liquid attaches to the surface of tomato and Arabidopsis thaliana roots, forming a biofilm. The bacteria also colonize roots grown in sterile quartz sand. Attachment, root colonization, and biofilm formation all were markedly reduced in celA and chvB mutants, deficient in production of cellulose and cyclic beta-(1,2)-D-glucans, respectively. We have identified two genes (celG and cell) in which mutations result in the overproduction of cellulose as judged by chemical fractionation and methylation analysis. Wild-type and chvB mutant strains carrying a cDNA clone of a cellulose synthase gene from the marine urochordate Ciona savignyi also overproduced cellulose. The overproduction in a wild-type strain resulted in increased biofilm formation on roots, as evaluated by light microscopy, and levels of root colonization intermediate between those of cellulose-minus mutants and the wild type. Overproduction of cellulose by a nonattaching chvB mutant restored biofilm formation and bacterial attachment in microscopic and viable cell count assays and partially restored root colonization. Although attachment to plant surfaces was restored, overproduction of cellulose did not restore virulence in the chvB mutant strain, suggesting that simple bacterial binding to plant surfaces is not sufficient for pathogenesis.
Polysaccharides Cellulose, Poly-beta-1,6-n-acetyl-D-glucosamine, and Colanic Acid Are Required for Optimal Binding of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 Strains to Alfalfa Sprouts and K-12 Strains to Plastic but Not for Binding to Epithelial Cells Applied and Environmental Microbiology. | Pubmed ID: 18310435 When Escherichia coli O157:H7 bacteria are added to alfalfa sprouts growing in water, the bacteria bind tightly to the sprouts. In contrast, laboratory K-12 strains of E. coli do not bind to sprouts under similar conditions. The roles of E. coli O157:H7 lipopolysaccharide (LPS), capsular polysaccharide, and exopolysaccharides in binding to sprouts were examined. An LPS mutant had no effect on the binding of the pathogenic strain. Cellulose synthase mutants showed a significant reduction in binding; colanic acid mutants were more severely reduced, and binding by poly-beta-1,6-N-acetylglucosamine (PGA) mutants was barely detectable. The addition of a plasmid carrying a cellulose synthase gene to K-12 strains allowed them to bind to sprouts. A plasmid carrying the Bps biosynthesis genes had only a marginal effect on the binding of K-12 bacteria. However, the introduction of the same plasmid allowed Sinorhizobium meliloti and a nonbinding mutant of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to bind to tomato root segments. These results suggest that although multiple redundant protein adhesins are involved in the binding of E. coli O157:H7 to sprouts, the polysaccharides required for binding are not redundant and each polysaccharide may play a distinct role. PGA, colanic acid, and cellulose were also required for biofilm formation by a K-12 strain on plastic, but not for the binding of E. coli O157:H7 to mammalian cells.
AttG and AttC Mutations of Agrobacterium Tumefaciens Are Dominant Negative Mutations That Block Attachment and Virulence Canadian Journal of Microbiology. | Pubmed ID: 18388996 The cryptic plasmid (pAT) of Agrobacterium tumefaciens was not required for virulence or attachment to plant surfaces. However, mutations in the attC and attG genes located on pAT caused the bacteria to become avirulent and non-attaching on tomato, carrot, and Bryophyllum daigremontiana. This was the case whether the mutation was in the copy of the genes located on pAT or whether it was carried in a second copy of the attA-G operon located on a plasmid in cells that contained a wild-type copy of pAT. Thus attC and attG mutations are dominant negative mutations. The mechanism by which these mutations block attachment and virulence is unknown.