In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (12)

Articles by Annela M. Seddon in JoVE

 JoVE Bioengineering

Synthesis of Cationized Magnetoferritin for Ultra-fast Magnetization of Cells

1Bristol Centre for Functional Nanomaterials, University of Bristol, 2Department of Materials, Imperial College London, 3Self Assembly Group, CIC nanoGUNE, 4Ikebasque, Basque Foundation for Science, 5School of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Bristol, 6H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol

JoVE 54785

Other articles by Annela M. Seddon on PubMed

Chiral Templating of Silica-lipid Lamellar Mesophase with Helical Tubular Architecture

Angewandte Chemie (International Ed. in English). Aug, 2002  |  Pubmed ID: 12203434

Membrane Proteins, Lipids and Detergents: Not Just a Soap Opera

Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta. Nov, 2004  |  Pubmed ID: 15519311

Studying membrane proteins represents a major challenge in protein biochemistry, with one of the major difficulties being the problems encountered when working outside the natural lipid environment. In vitro studies such as crystallization are reliant on the successful solubilization or reconstitution of membrane proteins, which generally involves the careful selection of solubilizing detergents and mixed lipid/detergent systems. This review will concentrate on the methods currently available for efficient reconstitution and solubilization of membrane proteins through the use of detergent micelles, mixed lipid/detergent micelles and bicelles or liposomes. We focus on the relevant molecular properties of the detergents and lipids that aid understanding of these processes. A significant barrier to membrane protein research is retaining the stability and function of the protein during solubilization, reconstitution and crystallization. We highlight some of the lessons learnt from studies of membrane protein folding in vitro and give an overview of the role that lipids can play in stabilizing the proteins.

Phosphatidylglycerol Lipids Enhance Folding of an Alpha Helical Membrane Protein

Journal of Molecular Biology. Jul, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18565344

Membrane lipids are increasingly being recognised as active participants in biological events. The precise roles that individual lipids or global properties of the lipid bilayer play in the folding of membrane proteins remain to be elucidated, Here, we find a significant effect of phosphatidylglycerol (PG) on the folding of a trimeric alpha helical membrane protein from Escherichia coli diacylglycerol kinase. Both the rate and the yield of folding are increased by increasing the amount of PG in lipid vesicles. Moreover, there is a direct correlation between the increase in yield and the increase in rate; thus, folding becomes more efficient in terms of speed and productivity. This effect of PG seems to be a specific requirement for this lipid, rather than a charge effect. We also find an effect of single-chain lyso lipids in decreasing the rate and yield of folding. We compare this to our previous work in which lyso lipids increased the rate and yield of another membrane protein, bacteriorhodopsin. The contrasting effect of lyso lipids on the two proteins can be explained by the different folding reaction mechanisms and key folding steps involved. Our findings provide information on the lipid determinants of membrane protein folding.

Simple Host-guest Chemistry to Modulate the Process of Concentration and Crystallization of Membrane Proteins by Detergent Capture in a Microfluidic Device

Journal of the American Chemical Society. Oct, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18831551

This paper utilizes cyclodextrin-based host-guest chemistry in a microfluidic device to modulate the crystallization of membrane proteins and the process of concentration of membrane protein samples. Methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MBCD) can efficiently capture a wide variety of detergents commonly used for the stabilization of membrane proteins by sequestering detergent monomers. Reaction Center (RC) from Blastochloris viridis was used here as a model system. In the process of concentrating membrane protein samples, MBCD was shown to break up free detergent micelles and prevent them from being concentrated. The addition of an optimal amount of MBCD to the RC sample captured loosely bound detergent from the protein-detergent complex and improved sample homogeneity, as characterized by dynamic light scattering. Using plug-based microfluidics, RC crystals were grown in the presence of MBCD, giving a different morphology and space group than crystals grown without MBCD. The crystal structure of RC crystallized in the presence of MBCD was consistent with the changes in packing and crystal contacts hypothesized for removal of loosely bound detergent. The incorporation of MBCD into a plug-based microfluidic crystallization method allows efficient use of limited membrane protein sample by reducing the amount of protein required and combining sparse matrix screening and optimization in one experiment. The use of MBCD for detergent capture can be expanded to develop cyclodextrin-derived molecules for fine-tuned detergent capture and thus modulate membrane protein crystallization in an even more controllable way.

Drug Interactions with Lipid Membranes

Chemical Society Reviews. Sep, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19690732

The field of drug-membrane interactions is one that spans a wide range of scientific disciplines, from synthetic chemistry, through biophysics to pharmacology. Cell membranes are complex dynamic systems whose structures can be affected by drug molecules and in turn can affect the pharmacological properties of the drugs being administered. In this tutorial review we aim to provide a guide for those new to the area of drug-membrane interactions and present an introduction to areas of this topic which need to be considered. We address the lipid composition and structure of the cell membrane and comment on the physical forces present in the membrane which may impact on drug interactions. We outline methods by which drugs may cross or bind to this membrane, including the well understood passive and active transport pathways. We present a range of techniques which may be used to study the interactions of drugs with membranes both in vitro and in vivo and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these techniques and highlight new methods being developed to further this field.

Buffers May Adversely Affect Model Lipid Membranes: a Cautionary Tale

Biochemistry. Dec, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19860472

The effects of biological buffers on lipids have not been fully investigated because of the long-standing assumption that these buffers are too hydrophilic to substantially interact with the lipid membrane. We present evidence that for some buffers, this is not necessarily the case. Our research points toward a membrane softening effect caused by the buffer molecules interacting with the headgroup region of the lipid. Changes in the elastic properties of the membrane are known to control membrane protein behavior; this work serves as a warning for the design of assays utilizing model membranes in the presence of buffers.

A Highly Oriented Cubic Phase Formed by Lipids Under Shear

Journal of the American Chemical Society. Sep, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21823596

We demonstrate the formation of a macroscopically oriented inverse bicontinuous cubic (Q(II)) lipid phase from a sponge (L(3)) phase by controlled hydration during shear flow. The L(3) phase was the monoolein/butanediol/water system; the addition of water reduces the butanediol concentration, inducing the formation of a diamond (Q(II)(D)) cubic phase, which is oriented by the shear flow. The phenomenon was reproduced in both capillary and Couette geometries, indicating that this represents a robust general route for the production of highly aligned bulk Q(II) samples, with applications in nanomaterial templating and protein research.

Preparation of Films of a Highly Aligned Lipid Cubic Phase

Langmuir : the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids. Feb, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23347289

We demonstrate a method by which we can produce an oriented film of an inverse bicontinuous cubic phase (Q(II)(D)) formed by the lipid monoolein (MO). By starting with the lipid as a disordered precursor (the L(3) phase) in the presence of butanediol, we can obtain a film of the Q(II)(D) phase showing a high degree of in-plane orientation by controlled dilution of the sample under shear within a linear flow cell. We demonstrate that the direction of orientation of the film is different from that found in the oriented bulk material that we have reported previously; therefore, we can now reproducibly form Q(II)(D) samples oriented with either the [110] or the [100] axis aligned in the flow direction depending on the method of preparation. The deposition of MO as a film, via a moving fluid-air interface that leaves a coating of MO in the L(3) phase on the capillary wall, leads to a sample in the [110] orientation. This contrasts with the bulk material that we have previously demonstrated to be oriented in the [100] direction, arising from flow producing an oriented bulk slug of material within the capillary tube. The bulk sample contains significant amounts of residual butanediol, which can be estimated from the lattice parameter of the Q(II)(D) phase obtained. The sample orientation and lattice parameters are determined from synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering patterns and confirmed by simulations. This has potential applications in the production of template materials and the growth of protein crystals for crystallography as well as deepening our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the behavior of lyotropic liquid-crystal phases.

The Effects of Pressure and Temperature on the Energetics and Pivotal Surface in a Monoacylglycerol/water Gyroid Inverse Bicontinuous Cubic Phase

Soft Matter. May, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24695766

We have studied the effect of pressure and temperature on the location of the pivotal surface in a lipid inverse bicontinuous gyroid cubic phase (Q(G)(II)), described by the area at the pivotal surface (An), the volume between the pivotal surface and the bilayer midplane (Vn), and the molecular volume of the lipid (V). Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) was used to measure the swelling behaviour of the lipid, monolinolein, as a function of pressure and temperature, and the data were fitted to two different geometric models: the parallel interface model (PIM), and the constant mean curvature model (CMCM). The results show that an increase in temperature leads to a shift in the location of the pivotal surface towards the bilayer midplane, whilst an increase in pressure causes the pivotal surface to move towards the interfacial region. In addition, we describe the relevance of An, Vn and V for modeling the energetics of curved mesophases with specific reference to the mean curvature at the pivotal surface and discuss the significance of this parameter for modelling the energetics of curved mesophases.

Experimental Confirmation of Transformation Pathways Between Inverse Double Diamond and Gyroid Cubic Phases

Langmuir : the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids. May, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24810845

A macroscopically oriented double diamond inverse bicontinuous cubic phase (QII(D)) of the lipid glycerol monooleate is reversibly converted into a gyroid phase (QII(G)). The initial QII(D) phase is prepared in the form of a film coating the inside of a capillary, deposited under flow, which produces a sample uniaxially oriented with a ⟨110⟩ axis parallel to the symmetry axis of the sample. A transformation is induced by replacing the water within the capillary tube with a solution of poly(ethylene glycol), which draws water out of the QII(D) sample by osmotic stress. This converts the QII(D) phase into a QII(G) phase with two coexisting orientations, with the ⟨100⟩ and ⟨111⟩ axes parallel to the symmetry axis, as demonstrated by small-angle X-ray scattering. The process can then be reversed, to recover the initial orientation of QII(D) phase. The epitaxial relation between the two oriented mesophases is consistent with topology-preserving geometric pathways that have previously been hypothesized for the transformation. Furthermore, this has implications for the production of macroscopically oriented QII(G) phases, in particular with applications as nanomaterial templates.

Self-Assembly of a Functional Oligo(Aniline)-Based Amphiphile into Helical Conductive Nanowires

Journal of the American Chemical Society. Nov, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26496508

A tetra(aniline)-based cationic amphiphile, TANI-NHC(O)C5H10N(CH3)3(+)Br(-) (TANI-PTAB) was synthesized, and its emeraldine base (EB) state was found to self-assemble into nanowires in aqueous solution. The observed self-assembly is described by an isodesmic model, as shown by temperature-dependent UV-vis investigations. Linear dichroism (LD) studies, combined with computational modeling using time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT), suggests that TANI-PTAB molecules are ordered in an antiparallel arrangement within nanowires, with the long axis of TANI-PTAB arranged perpendicular to the nanowire long axis. Addition of either S- or R- camphorsulfonic acid (CSA) to TANI-PTAB converted TANI to the emeraldine salt (ES), which retained the ability to form nanowires. Acid doping of TANI-PTAB had a profound effect on the nanowire morphology, as the CSA counterions' chirality translated into helical twisting of the nanowires, as observed by circular dichroism (CD). Finally, the electrical conductivity of CSA-doped helical nanowire thin films processed from aqueous solution was 2.7 mS cm(-1). The conductivity, control over self-assembled 1D structure and water-solubility demonstrate these materials' promise as processable and addressable functional materials for molecular electronics, redox-controlled materials and sensing.

Control of Nanomaterial Self-Assembly in Ultrasonically Levitated Droplets

The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters. Apr, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 26979408

We demonstrate that acoustic trapping can be used to levitate and manipulate droplets of soft matter, in particular, lyotropic mesophases formed from self-assembly of different surfactants and lipids, which can be analyzed in a contact-less manner by X-ray scattering in a controlled gas-phase environment. On the macroscopic length scale, the dimensions and the orientation of the particle are shaped by the ultrasonic field, while on the microscopic length scale the nanostructure can be controlled by varying the humidity of the atmosphere around the droplet. We demonstrate levitation and in situ phase transitions of micellar, hexagonal, bicontinuous cubic, and lamellar phases. The technique opens up a wide range of new experimental approaches of fundamental importance for environmental, biological, and chemical research.

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