In JoVE (2)
Other Publications (6)
- Journal of Neuroscience Methods
- The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
- Neuropsychopharmacology : Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
- BMC Neuroscience
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Articles by Anouch Matevossian in JoVE
A Chromatin Assay for Human Brain Tissue Anouch Matevossian1, Schahram Akbarian1 1Psychiatry, Brudnick Neuropsychiatric Research Institute, University of Massachusetts Medical School Until recently, expression studies on human brain were limited to quantification of RNA or protein. With the chromatin immunoprecipitation techniques described in this paper, it will be possible to map histone methylation and other epigenetic regulators of gene expression in postmortem brain.
Neuronal Nuclei Isolation from Human Postmortem Brain Tissue Anouch Matevossian1, Schahram Akbarian1 1Psychiatry, Brudnick Neuropsychiatric Research Institute, University of Massachusetts Medical School The cellular heterogeneity of brain tissue poses a significant limitation for the study of epigenetic markings in chromatin because most assays lack single cell resolution. Neurons typically are intermingled with glia and other non-neuronal cells. We provide a protocol to extract and collect neuronal nuclei from human brain.
Other articles by Anouch Matevossian on PubMed
Chromatin Immunoprecipitation in Postmortem Brain Journal of Neuroscience Methods. Sep, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16574239 Methylation and other covalent modifications of nucleosome core histones are key regulators of chromatin structure and function, including epigenetic control of gene expression. For the human brain, however, very little is known about the regulation of histone modifications at specific genomic loci. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation protocols applicable to postmortem tissue are lacking, and the impact of potential confounds such as autolysis time or tissue pH is unknown. We treated cerebral cortex from human postmortem brain and mice by micrococcal nuclease digestion or, alternatively, by formaldehyde-crosslinking and sonication. We show that the bulk of nucleosomal DNA remains attached to histones during the first 30 h after death. Immunoprecipitation with antibodies against methylated histones was at least 10-fold more effective in unfixed, micrococcal nuclease-digested samples, in comparison to extracts prepared by fixation and sonication. Histone methylation differences across various genomic sites were maintained within a wide range of autolysis times and tissue pH. Therefore, immunoprecipitation of micrococcal nuclease-digested tissue extracts is a feasible approach to profile histone methylation at defined genomic loci in postmortem brain.
Prefrontal Dysfunction in Schizophrenia Involves Mixed-lineage Leukemia 1-regulated Histone Methylation at GABAergic Gene Promoters The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Oct, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17942719 Alterations in GABAergic mRNA expression play a key role for prefrontal dysfunction in schizophrenia and other neurodevelopmental disease. Here, we show that histone H3-lysine 4 methylation, a chromatin mark associated with the transcriptional process, progressively increased at GAD1 and other GABAergic gene promoters (GAD2, NPY, SST) in human prefrontal cortex (PFC) from prenatal to peripubertal ages and throughout adulthood. Alterations in schizophrenia included decreased GAD1 expression and H3K4-trimethylation, predominantly in females and in conjunction with a risk haplotype at the 5' end of GAD1. Heterozygosity for a truncated, lacZ knock-in allele of mixed-lineage leukemia 1 (Mll1), a histone methyltransferase expressed in GABAergic and other cortical neurons, resulted in decreased H3K4 methylation at GABAergic gene promoters. In contrast, Gad1 H3K4 (tri)methylation and Mll1 occupancy was increased in cerebral cortex of mice after treatment with the atypical antipsychotic, clozapine. These effects were not mimicked by haloperidol or genetic ablation of dopamine D2 and D3 receptors, suggesting that blockade of D2-like signaling is not sufficient for clozapine-induced histone methylation. Therefore, chromatin remodeling mechanisms at GABAergic gene promoters, including MLL1-mediated histone methylation, operate throughout an extended period of normal human PFC development and play a role in the neurobiology of schizophrenia.
Drug-induced Activation of Dopamine D(1) Receptor Signaling and Inhibition of Class I/II Histone Deacetylase Induce Chromatin Remodeling in Reward Circuitry and Modulate Cocaine-related Behaviors Neuropsychopharmacology : Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. Nov, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18288092 Chromatin remodeling, including histone modification, is involved in stimulant-induced gene expression and addiction behavior. To further explore the role of dopamine D(1) receptor signaling, we measured cocaine-related locomotor activity and place preference in mice pretreated for up to 10 days with the D(1) agonist SKF82958 and/or the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), sodium butyrate. Cotreatment with D(1) agonist and HDACi significantly enhanced cocaine-induced locomotor activity and place preference, in comparison to single-drug regimens. However, butyrate-mediated reward effects were transient and only apparent within 2 days after the last HDACi treatment. These behavioral changes were associated with histone modification changes in striatum and ventral midbrain: (1) a generalized increase in H3 phosphoacetylation in striatal neurons was dependent on activation of D(1) receptors; (2) H3 deacetylation at promoter sequences of tyrosine hydroxylase (Th) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (Bdnf) in ventral midbrain, together with upregulation of the corresponding gene transcripts after cotreatment with D(1) agonist and HDACi. Collectively, these findings imply that D(1) receptor-regulated histone (phospho)acetylation and gene expression in reward circuitry is differentially regulated in a region-specific manner. Given that the combination of D(1) agonist and HDACi enhances cocaine-related sensitization and reward, the therapeutic benefits of D(1) receptor antagonists and histone acetyl-transferase inhibitors (HATi) warrant further investigation in experimental models of stimulant abuse.
Isolation of Neuronal Chromatin from Brain Tissue BMC Neuroscience. 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18442397 DNA-protein interactions in mature brain are increasingly recognized as key regulators for behavioral plasticity and neuronal dysfunction in chronic neuropsychiatric disease. However, chromatin assays typically lack single cell resolution, and therefore little is known about chromatin regulation of differentiated neuronal nuclei that reside in brain parenchyma intermingled with various types of non-neuronal cells.
Developmental Regulation and Individual Differences of Neuronal H3K4me3 Epigenomes in the Prefrontal Cortex Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. May, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20421462 Little is known about the regulation of neuronal and other cell-type specific epigenomes from the brain. Here, we map the genome-wide distribution of trimethylated histone H3K4 (H3K4me3), a mark associated with transcriptional regulation, in neuronal and nonneuronal nuclei collected from prefrontal cortex (PFC) of 11 individuals ranging in age from 0.5 to 69 years. Massively parallel sequencing identified 12,732-19,704 H3K4me3 enriched regions (peaks), the majority located proximal to (within 2 kb of) the transcription start site (TSS) of annotated genes. These included peaks shared by neurons in comparison with three control (lymphocyte) cell types, as well as peaks specific to individual subjects. We identified 6,213 genes that show highly enriched H3K4me3 in neurons versus control. At least 1,370 loci, including annotated genes and novel transcripts, were selectively tagged with H3K4me3 in neuronal but not in nonneuronal PFC chromatin. Our results reveal age-correlated neuronal epigenome reorganization, including decreased H3K4me3 at approximately 600 genes (many function in developmental processes) during the first year after birth. In comparison, the epigenome of aging (>60 years) PFC neurons showed less extensive changes, including increased H3K4me3 at 100 genes. These findings demonstrate that H3K4me3 in human PFC is highly regulated in a cell type- and subject-specific manner and highlight the importance of early childhood for developmentally regulated chromatin remodeling in prefrontal neurons.
Setdb1-mediated Histone H3K9 Hypermethylation in Neurons Worsens the Neurological Phenotype of Mecp2-deficient Mice Neuropharmacology. Jun, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 20869373 Rett syndrome (RTT, OMIM # 312750), a neurodevelopmental disorder of early childhood, is primarily caused by mutations in the gene encoding methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2). Various molecular functions have been ascribed to MECP2, including the regulation of histone modifications associated with repressive chromatin remodeling, but the role of these mechanisms for the pathophysiology of RTT remains unclear. Here, we explore whether or not neuronal expression of the histone H3-lysine 9 specific methyl-transferase, Setdb1 (Set domain, bifurcated 1)/Eset/Kmt1e, which is normally present only at low levels in differentiated neurons, rescues the RTT-like phenotype of Mecp2-deficient mice. A myc-tagged Setdb1 cDNA was expressed through the tau locus for ubiquitous expression in CNS neurons, or under control of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CK) promoter to selectively target postmitotic neurons in forebrain. However, the CK-Setdb1 transgene lead to an enhanced neurological deficit, and the tauSetdb1 allele further shortened life span of mice with a brain-wide deletion of Mecp2 during prenatal development. In contrast, no neurological deficits or premature death was observed in CK-Setdb1 and tauSetdb1 mice expressing wildtype Mecp2. However, levels of trimethylated H3K9 at pericentromeric repeats were fully maintained in differentiated neurons from symptomatic Mecp2 null mutant mice. Based on these results, we draw two conclusions: First, neuronal chromatin in RTT brain is not affected by a generalized deficit in H3K9 trimethylation. Second, artificial up-regulation of this repressive chromatin mark via Setdb1 gene delivery specifically to neurons is harmful for the Mecp2-deficient brain. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Trends in neuropharmacology: in memory of Erminio Costa'.