Articles by Anna Holubowska in JoVE
Genetic Manipulation of Cerebellar Granule Neurons In Vitro and In Vivo to Study Neuronal Morphology and Migration Anna Holubowska1,2, Chaitali Mukherjee1,2, Mayur Vadhvani1,2, Judith Stegmüller1,2 1Cellular and Molelcular Neurobiology, Max Planck Institute of Experimental Medicine, 2Center for Nanoscale Microscopy and Molecular Physiology of the Brain (CNMPB) Neuronal morphogenesis and migration are crucial events underlying proper brain development. Here, we describe methods to genetically manipulate cultured cerebellar granule neurons and the developing cerebellum for the assessment of morphology and migratory characteristics of neurons.
Other articles by Anna Holubowska on PubMed
The Type B Phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase 3 is Essential for Root Hair Formation in Arabidopsis Thaliana The Plant Cell. Jan, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18178770 Root hairs are extensions of root epidermal cells and a model system for directional tip growth of plant cells. A previously uncharacterized Arabidopsis thaliana phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase gene (PIP5K3) was identified and found to be expressed in the root cortex, epidermal cells, and root hairs. Recombinant PIP5K3 protein was catalytically active and converted phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate to phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2]. Arabidopsis mutant plants homozygous for T-DNA-disrupted PIP5K3 alleles were compromised in root hair formation, a phenotype complemented by expression of wild-type PIP5K3 cDNA under the control of a 1500-bp PIP5K3 promoter fragment. Root hair-specific PIP5K3 overexpression resulted in root hair deformation and loss of cell polarity with increasing accumulation of PIP5K3 transcript. Using reestablishment of root hair formation in T-DNA mutants as a bioassay for physiological functionality of engineered PIP5K3 variants, catalytic activity was found to be essential for physiological function, indicating that PtdIns(4,5)P2 formation is required for root hair development. An N-terminal domain containing membrane occupation and recognition nexus repeats, which is not required for catalytic activity, was found to be essential for the establishment of root hair growth. Fluorescence-tagged PIP5K3 localized to the periphery of the apical region of root hair cells, possibly associating with the plasma membrane and/or exocytotic vesicles. Transient heterologous expression of full-length PIP5K3 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) pollen tubes increased plasma membrane association of a PtdIns(4,5)P2-specific reporter in these tip-growing cells. The data demonstrate that root hair development requires PIP5K3-dependent PtdIns(4,5)P2 production in the apical region of root hair cells.
Embryonic Stem Cell-related MiRNAs Are Involved in Differentiation of Pluripotent Cells Originating from the Germ Line Molecular Human Reproduction. Nov, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20566704 Cells originating from the germ cell lineage retain the remarkable property under special culture conditions to give rise to cells with embryonic stem cell (ESC) properties, such as the multipotent adult germline stem cells (maGSCs) derived from adult mouse testis. To get an insight into the mechanisms that control pluripotency and differentiation in these cells, we studied how differences observed during in vitro differentiation between ESCs and maGSCs are associated with differences at the level of microRNAs (miRNAs). In this work, we provide for a first time a connection between germ cell origin of maGSCs and their specific miRNA expression profile. We found that maGSCs express higher levels of germ cell markers characteristic for primordial germ cells (PGCs) and spermatogonia compared with ESCs. Retained expression of miR-290 cluster has been previously reported in maGSCs during differentiation and it was associated with higher Oct-4 levels. Here, we show that this property is also shared by another pluripotent cell line originating from the germ line, the embryonic germ cells. In addition, we provide proof that the specific miRNA expression profile of maGSCs has an impact on their differentiation potential. Low levels of miR-302 in maGSCs during the first 10 days of leukaemia inhibitory factor deprivation are shown to be necessary for the maintenance of high levels of early germ cell markers.