Articles by Anyaporn Sawasdichai in JoVE
In situ subcellulära Fraktionering av vidhäftande och icke-häftande däggdjursceller Anyaporn Sawasdichai1, Hsin-Tien Chen1, Nazefah Abdul Hamid1, Padma-Sheela Jayaraman2, Kevin Gaston1 1Department of Biochemistry, School of Medical Sciences, University of Bristol, 2Division of Immunity and Infection, School of Medicine, University of Birmingham In situ subcellulära fraktionering av däggdjursceller på mikroskop täckglas tillåter visualisering av protein lokalisering.
Other articles by Anyaporn Sawasdichai on PubMed
CK2 Phosphorylation of the PRH/Hex Homeodomain Functions As a Reversible Switch for DNA Binding Nucleic Acids Research. Jun, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19324893 The proline-rich homeodomain protein (PRH/Hex) regulates transcription by binding to specific DNA sequences and regulates mRNA transport by binding to translation initiation factor eIF4E. Protein kinase CK2 plays multiple roles in the regulation of gene expression and cell proliferation. Here, we show that PRH interacts with the beta subunit of CK2 in vitro and in cells and that CK2 phosphorylates PRH. Phosphorylation of PRH by CK2 inhibits the DNA binding activity of this protein and dephosphorylation restores DNA binding indicating that this modification acts as a reversible switch. We show that phosphorylation of the homeodomain is sufficient to block DNA binding and we identify two amino acids within this the domain that are phosphorylated by CK2: S163 and S177. Site-directed mutagenesis demonstrates that mutation of either of these residues to glutamic acid partially mimics phosphorylation but is insufficient to completely block DNA binding whereas an S163E/S177E double mutation severely inhibits DNA binding. Significantly, the S163E and S177E mutations and the S163E/S177E double mutation all inhibit the ability of PRH to regulate transcription in cells. Since these amino acids are conserved between many homeodomain proteins, our results suggest that CK2 may regulate the activity of several homeodomain proteins in this manner.
PRH/Hhex Controls Cell Survival Through Coordinate Transcriptional Regulation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Signaling Molecular and Cellular Biology. May, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20176809 The proline-rich homeodomain protein (PRH) plays multiple roles in the control of gene expression during embryonic development and in the adult. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a mitogen that stimulates cell proliferation and survival via cell surface receptors including VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2. VEGF signaling is of critical importance in angiogenesis and hematopoiesis and is elevated in many tumors. Here we show that PRH binds directly to the promoter regions of the Vegf, Vegfr-1, and Vegfr-2 genes and that in each case PRH represses transcription. We demonstrate that overexpression or knockdown of PRH directly impinges on the survival of both leukemic and tumor cells and that the modulation of VEGF and VEGF receptor signaling by PRH mediates these effects. Our findings demonstrate that PRH is a key regulator of the VEGF signaling pathway and describe a mechanism whereby PRH plays an important role in tumorigenesis and leukemogenesis.
DNA Compaction by the Higher-order Assembly of PRH/Hex Homeodomain Protein Oligomers Nucleic Acids Research. Nov, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20675722 Protein self-organization is essential for the establishment and maintenance of nuclear architecture and for the regulation of gene expression. We have shown previously that the Proline-Rich Homeodomain protein (PRH/Hex) self-assembles to form oligomeric complexes that bind to arrays of PRH binding sites with high affinity and specificity. We have also shown that many PRH target genes contain suitably spaced arrays of PRH sites that allow this protein to bind and regulate transcription. Here, we use analytical ultracentrifugation and electron microscopy to further characterize PRH oligomers. We use the same techniques to show that PRH oligomers bound to long DNA fragments self-associate to form highly ordered assemblies. Electron microscopy and linear dichroism reveal that PRH oligomers can form protein-DNA fibres and that PRH is able to compact DNA in the absence of other proteins. Finally, we show that DNA compaction is not sufficient for the repression of PRH target genes in cells. We conclude that DNA compaction is a consequence of the binding of large PRH oligomers to arrays of binding sites and that PRH is functionally and structurally related to the Lrp/AsnC family of proteins from bacteria and archaea, a group of proteins formerly thought to be without eukaryotic equivalents.