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In JoVE (1)
- Rapid and Refined CD11b Magnetic Isolation of Primary Microglia with Enhanced Purity and Versatility
Other Publications (64)
- The European Journal of Neuroscience
- Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
- Biochemical Pharmacology
- The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Brain Research. Molecular Brain Research
- The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
- Free Radical Biology & Medicine
- Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
- Neurochemistry International
- Toxicological Sciences : an Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
- The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
- Pharmacology & Therapeutics
- The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
- Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
- Free Radical Biology & Medicine
- Molecular Brain
- Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
- Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
- Toxicological Sciences : an Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
- Free Radical Biology & Medicine
- Journal of Neuroscience Methods
- The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Molecular Neurodegeneration
- Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.)
- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
- Current Neuropharmacology
- Journal of Neuroinflammation
- Parkinson's Disease
- Journal of Neuroinflammation
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta
- PloS One
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Toxicological Sciences : an Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
- Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.)
- The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
- Journal of Neurochemistry
- Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology : the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
- Neurobiology of Disease
- Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
- Nature Communications
- Brain Research Bulletin
- Scientific Reports
- Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
- Journal of Neurochemistry
Articles by Arthi Kanthasamy in JoVE
Rapid and Refined CD11b Magnetic Isolation of Primary Microglia with Enhanced Purity and Versatility
Souvarish Sarkar*1, Emir Malovic*1, Brandon Plante1, Gary Zenitsky1, Huajun Jin1, Vellareddy Anantharam1, Arthi Kanthasamy1, Anumantha G. Kanthasamy1
1Biomedical Sciences & Iowa Center for Advanced Neurotoxicology, Iowa State University
Other articles by Arthi Kanthasamy on PubMed
Caspase-3 Dependent Proteolytic Activation of Protein Kinase C Delta Mediates and Regulates 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-induced Apoptotic Cell Death in Dopaminergic Cells: Relevance to Oxidative Stress in Dopaminergic Degeneration
The European Journal of Neuroscience. Sep, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 14511319
1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+), the neurotoxic metabolite of MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine), induces apoptosis in dopaminergic neurons; however, the cellular mechanisms underlying the degenerative process are not well understood. In the present study, we demonstrate that caspase-3 mediated proteolytic activation of protein kinase C delta (PKC delta) is critical in MPP+-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis. MPP+ exposure in rat dopaminergic neuronal cells resulted in time-dependent increases in reactive oxygen species generation, cytochrome c release, and caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation. Interestingly, MPP+ induced proteolytic cleavage of PKC delta (72-74 kDa) into a 41-kDa catalytic and a 38-kDa regulatory subunit, resulting in persistently increased kinase activity. The caspase-3 inhibitor Z-DEVD-fmk effectively blocked MPP+-induced PKC delta cleavage and kinase activity, suggesting that the proteolytic activation is caspase-3 mediated. Similar results were seen in MPP+-treated rat midbrain slices. Z-DEVD-fmk and the PKC delta specific inhibitor rottlerin almost completely blocked MPP+-induced DNA fragmentation. The superoxide dismutase mimetic, MnTBAP also effectively attenuated MPP+-induced caspase-3 activation, PKC delta cleavage, and DNA fragmentation. Furthermore, rottlerin attenuated MPP+-induced caspase-3 activity without affecting basal activity, suggesting positive feedback activation of caspase-3 by PKC delta. Intracellular delivery of catalytically active recombinant PKC delta significantly increased caspase-3 activity, further indicating that PKC delta regulates caspase-3 activity. Finally, over-expression of a kinase inactive PKC delta K376R mutant prevented MPP+-induced caspase activation and DNA fragmentation, confirming the pro-apoptotic function of PKC delta in dopaminergic cell death. Together, we demonstrate for the first time that MPP+-induced oxidative stress proteolytically activates PKC delta in a caspase-3-dependent manner to induce apoptosis and up-regulate the caspase cascade in dopaminergic neuronal cells.
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. Oct, 2003 | Pubmed ID: 14580317
Protein kinase Cdelta (PKCdelta), a member of the novel PKC family, is emerging as a redox-sensitive kinase in various cell types. Oxidative stress activates the PKCdelta kinase by translocation, tyrosine phosphorylation, or proteolysis. During proteolysis, caspase-3 cleaves the native PKCdelta (72-74 kDa) into 41-kDa catalytically active and 38-kDa regulatory fragments to persistently activate the kinase. The proteolytic activation of PKCdelta plays a key role in promoting apoptotic cell death in various cell types, including neuronal cells. Attenuation of PKCdelta proteolytic activation by antioxidants suggests that the cellular redox status can influence activation of the proapoptotic kinase. PKCdelta may also amplify apoptotic signaling via positive feedback activation of the caspase cascade. Thus, the dual role of PKCdelta as a mediator and amplifier of apoptosis may be important in the pathogenesis of major neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and Huntington disease.
Dieldrin Promotes Proteolytic Cleavage of Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase and Apoptosis in Dopaminergic Cells: Protective Effect of Mitochondrial Anti-apoptotic Protein Bcl-2
Neurotoxicology. Jun, 2004 | Pubmed ID: 15183012
Previously, we demonstrated that the organochlorine pesticide dieldrin induces mitochondrial depolarization, caspase-3 activation and apoptosis in dopaminergic PC12 cells. We also demonstrated that protein kinase Cdelta (PKCdelta), a member of a novel PKC family of proteins, is proteolytically activated by caspase-3 to mediate apoptotic cell death processes. In the present study, we have further characterized the protective effect of the major mitochondrial anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 against dieldrin-induced apoptotic events in dopaminergic cells. Exposure to dieldrin (30-100 microM) produced significant cytotoxicity and caspase-3 activation within 3h in vector-transfected PC12 cells, whereas human Bcl-2-transfected PC12 cells were almost completely resistant to dieldrin-induced cytotoxicity and caspase-3 activation. Also, dieldrin (30-300 microM) treatment induced proteolytic cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), which was blocked by pretreatment with caspase-3 inhibitors Z-DEVD-FMK and Z-VAD-FMK. Additionally, dieldrin-induced chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation were completely blocked in Bcl-2-overexpressed PC12 cells as compared to vector control cells. Together, these results clearly indicate that overexpression of mitochondrial anti-apoptotic protein protects against dieldrin-induced apoptotic cell death and further suggest that dieldrin primarily alters mitochondrial function to initiate apoptotic cell death in dopaminergic cells.
Activation of Protein Kinase C Delta by Proteolytic Cleavage Contributes to Manganese-induced Apoptosis in Dopaminergic Cells: Protective Role of Bcl-2
Biochemical Pharmacology. Jan, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15588722
Chronic inorganic manganese exposure causes selective toxicity to the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system, resulting in a Parkinsonian-like neurological condition known as Manganism. Apoptosis has been shown to occur in manganese-induced neurotoxicity; however, the down-stream cellular target of caspase-3 that contributes to DNA fragmentation is not established. Herein, we demonstrate that proteolytic activation of protein kinase Cdelta (PKCdelta) by caspase-3 plays a critical role in manganese-induced apoptotic cell death. Treatment of PC12 cells with manganese caused a sequential activation of mitochondrial-dependent pro-apoptotic events, including mitochondrial membrane depolarization, cytochrome c release, caspase-3 activation, and DNA fragmentation. Overexpression of Bcl-2 in PC12 cells remarkably attenuated each of these events, indicating that the mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic cascade contributes to manganese-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, PKCdelta was proteolytically cleaved by caspase-3, causing a persistent activation of the kinase. The manganese-induced proteolytic cleavage of PKCdelta was significantly blocked by Bcl-2-overexpression. Administration of active recombinant PKCdelta induced DNA fragmentation in PC12 cells, suggesting a pro-apoptotic role of PKCdelta. Furthermore, expression of catalytically inactive mutant PKCdelta(K376R) via a lentiviral gene delivery system effectively attenuated manganese-induced apoptosis. Together, these results suggest that the mitochondrial-dependent caspase cascade mediates apoptosis via proteolytic activation of PKCdelta in manganese-induced neurotoxicity.
Protein Kinase Cdelta is a Key Downstream Mediator of Manganese-induced Apoptosis in Dopaminergic Neuronal Cells
The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Apr, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15608081
Manganese (Mn) exposure causes manganism, a neurological disorder similar to Parkinson's disease. However, the cellular mechanism by which Mn induces dopaminergic neuronal cell death remains unclear. In the present study, we sought to investigate the key downstream apoptotic cell signaling events that contribute to Mn-induced cell death in mesencephalic dopaminergic neuronal (N27) cells. Mn exposure induced a dose-dependent increase in neuronal cell death in N27 cells. The cell death was accompanied by sequential activation of mitochondrial-dependent proapoptotic events, including cytochrome c release, caspase-3 activation, and DNA fragmentation, but not caspase-8 activation, indicating that the mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic cascade primarily triggers Mn-induced apoptosis. Notably, Mn treatment proteolytically activated protein kinase Cdelta (PKCdelta), a member of a novel class of protein kinase C. The caspase-3 specific inhibitor benzyloxycarbonyl-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-fluoromethylketone (Z-DEVD-FMK) significantly blocked PKCdelta cleavage and its kinase activity, indicating that caspase-3 mediates the proteolytic activation. Cotreatment with the PKCdelta inhibitor rottlerin or the caspase-3 inhibitor Z-DEVD-FMK almost completely blocked Mn-induced DNA fragmentation. Additionally, N27 cells expressing a catalytically inactive PKCdelta(K376R) protein (PKCdelta dominant negative mutant) or a caspase cleavage resistant PKCdelta(D327A) protein (PKCdelta cleavage resistant mutant) were found to be resistant to Mn-induced apoptosis. To further establish the proapoptotic role of PKCdelta, RNA interference-mediated gene knockdown was performed. Small interfering RNA suppression of PKCdelta expression protected N27 cells from Mn-induced apoptotic cell death. Collectively, these results suggest that caspase-3-dependent proteolytic activation of PKCdelta plays a key role in Mn-induced apoptotic cell death.
Tyrosine Phosphorylation Regulates the Proteolytic Activation of Protein Kinase Cdelta in Dopaminergic Neuronal Cells
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Aug, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15961393
Oxidative stress is a key apoptotic stimulus in neuronal cell death and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson disease (PD). Recently, we demonstrated that protein kinase C-delta (PKCdelta) is an oxidative stress-sensitive kinase that can be activated by caspase-3-dependent proteolytic cleavage to induce apoptotic cell death in cell culture models of Parkinson disease (Kaul, S., Kanthasamy, A., Kitazawa, M., Anantharam, V., and Kanthasamy, A. G. (2003) Eur. J. Neurosci. 18, 1387-1401 and Kanthasamy, A. G., Kitazawa, M., Kanthasamy, A., and Anantharam, V. (2003) Antioxid. Redox. Signal. 5, 609-620). Here we showed that the phosphorylation of a tyrosine residue in PKCdelta can regulate the proteolytic activation of the kinase during oxidative stress, which consequently influences the apoptotic cell death in dopaminergic neuronal cells. Exposure of a mesencephalic dopaminergic neuronal cell line (N27 cells) to H(2)O(2)(0-300 microm) induced a dose-dependent increase in cytotoxicity, caspase-3 activation and PKCdelta cleavage. H(2)O(2)-induced proteolytic activation of PKC was delta mediated by the activation of caspase-3. Most interestingly, both the general Src tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein (25 microm) and the p60(Src) tyrosine-specific kinase inhibitor (TSKI; 5 microm) dramatically inhibited H(2)O(2) and the Parkinsonian toxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium-induced PKCdelta cleavage, kinase activation, and apoptotic cell death. H(2)O(2) treatment also increased phosphorylation of PKCdelta at tyrosine site 311, which was effectively blocked by co-treatment with TSKI. Furthermore, N27 cells overexpressing a PKCdelta(Y311F) mutant protein exhibited resistance to H(2)O(2)-induced PKCdelta cleavage, caspase activation, and apoptosis. To our knowledge, these data demonstrate for the first time that phosphorylation of Tyr-311 on PKCdelta can regulate the proteolytic activation and proapoptotic function of the kinase in dopaminergic neuronal cells.
Wild-type Alpha-synuclein Interacts with Pro-apoptotic Proteins PKCdelta and BAD to Protect Dopaminergic Neuronal Cells Against MPP+-induced Apoptotic Cell Death
Brain Research. Molecular Brain Research. Sep, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15978696
Alpha-synuclein is a pre-synaptic protein of unknown function that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). Recently, we demonstrated that 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) induces caspase-3-dependent proteolytic activation of PKCdelta, which subsequently contributes to neuronal apoptotic cell death in mesencephalic dopaminergic neuronal cells. In the present study, we examined whether PKCdelta interacts with alpha-synuclein to modulate MPP+-induced dopaminergic degeneration. Over-expression of wild-type human alpha-synuclein in mesencephalic dopaminergic neuronal cells (N27 cells) attenuated MPP+-induced (300 microM) cytotoxicity, release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, and subsequent caspase-3 activation, without affecting reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Wild-type alpha-synuclein over-expression also dramatically reduced MPP+-induced caspase-3-mediated proteolytic cleavage of PKCdelta, whereas over-expression of the mutant human alpha-synucleinA53T did not alter the PKCdelta cleavage under similar conditions. Immunoprecipitation-kinase assay revealed reduced PKCdelta kinase activity in wild-type alpha-synuclein over-expressing cells in response to MPP+ treatment. Wild-type alpha-synuclein over-expression also rescued mesencephalic dopaminergic neuronal cells from MPP+-induced apoptotic cell death, while alpha-synucleinA53T exacerbated the MPP+-induced DNA fragmentation. Furthermore, co-immunoprecipitation studies revealed that alpha-synuclein interacts with the pro-apoptotic proteins PKCdelta and BAD, but not with the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 following MPP+ treatment. We also observed that the interaction between PKCdelta and alpha-synuclein does not involve direct phosphorylation. Together, our results demonstrate that wild-type alpha-synuclein interacts with the pro-apoptotic molecules BAD and PKCdelta to protect dopaminergic neuronal cells against neurotoxic insults.
Dieldrin Induces Ubiquitin-proteasome Dysfunction in Alpha-synuclein Overexpressing Dopaminergic Neuronal Cells and Enhances Susceptibility to Apoptotic Cell Death
The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Oct, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 15987830
Exposure to pesticides is implicated in the etiopathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). The organochlorine pesticide dieldrin is one of the environmental chemicals potentially linked to PD. Because recent evidence indicates that abnormal accumulation and aggregation of alpha-synuclein and ubiquitin-proteasome system dysfunction can contribute to the degenerative processes of PD, in the present study we examined whether the environmental pesticide dieldrin impairs proteasomal function and subsequently promotes apoptotic cell death in rat mesencephalic dopaminergic neuronal cells overexpressing human alpha-synuclein. Overexpression of wild-type alpha-synuclein significantly reduced the proteasomal activity. Dieldrin exposure dose-dependently (0-70 microM) decreased proteasomal activity, and 30 microM dieldrin inhibited activity by more than 60% in alpha-synuclein cells. Confocal microscopic analysis of dieldrin-treated alpha-synuclein cells revealed that alpha-synuclein-positive protein aggregates colocalized with ubiquitin protein. Further characterization of the aggregates with the autophagosomal marker mondansyl cadaverine and the lysosomal marker and dot-blot analysis revealed that these protein oligomeric aggregates were distinct from autophagosomes and lysosomes. The dieldrin-induced proteasomal dysfunction in alpha-synuclein cells was also confirmed by significant accumulation of ubiquitin protein conjugates in the detergent-insoluble fraction. We found that proteasomal inhibition preceded cell death after dieldrin treatment and that alpha-synuclein cells were more sensitive than vector cells to the toxicity. Furthermore, measurement of caspase-3 and DNA fragmentation confirmed the enhanced sensitivity of alpha-synuclein cells to dieldrin-induced apoptosis. Together, our results suggest that increased expression of alpha-synuclein predisposes dopaminergic cells to proteasomal dysfunction, which can be further exacerbated by environmental exposure to certain neurotoxic compounds, such as dieldrin.
Neurotoxicology. Aug, 2005 | Pubmed ID: 16112328
Parkinson's disease (PD) is increasingly recognized as a neurodegenerative disorder strongly associated with environmental chemical exposures. Recent epidemiological data demonstrate that environmental risk factors may play a dominant role as compared to genetic factors in the etiopathogenesis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Identification of key genetic defects such as alpha-synuclein and parkin mutations in PD also underscores the important role of genetic factors in the disease. Thus, understanding the interplay between genes and environment in PD may be critical to unlocking the mysteries of this 200-year-old neurodegenerative disease. Pesticides and metals are the most common classes of environmental chemicals that promote dopaminergic degeneration. The organochlorine pesticide dieldrin has been found in human PD postmortem brain tissues, suggesting that this pesticide has potential to promote nigral cell death. Though dieldrin has been banned, humans continue to be exposed to the pesticide through contaminated dairy products and meats due to the persistent accumulation of the pesticide in the environment. This review summarizes various neurotoxic studies conducted in both cell culture and animals models following dieldrin exposure and discusses their relevance to key pathological mechanisms associated with nigral dopaminergic degeneration including oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, protein aggregation, and apoptosis.
Interaction of Metals with Prion Protein: Possible Role of Divalent Cations in the Pathogenesis of Prion Diseases
Neurotoxicology. Sep, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16860868
Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative disorders that affect both humans and animals. The rapid clinical progression, change in protein conformation, cross-species transmission and massive neuronal degeneration are some key features of this devastating degenerative condition. Although the etiology is unknown, aberrant processing of cellular prion proteins is well established in the pathogenesis of prion diseases. Normal cellular prion protein (PrP(c)) is highly conserved in mammals and expressed predominantly in the brain. Nevertheless, the exact function of the normal prion protein in the CNS has not been fully elucidated. Prion proteins may function as a metal binding protein because divalent cations such as copper, zinc and manganese can bind to octapeptide repeat sequences in the N-terminus of PrP(c). Since the binding of these metals to the octapeptide has been proposed to influence both structural and functional properties of prion proteins, alterations in transition metal levels can alter the course of the disease. Furthermore, cellular antioxidant capacity is significantly compromised due to conversion of the normal prion protein (PrP(c)) to an abnormal scrapie prion (PrP(sc)) protein, suggesting that oxidative stress may play a role in the neurodegenerative process of prion diseases. The combination of imbalances in cellular transition metals and increased oxidative stress could further exacerbate the neurotoxic effect of PrP(sc). This review includes an overview of the structure and function of prion proteins, followed by the role of metals such as copper, manganese and iron in the physiological function of the PrP(c), and the possible role of transition metals in the pathogenesis of the prion disease.
Neurotoxicology. Sep, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 16870259
Impairment in ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) has recently been implicated in Parkinson's disease, as demonstrated by reduced proteasomal activities, protein aggregation and mutation of several genes associated with UPS. However, experimental studies with proteasome inhibitors failed to yield consensus regarding the effect of proteasome inhibition on dopaminergic degeneration. In this study, we systematically examined the effect of the proteasome inhibitor MG-132 on dopaminergic degeneration in cell culture and animal models of Parkinson's disease. Exposure of immortalized dopaminergic neuronal cells (N27) to low doses of MG-132 (2-10 microM) resulted in dose- and time-dependent cytotoxicity. Further, exposure to MG-132 (5 microM) for 10 min led to dramatic reduction of proteasomal activity (>70%) accompanied by a rapid accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins in these cells. MG-132 treatment also induced increases in caspase-3 activity in a time-dependent manner, with significant activation occurring between 90 and 150 min. We also noted a 12-fold increase in DNA fragmentation in MG-132 treated N27 cells. Similarly, primary mesencephalic neurons exposed to 5 microM MG-132 also induced >60% loss of TH positive neurons but only a minimal loss of non-dopaminergic cells. Stereotaxic injection of MG-132 (0.4 microg in 4 microl) into the substantia nigra compacta (SNc) in C57 black mice resulted in significant depletion of ipisilateral striatal dopamine and DOPAC content as compared to the vehicle-injected contralateral control sides. Also, we observed a significant decrease in the number of TH positive neurons in the substantia nigra of MG-132-injected compared to the vehicle-injected sites. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the proteasomal inhibitor MG-132 induces dopamine depletion and nigral dopaminergic degeneration in both cell culture and animal models, and suggest that proteasomal dysfunction may promote nigral dopaminergic degeneration in Parkinson's disease.
A Novel Peptide Inhibitor Targeted to Caspase-3 Cleavage Site of a Proapoptotic Kinase Protein Kinase C Delta (PKCdelta) Protects Against Dopaminergic Neuronal Degeneration in Parkinson's Disease Models
Free Radical Biology & Medicine. Nov, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17045926
Oxidative stress and apoptosis are considered common mediators of many neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease (PD). Recently, we identified that PKCdelta, a member of the novel PKC isoform family, is proteolytically activated by caspase-3 to induce apoptosis in experimental models of PD [Eur. J. Neurosci. 18 (6):1387-1401, 2003; Antioxid. Redox Signal. 5 (5):609-620, 2003]. Since caspase-3 cleaves PKCdelta between proline and aspartate residues at the cleavage site 324DIPD327 to activate the kinase, we developed an irreversible and competitive peptide inhibitor, Z-Asp(OMe)-Ile-Pro-Asp(OMe)-FMK (z-DIPD-fmk), to mimic the caspase-3 cleavage site of PKCdelta and tested its efficacy against oxidative stress-induced cell death in PD models. Cotreatment of z-DIPD-fmk with the parkinsonian toxins MPP(+) and 6-OHDA dose dependently attenuated cytotoxicity, caspase-3 activation, and DNA fragmentation in a mesencephalic dopaminergic neuronal cell model (N27 cells). However, z-DIPD-fmk treatment did not block MPP(+)-induced increases in caspase-9 enzyme activity. The z-DIPD-fmk peptide was much more potent (IC50 6 microM) than the most widely used and commercially available caspase-3 inhibitor z-DEVD-fmk (IC50 18 microM). Additionally, z-DIPD-fmk more effectively blocked PKCdelta cleavage and proteolytic activation than the cleavage of another caspase-3 substrate, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Importantly, the peptide inhibitor z-DIPD-fmk completely rescued TH(+) neurons from MPP(+)- and 6-OHDA-induced toxicity in mouse primary mesencephalic cultures. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the PKCdelta cleavage site is a novel target for development of a neuroprotective therapeutic strategy for PD.
Methamphetamine Induces Autophagy and Apoptosis in a Mesencephalic Dopaminergic Neuronal Culture Model: Role of Cathepsin-D in Methamphetamine-induced Apoptotic Cell Death
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Aug, 2006 | Pubmed ID: 17105920
Autophagy is a phylogenetically conserved process that plays a critical role in the degradation of oxidatively damaged proteins and organelle turnover. The role of oxidative stress and apoptosis in methamphetamine (METH)-induced neurotoxicity is well known; however, the potential contribution of autophagy to METH-induced oxidative damage in dopaminergic neuronal systems remains unclear. The goals of the present article were twofold: (a) to develop an in vitro dopaminergic cell culture model to study cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying METH-induced autophagy and apoptosis, and (b) to determine whether lysosomal protease cathepsin-D activation, resulting from the loss of lysosomal membrane integrity, contributes to METH-induced apoptosis. To accomplish these goals, we characterized morphological and biochemical changes in an immortalized mesencephalic dopaminergic neuronal cell line (N27 cells) following treatment with METH. Exposure of METH (2 mM) to N27 cells resulted in the appearance of cytoplasmic vacuolar structures reminiscent of autophagic vacuoles within 3 h. In order to ascertain the identity of the vacuolar structures that are formed following METH exposure, immunohistochemical staining for markers of autophagy were performed. LAMP 2, a classical marker of autophagolysosomes, revealed an extensive punctuate pattern of distribution on the vacuolar membrane surface, with exclusive localization in the cytoplasm. Additionally, using DNA fragmentation analysis we showed a dose-dependent increase in fragmented DNA in METH treated N27 cells. Since METH-induced autophagy preceded DNA fragmentation, we tested whether dysfunction of the autophagolysosomal system contributes to nuclear damage. Immunofluorescence studies with cathepsin-d demonstrated a granular pattern of staining in untreated cells, whereas an increased cathepsin- D immunoreactivity with a globular pattern of staining was observed in METH-treated cells. Nevertheless, blockade of cathepsin-D activation by pepstatin-A, cathepsin-D inhibitor, failed to alter METH-induced DNA fragmentation. Collectively, these results demonstrate that N27 dopaminergic neuronal cell model may serve as an excellent in vitro model to study the mechanisms of METH-induced autophagy and apoptosis. Furthermore, it is less likely that cathepsin-D may serve as a trigger for the induction of apoptosis subsequent to exposure of N27 dopaminergic neuronal cells to METH.
Microarray Analysis of Oxidative Stress Regulated Genes in Mesencephalic Dopaminergic Neuronal Cells: Relevance to Oxidative Damage in Parkinson's Disease
Neurochemistry International. May, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17397968
Oxidative stress and apoptotic cell death have been implicated in the dopaminergic cell loss that characterizes Parkinson's disease. While factors contributing to apoptotic cell death are not well characterized, oxidative stress is known to activate an array of cell signaling molecules that participate in apoptotic cell death mechanisms. We investigated oxidative stress-induced cytotoxicity of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in three cell lines, the dopaminergic mesencephalon-derived N27 cell line, the GABAergic striatum-derived M213-20 cell line, and the hippocampal HN2-5 cell line. N27 cells were more sensitive to H2O2-induced cell death than M213-20 and HN2-5 cells. H2O2 induced significantly greater increases in caspase-3 activity in N27 cells than in M213-20 cells. H2O2-induced apoptotic cell death in N27 cells was mediated by caspase-3-dependent proteolytic activation of PKCdelta. Gene expression microarrays were employed to examine the specific transcriptional changes in N27 cells exposed to 100 microM H2O2 for 4 h. Changes in genes encoding pro- or anti-apoptotic proteins included up-regulation of BIK, PAWR, STAT5B, NPAS2, Jun B, MEK4, CCT7, PPP3CC, and PSDM3, while key down-regulated genes included BNIP3, NPTXR, RAGA, STK6, YWHAH, and MAP2K1. Overall, the changes indicate a modulation of transcriptional activity, chaperone activity, kinase activity, and apoptotic activity that appears highly specific, coordinated and relevant to cell survival. Utilizing this in vitro model to identify novel oxidative stress-regulated genes may be useful in unraveling the molecular mechanisms underlying dopaminergic degeneration in Parkinson's disease.
Normal Cellular Prion Protein Protects Against Manganese-induced Oxidative Stress and Apoptotic Cell Death
Toxicological Sciences : an Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology. Aug, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17483122
The normal prion protein is abundantly expressed in the central nervous system, but its biological function remains unclear. The prion protein has octapeptide repeat regions that bind to several divalent metals, suggesting that the prion proteins may alter the toxic effect of environmental neurotoxic metals. In the present study, we systematically examined whether prion protein modifies the neurotoxicity of manganese (Mn) by comparing the effect of Mn on mouse neural cells expressing prion protein (PrP(C)-cells) and prion-knockout (PrP(KO)-cells). Exposure to Mn (10microM-10mM) for 24 h produced a dose-dependent cytotoxic response in both PrP(C)-cells and PrP(KO)-cells. Interestingly, PrP(C)-cells (EC(50) 117.6microM) were more resistant to Mn-induced cytotoxicity, as compared to PrP(KO)-cells (EC(50) 59.9microM), suggesting a protective role for PrP(C) against Mn neurotoxicity. Analysis of intracellular Mn levels showed less Mn accumulation in PrP(C)-cells as compared to PrP(KO)-cells, but no significant changes in the expression of the metal transporter proteins transferrin and DMT-1. Furthermore, Mn-induced mitochondrial depolarization and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation were significantly attenuated in PrP(C)-cells as compared to PrP(KO)-cells. Measurement of antioxidant status revealed similar basal levels of glutathione (GSH) in PrP(C)-cells and PrP(KO)-cells; however, Mn treatment caused greater depletion of GSH in PrP(KO)-cells. Mn-induced mitochondrial depolarization and ROS production were followed by time- and dose-dependent activation of the apoptotic cell death cascade involving caspase-9 and -3. Notably, DNA fragmentation induced by both Mn treatment and the oxidative stress inducer hydrogen peroxide (100microM) was significantly suppressed in PrP(C)-cells as compared to PrP(KO)-cells. Together, these results demonstrate that prion protein interferes with divalent metal Mn uptake and protects against Mn-induced oxidative stress and apoptotic cell death.
Protein Kinase C Delta Negatively Regulates Tyrosine Hydroxylase Activity and Dopamine Synthesis by Enhancing Protein Phosphatase-2A Activity in Dopaminergic Neurons
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. May, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17507557
Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis, can be regulated by phosphorylation at multiple serine residues, including serine-40. In the present study, we report a novel interaction between a key member of the novel PKC family, protein kinase Cdelta (PKCdelta), and TH, in which the kinase modulates dopamine synthesis by negatively regulating TH activity via protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). We observed that PKCdelta is highly expressed in nigral dopaminergic neurons and colocalizes with TH. Interestingly, suppression of PKCdelta activity with the kinase inhibitor rottlerin, PKCdelta-small interfering RNA, or with PKCdelta dominant-negative mutant effectively increased a number of key biochemical events in the dopamine pathway, including TH-ser40 phosphorylation, TH enzymatic activity, and dopamine synthesis in neuronal cell culture models. Additionally, we found that PKCdelta not only physically associates with the PP2A catalytic subunit (PP2Ac) but also phosphorylates the phosphatase to increase its activity. Notably, inhibition of PKCdelta reduced the dephosphorylation activity of PP2A and thereby increased TH-ser40 phosphorylation, TH activity, and dopamine synthesis. To further validate our findings, we used the PKCdelta knock-out (PKCdelta-/-) mouse model. Consistent with other results, we found greater TH-ser40 phosphorylation and reduced PP2A activity in the substantia nigra of PKCdelta-/- mice than in wild-type mice. Importantly, this was accompanied by an increased dopamine level in the striatum of PKCdelta-/- mice. Collectively, these results suggest that PKCdelta phosphorylates PP2Ac to enhance its activity and thereby reduces TH-ser40 phosphorylation and TH activity and ultimately dopamine synthesis.
Environmental Neurotoxic Chemicals-induced Ubiquitin Proteasome System Dysfunction in the Pathogenesis and Progression of Parkinson's Disease
Pharmacology & Therapeutics. Jun, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17521740
Proteolytic degradation of unwanted proteins by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is critical for normal maintenance of various cellular functions. Parkinson's disease (PD), one of the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorders, is characterized by prominent and irreversible nigral dopaminergic neuronal loss and intracellular protein aggregations. Epidemiological studies imply both environmental neurotoxins and genetic predisposition as potential risk factors for PD, though mechanisms underlying selective dopaminergic degeneration remain unclear. Studies with experimental PD models and postmortem PD brains have provided explicit evidence for mitochondria dysfunction and oxidative stress in PD pathogenesis. Recent identification of mutants in PINK1, DJ-1, Parkin, and LRRK-2 genes compliments the oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction hypotheses in dopaminergic neuronal degeneration in PD. Mutants of alpha-synuclein, Uch-L1 and Parkin support the involvement of UPS dysfunction in PD. Furthermore, various Parkinsonian toxicants have been shown to impair mitochondrial function, redox balances, and to some extent protein degradation machinery. Because environmental exposure to various neurotoxic agents is considered a dominant risk for development of PD, the interrelationship between neurotoxicant exposures and UPS dysfunction must be clearly understood. Elucidation of this interrelationship will help clarify 2 areas: (i) whether UPS dysfunction in PD is a primary pathogenic factor leading to nigral neuronal death or if it simply occurs as a consequence of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction and (ii) the interaction of genes and environment in the acceleration of nigral dopaminergic degeneration by targeting UPS. We review the recent evidence for UPS deficits in dopaminergic degeneration triggered by neurotoxins.
Neuroprotective Effect of Protein Kinase C Delta Inhibitor Rottlerin in Cell Culture and Animal Models of Parkinson's Disease
The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Sep, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17565007
Recent studies from our laboratory demonstrated that the protein kinase C (PKC) delta isoform is an oxidative stress-sensitive kinase and a key mediator of apoptotic cell death in Parkinson's Disease (PD) models (Eur J Neurosci 18:1387-1401, 2003; Mol Cell Neurosci 25:406-421, 2004). We showed that native PKC delta is proteolytically activated by caspase-3 and that suppression of PKC delta by dominant-negative mutant or small interfering RNA against the kinase can effectively block apoptotic cell death in cellular models of PD. In an attempt to translate the mechanistic studies to a neuroprotective strategy targeting PKC delta, we systematically characterized the neuroprotective effect of a PKC delta inhibitor, rottlerin, in 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+))-treated primary mesencephalic neuronal cultures as well as in an 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) animal model of PD. Rottlerin treatment in primary mesencephalic cultures significantly attenuated MPP(+)-induced tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neuronal cell and neurite loss. Administration of rottlerin, either intraperitoneally or orally, to C57 black mice showed significant protection against MPTP-induced locomotor deficits and striatal depletion of dopamine and its metabolite 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid. Notably, rottlerin post-treatment was effective even when MPTP-induced depletion of dopamine and its metabolites was greater than 60%, demonstrating its neurorescue potential. Furthermore, the dose of rottlerin used in neuroprotective studies effectively attenuated the MPTP-induced PKC delta kinase activity. Importantly, stereological analysis of nigral neurons revealed rottlerin treatment significantly protected against MPTP-induced TH-positive neuronal loss in the substantia nigra compacta. Collectively, our findings demonstrate the neuroprotective effect of rottlerin in both cell culture and preclinical animal models of PD, and they suggest that pharmacological modulation of PKC delta may offer a novel therapeutic strategy for treatment of PD.
Pharmacological Inhibition of Neuronal NADPH Oxidase Protects Against 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+)-induced Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in Mesencephalic Dopaminergic Neuronal Cells
Neurotoxicology. Sep, 2007 | Pubmed ID: 17904225
Oxidative stress is widely recognized as a key mediator of degenerative processes in Parkinson's disease (PD). Recently, we demonstrated that the dopaminergic toxin MPP+ initiates oxidative stress to cause caspase-3-dependent apoptotic cell death in mesencephalic dopaminergic neuronal (N27) cells. In this study, we determined the source of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced during MPP+-induced apoptotic cell death. In addition to mitochondria, plasma membrane NADPH oxidase is considered a major producer of ROS inside the cell. Here, we show that N27 neuronal cells express key NADPH oxidase subunits gp91phox and p67phox. We used structurally diverse NADPH oxidase inhibitors, aminoethyl-benzenesulfonylfluoride (AEBSF, 100-1000microM), apocynin (100-1000microM), and diphenylene iodonium (DPI, 3-30microM), to inhibit intrinsic NADPH oxidase activity in N27 cells. Flow cytometric analysis using the ROS-sensitive dye hydroethidine revealed that AEBSF blocked 300microM MPP+-induced ROS production for over 45min in N27 cells, in a dose-dependent manner. Further treatment with DPI, apocynin, and SOD also blocked MPP+-induced ROS production. In Sytox cell death assays, co-treatment with AEBSF, apocynin, or DPI for 24h significantly suppressed MPP+-induced cytotoxic cell death. Similarly, co-treatment with these inhibitors also significantly attenuated MPP+-induced increases in caspase-3 enzymatic activity. Furthermore, quantitative DNA fragmentation ELISA assays revealed that AEBSF, DPI, and apocynin rescue N27 cells from MPP+-induced apoptotic cell death. Together, these results indicate for the first time that intracellular ROS generated by NAPDH oxidase are present within the mesencephalic neuronal cells, and are a key determinant of MPP+-mediated dopaminergic degeneration in in vitro models of dopaminergic degeneration. This study supports a critical role of NADPH oxidase in the oxidative damage in PD; targeting this enzyme may lead to novel therapies for PD.
Proteasome Inhibitor-induced Apoptosis is Mediated by Positive Feedback Amplification of PKCdelta Proteolytic Activation and Mitochondrial Translocation
Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine. Dec, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18298651
Emerging evidence implicates impaired protein degradation by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) in Parkinson's disease; however cellular mechanisms underlying dopaminergic degeneration during proteasomal dysfunction are yet to be characterized. In the present study, we identified that the novel PKC isoform PKCdelta plays a central role in mediating apoptotic cell death following UPS dysfunction in dopaminergic neuronal cells. Inhibition of proteasome function by MG-132 in dopaminergic neuronal cell model (N27 cells) rapidly depolarized mitochondria independent of ROS generation to activate the apoptotic cascade involving cytochrome c release, and caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation. PKCdelta was a key downstream effector of caspase-3 because the kinase was proteolytically cleaved by caspase-3 following exposure to proteasome inhibitors MG-132 or lactacystin, resulting in a persistent increase in the kinase activity. Notably MG-132 treatment resulted in translocation of proteolytically cleaved PKCdelta fragments to mitochondria in a time-dependent fashion, and the PKCdelta inhibition effectively blocked the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, indicating that the accumulation of the PKCdelta catalytic fragment in the mitochondrial fraction possibly amplifies mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Overexpression of the kinase active catalytic fragment of PKCdelta (PKCdelta-CF) but not the regulatory fragment (RF), or mitochondria-targeted expression of PKCdelta-CF triggers caspase-3 activation and apoptosis. Furthermore, inhibition of PKCdelta proteolytic cleavage by a caspase-3 cleavage-resistant mutant (PKCdelta-CRM) or suppression of PKCdelta expression by siRNA significantly attenuated MG-132-induced caspase-9 and -3 activation and DNA fragmentation. Collectively, these results demonstrate that proteolytically activated PKCdelta has a significant feedback regulatory role in amplification of the mitochondria-mediated apoptotic cascade during proteasome dysfunction in dopaminergic neuronal cells.
Free Radical Biology & Medicine. Dec, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18835352
Although the prion protein is abundantly expressed in the CNS, its biological functions remain unclear. To determine the endogenous function of the cellular prion protein (PrP(c)), we compared the effects of oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inducers on apoptotic signaling in PrP(c)-expressing and PrP(ko) (knockout) neural cells. H(2)O(2), brefeldin A (BFA), and tunicamycin (TUN) induced increases in caspase-9 and caspase-3, PKCdelta proteolytic activation, and DNA fragmentation in PrP(c) and PrP(ko) cells. Interestingly, ER stress-induced activation of caspases, PKCdelta, and apoptosis was significantly exacerbated in PrP(c) cells, whereas H(2)O(2)-induced proapoptotic changes were suppressed in PrP(c) compared to PrP(ko) cells. Additionally, caspase-12 and caspase-8 were activated only in the BFA and TUN treatments. Inhibitors of caspase-9, caspase-3, and PKCdelta significantly blocked H(2)O(2)-, BFA-, and TUN-induced apoptosis, whereas the caspase-8 inhibitor attenuated only BFA- and TUN-induced cell death, and the antioxidant MnTBAP blocked only H(2)O(2)-induced apoptosis. Overexpression of the kinase-inactive PKCdelta(K376R) or the cleavage site-resistant PKCdelta(D327A) mutant suppressed both ER and oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. Thus, PrP(c) plays a proapoptotic role during ER stress and an antiapoptotic role during oxidative stress-induced cell death. Together, these results suggest that cellular PrP enhances the susceptibility of neural cells to impairment of protein processing and trafficking, but decreases the vulnerability to oxidative insults, and that PKCdelta is a key downstream mediator of cellular stress-induced neuronal apoptosis.
Environmental Neurotoxin Dieldrin Induces Apoptosis Via Caspase-3-dependent Proteolytic Activation of Protein Kinase C Delta (PKCdelta): Implications for Neurodegeneration in Parkinson's Disease
Molecular Brain. 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18945348
In previous work, we investigated dieldrin cytotoxicity and signaling cell death mechanisms in dopaminergic PC12 cells. Dieldrin has been reported to be one of the environmental factors correlated with Parkinson's disease and may selectively destroy dopaminergic neurons.
Chronic Low-dose Oxidative Stress Induces Caspase-3-dependent PKCdelta Proteolytic Activation and Apoptosis in a Cell Culture Model of Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Oct, 2008 | Pubmed ID: 18991865
Oxidative stress has been implicated as a key event in the degenerative process of dopaminergic neurons; however, the cellular mechanisms underlying chronic oxidative stress-induced neurodegeneration remain to be established. In this study, N27 cells, a dopaminergic neuronal cell line derived from rat mesencephalon, exposed to low doses of H(2)O(2) (0-30 muM for 12-24 hr) exhibited dose- and time-dependent increases in cytotoxicity and ROS generation. In addition, the H(2)O(2)-induced neurotoxicity was accompanied by increased caspase-3 activity and PKCdelta cleavage. Notably, treatment with antioxidants Trolox and MnTBAP or PKCdelta cleavage inhibitor z-DIPD-fmk significantly protected against oxidative stress-induced apoptotic cell death. These results demonstrate that the N27 cell line is a useful model for the study of the chronic low-dose oxidative stress-induced apoptotic cell death cascade and that caspase-3-dependent PKCdelta proteolytic activation may be important in the apoptotic process in dopaminergic neurons undergoing chronic oxidative insult.
Mitochondrial Accumulation of Polyubiquitinated Proteins and Differential Regulation of Apoptosis by Polyubiquitination Sites Lys-48 and -63
Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine. Aug, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19432818
Proteins tagged with lysine (Lys, K) 48 polyubiquitins chains are destined for degradation by the 26S proteasomal system. Impairment of the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) function culminates in the accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins in many neurodegenerative conditions including Parkinson's disease (PD). Nevertheless, the cellular mechanisms underlying cell death induced by an impaired UPS are still not clear. Intriguingly, recent studies indicate that several proteins associated with familial PD are capable of promoting the assembly of Lys-63 polyubiquitin chains. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the role of K48 and K63 ubiquitination in mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in in vitro models of dopaminergic degeneration. Exposure of the widely used proteasome inhibitor MG-132 to dopaminergic neuronal cell line (N27) induced a rapid accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins in the mitochondria. This appears to result in the preferential association of ubiquitin conjugates in the outer membrane and polyubiquitination of outer membrane proteins. Interestingly, the ubiquitin(K48R) mutant effectively rescued cells from MG-132-induced mitochondrial apoptosis without altering the antioxidant status of cells; whereas the ubiquitin(K63R) mutant augmented the proapoptotic effect of MG-132. Herein, we report a novel conclusion that polyubiquitinated proteins, otherwise subjected to proteasomal degradation, preferentially accumulate in the mitochondria during proteolytic stress; and that polyubiquitination of Lys-48 and Lys-63 are key determinants of mitochondria-mediated cell death during proteasomal dysfunction. Together, these findings yield novel insights into a crosstalk between the UPS and mitochondria in dopaminergic neuronal cells.
Vanadium Induces Dopaminergic Neurotoxicity Via Protein Kinase Cdelta Dependent Oxidative Signaling Mechanisms: Relevance to Etiopathogenesis of Parkinson's Disease
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Oct, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19646462
Environmental exposure to neurotoxic metals through various sources including exposure to welding fumes has been linked to an increased incidence of Parkinson's disease (PD). Welding fumes contain many different metals including vanadium typically present as particulates containing vanadium pentoxide (V2O5). However, possible neurotoxic effects of this metal oxide on dopaminergic neuronal cells are not well studied. In the present study, we characterized vanadium-induced oxidative stress-dependent cellular events in cell culture models of PD. V2O5 was neurotoxic to dopaminergic neuronal cells including primary nigral dopaminergic neurons and the EC50 was determined to be 37 microM in N27 dopaminergic neuronal cell model. The neurotoxic effect was accompanied by a time-dependent uptake of vanadium and upregulation of metal transporter proteins Tf and DMT1 in N27 cells. Additionally, vanadium resulted in a threefold increase in reactive oxygen species generation, followed by release of mitochondrial cytochrome c into cytoplasm and subsequent activation of caspase-9 (>fourfold) and caspase-3 (>ninefold). Interestingly, vanadium exposure induced proteolytic cleavage of native protein kinase Cdelta (PKCdelta, 72-74 kDa) to yield a 41 kDa catalytically active fragment resulting in a persistent increase in PKCdelta kinase activity. Co-treatment with pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK significantly blocked vanadium-induced PKCdelta proteolytic activation, indicating that caspases mediate PKCdelta cleavage. Also, co-treatment with Z-VAD-FMK almost completely inhibited V2O5-induced DNA fragmentation. Furthermore, PKCdelta knockdown using siRNA protected N27 cells from V2O5-induced apoptotic cell death. Collectively, these results demonstrate that vanadium can exert neurotoxic effects in dopaminergic neuronal cells via caspase-3-dependent PKCdelta cleavage, suggesting that metal exposure may promote nigral dopaminergic degeneration.
Novel Cell Death Signaling Pathways in Neurotoxicity Models of Dopaminergic Degeneration: Relevance to Oxidative Stress and Neuroinflammation in Parkinson's Disease
Neurotoxicology. Sep, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20005250
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative movement disorder characterized by extensive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal system. Neurochemical and neuropathological analyses clearly indicate that oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, neuroinflammation and impairment of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) are major mechanisms of dopaminergic degeneration. Evidence from experimental models and postmortem PD brain tissues demonstrates that apoptotic cell death is the common final pathway responsible for selective and irreversible loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons. Epidemiological studies imply both environmental neurotoxicants and genetic predisposition are risk factors for PD, though the cellular mechanisms underlying selective dopaminergic degeneration remain unclear. Recent progress in signal transduction research is beginning to unravel the complex mechanisms governing dopaminergic degeneration. During the 12th International Neurotoxicology meeting, discussion at one symposium focused on several key signaling pathways of dopaminergic degeneration. This review summarizes two novel signaling pathways of nigral dopaminergic degeneration that have been elucidated using neurotoxicity models of PD. Dr. Anumantha Kanthasamy described a cell death pathway involving the novel protein kinase C delta isoform (PKCdelta) in oxidative stress-induced apoptotic cell death in experimental models of PD. Dr. Ajay Rana presented his recent work on the role of mixed lineage kinase-3 (MLK3) in neuroinflammatory processes in neurotoxic cell death. Collectively, PKCdelta and MLK3 signaling pathways provide new understanding of neurodegenerative processes in PD, and further exploration of these pathways may translate into effective neuroprotective drugs for the treatment of PD.
Manganese Upregulates Cellular Prion Protein and Contributes to Altered Stabilization and Proteolysis: Relevance to Role of Metals in Pathogenesis of Prion Disease
Toxicological Sciences : an Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology. Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20176619
Prion diseases are fatal neurodegenerative diseases resulting from misfolding of normal cellular prion (PrP(C)) into an abnormal form of scrapie prion (PrP(Sc)). The cellular mechanisms underlying the misfolding of PrP(C) are not well understood. Since cellular prion proteins harbor divalent metal-binding sites in the N-terminal region, we examined the effect of manganese on PrP(C) processing in in vitro models of prion disease. Exposure to manganese significantly increased PrP(C) levels both in cytosolic and in membrane-rich fractions in a time-dependent manner. Manganese-induced PrP(C) upregulation was independent of messenger RNA transcription or stability. Additionally, manganese treatment did not alter the PrP(C) degradation by either proteasomal or lysosomal pathways. Interestingly, pulse-chase analysis showed that the PrP(C) turnover rate was significantly altered with manganese treatment, indicating increased stability of PrP(C) with the metal exposure. Limited proteolysis studies with proteinase-K further supported that manganese increases the stability of PrP(C). Incubation of mouse brain slice cultures with manganese also resulted in increased prion protein levels and higher intracellular manganese accumulation. Furthermore, exposure of manganese to an infectious prion cell model, mouse Rocky Mountain Laboratory-infected CAD5 cells, significantly increased prion protein levels. Collectively, our results demonstrate for the first time that divalent metal manganese can alter the stability of prion proteins and suggest that manganese-induced stabilization of prion protein may play a role in prion protein misfolding and prion disease pathogenesis.
Free Radical Biology & Medicine. Dec, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20828611
The objective of this study was to assess the neuroprotective effects of a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant, Mito-Q(10), the coenzyme-Q analog attached to a triphenylphosphonium cation that targets the antioxidant to mitochondria, in experimental models of Parkinson's disease (PD). Primary mesencephalic neuronal cells and cultured dopaminergic cells were treated with 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)), an active metabolite of the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), and mice were used for testing the efficacy of Mito-Q(10). MPP(+) treatment caused a dose-dependent loss of tyrosine hydroxylase and membrane potential and an increase in caspase-3 activation in dopaminergic cells, which were reversed by Mito-Q(10). MPTP treatment induced a loss of striatal dopamine and its metabolites, inactivation of mitochondrial aconitase in the substantia nigra, and a loss of locomotor activity in mice. Treatment with Mito-Q(10) significantly inhibited both MPP(+)- and MPTP-induced neurotoxicity in cell culture and mouse models. Collectively, these results indicate that mitochondrial targeting of antioxidants is a promising neuroprotective strategy in this preclinical mouse model of PD.
Journal of Neuroscience Methods. Jan, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21074565
Microglial cells play a dynamic role in the brain beyond their established function of immune surveillance. Activated microglia play key roles in neural development, neuroinflammation, neural repair and neurotoxicity. They are particularly important in several neurodegenerative diseases in which sustained microglial activation contributes to the progression of neurodegenerative processes. Consequently, understanding microglial function in CNS health and disease has become an area of active research in recent years. However, a significant obstacle to progress in this field has been the inherent difficulties in obtaining large amounts of primary microglial cells to routinely perform mechanistic studies and characterize signaling pathways regulating the dynamics of microglial activation. Herein, we describe a novel column-free magnetic separation protocol for high-yield isolation of primary microglia from mouse postnatal mixed glial cultures. The procedure is based on optimized culture conditions that enable high microglial cell densities in confluent mixed glial cultures followed by highly efficient recovery of pure microglia by magnetic separation. The novel column-free magnetic separation system utilizes tetrameric antibody complexes (TAC) with dual specificity for CD11b-PE labeled microglia and dextran magnetic nanoparticles. An FcR blocker (anti-CD16/32) is added to enhance the purity of the microglial separation by preventing non-specific labeling of other cell types. This procedure yields on average >3×10⁶ microglial cells per mouse pup, with a remarkable purity of 97% and recovery of around 87% of microglia from the mixed glial population. Importantly, the microglia obtained by this method are fully functional and respond like cells obtained by conventional isolation techniques.
Î±-Synuclein Negatively Regulates Protein Kinase CÎ´ Expression to Suppress Apoptosis in Dopaminergic Neurons by Reducing P300 Histone Acetyltransferase Activity
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Feb, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21307242
We recently demonstrated that protein kinase CÎ´ (PKCÎ´), an important member of the novel PKC family, is a key oxidative stress-sensitive kinase that can be activated by caspase-3-dependent proteolytic cleavage to induce dopaminergic neuronal cell death. We now report a novel association between Î±-synuclein (Î±syn), a protein associated with the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease, and PKCÎ´, in which Î±syn negatively modulates the p300- and nuclear factor-ÎºB (NFÎºB)-dependent transactivation to downregulate proapoptotic kinase PKCÎ´ expression and thereby protects against apoptosis in dopaminergic neuronal cells. Stable expression of human wild-type Î±syn at physiological levels in dopaminergic neuronal cells resulted in an isoform-dependent transcriptional suppression of PKCÎ´ expression without changes in the stability of mRNA and protein or DNA methylation. The reduction in PKCÎ´ transcription was mediated, in part, through the suppression of constitutive NFÎºB activity targeted at two proximal PKCÎ´ promoter ÎºB sites. This occurred independently of NFÎºB/IÎºBÎ± (inhibitor of ÎºBÎ±) nuclear translocation but was associated with decreased NFÎºB-p65 acetylation. Also, Î±syn reduced p300 levels and its HAT (histone acetyltransferase) activity, thereby contributing to diminished PKCÎ´ transactivation. Importantly, reduced PKCÎ´ and p300 expression also were observed within nigral dopaminergic neurons in Î±syn-transgenic mice. These findings expand the role of Î±syn in neuroprotection by modulating the expression of the key proapoptotic kinase PKCÎ´ in dopaminergic neurons.
Effects of Manganese on Tyrosine Hydroxylase (TH) Activity and TH-phosphorylation in a Dopaminergic Neural Cell Line
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Jul, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21310168
Manganese (Mn) exposure causes manganism, a neurological disorder similar to Parkinson's disease. However, the cellular mechanism by which Mn impairs the dopaminergic neurotransmitter system remains unclear. We previously demonstrated that caspase-3-dependent proteolytic activation of protein kinase C delta (PKCδ) plays a key role in Mn-induced apoptotic cell death in dopaminergic neurons. Recently, we showed that PKCδ negatively regulates tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis, by enhancing protein phosphatase-2A activity in dopaminergic neurons. Here, we report that Mn exposure can affect the enzymatic activity of TH, the rate-limiting enzyme in dopamine synthesis, by activating PKCδ-PP2A signaling pathway in a dopaminergic cell model. Low dose Mn (3-10μM) exposure to differentiated mesencephalic dopaminergic neuronal cells for 3h induced a significant increase in TH activity and phosphorylation of TH-Ser40. The PKCδ specific inhibitor rottlerin did not prevent Mn-induced TH activity or TH-Ser40 phosphorylation. On the contrary, chronic exposure to 0.1-1 μM Mn for 24h induced a dose-dependent decrease in TH activity. Interestingly, chronic Mn treatment significantly increased PKCδ kinase activity and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) enzyme activity. Treatment with the PKCδ inhibitor rottlerin almost completely prevented chronic Mn-induced reduction in TH activity, as well as increased PP2A activity. Neither acute nor chronic Mn exposures induced any cytotoxic cell death or altered TH protein levels. Collectively, these results demonstrate that low dose Mn exposure impairs TH activity in dopaminergic cells through activation of PKCδ and PP2A activity.
Transcriptional Regulation of Pro-apoptotic Protein Kinase Cdelta: Implications for Oxidative Stress-induced Neuronal Cell Death
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Jun, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21467032
We previously demonstrated that protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ; PKC delta) is an oxidative stress-sensitive kinase that plays a causal role in apoptotic cell death in neuronal cells. Although PKCδ activation has been extensively studied, relatively little is known about the molecular mechanisms controlling PKCδ expression. To characterize the regulation of PKCδ expression, we cloned an ∼2-kbp 5'-promoter segment of the mouse Prkcd gene. Deletion analysis indicated that the noncoding exon 1 region contained multiple Sp sites, including four GC boxes and one CACCC box, which directed the highest levels of transcription in neuronal cells. In addition, an upstream regulatory region containing adjacent repressive and anti-repressive elements with opposing regulatory activities was identified within the region -712 to -560. Detailed mutagenesis studies revealed that each Sp site made a positive contribution to PKCδ promoter expression. Overexpression of Sp family proteins markedly stimulated PKCδ promoter activity without any synergistic transactivating effect. Furthermore, experiments in Sp-deficient SL2 cells indicated long isoform Sp3 as the essential activator of PKCδ transcription. Importantly, both PKCδ promoter activity and endogenous PKCδ expression in NIE115 cells and primary striatal cultures were inhibited by mithramycin A. The results from chromatin immunoprecipitation and gel shift assays further confirmed the functional binding of Sp proteins to the PKCδ promoter. Additionally, we demonstrated that overexpression of p300 or CREB-binding protein increases the PKCδ promoter activity. This stimulatory effect requires intact Sp-binding sites and is independent of p300 histone acetyltransferase activity. Finally, modulation of Sp transcriptional activity or protein level profoundly altered the cell death induced by oxidative insult, demonstrating the functional significance of Sp-dependent PKCδ gene expression. Collectively, our findings may have implications for development of new translational strategies against oxidative damage.
Protein Kinase D1 (PKD1) Activation Mediates a Compensatory Protective Response During Early Stages of Oxidative Stress-induced Neuronal Degeneration
Molecular Neurodegeneration. Jun, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21696630
Oxidative stress is a key pathophysiological mechanism contributing to degenerative processes in many neurodegenerative diseases and therefore, unraveling molecular mechanisms underlying various stages of oxidative neuronal damage is critical to better understanding the diseases and developing new treatment modalities. We previously showed that protein kinase C delta (PKCδ) proteolytic activation during the late stages of oxidative stress is a key proapoptotic signaling mechanism that contributes to oxidative damage in Parkinson's disease (PD) models. The time course studies revealed that PKCδ activation precedes apoptotic cell death and that cells resisted early insults of oxidative damage, suggesting that some intrinsic compensatory response protects neurons from early oxidative insult. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to characterize protective signaling pathways in dopaminergic neurons during early stages of oxidative stress.
Environmental Neurotoxic Pesticide Dieldrin Activates a Non Receptor Tyrosine Kinase to Promote PKCδ-mediated Dopaminergic Apoptosis in a Dopaminergic Neuronal Cell Model
Neurotoxicology. Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21801747
Oxidative stress and apoptosis are two key pathophysiological mechanisms underlying dopaminergic degeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD). Recently, we identified that proteolytic activation of protein kinase C-delta (PKCδ), a member of the novel PKC family, contributes to oxidative stress-induced dopaminergic degeneration and that phosphorylation of tyrosine residue 311 (tyr311) on PKCδ is a key event preceding the PKCδ proteolytic activation during oxidative damage. Herein, we report that a non-receptor tyrosine kinase Fyn is significantly expressed in a dopaminergic neuronal N27 cell model. Exposure of N27 cells to the dopaminergic toxicant dieldrin (60 μM) rapidly activated Fyn kinase, PKCδ-tyr311 phosphorylation and proteolytic cleavage. Fyn kinase activation precedes the caspase-3-mediated proteolytic activation of PKCδ. Pre-treatment with p60-tyrosine-specific kinase inhibitor (TSKI) almost completely attenuated dieldrin-induced phosphorylation of PKCδ-tyr311 and its proteolytic activation. Additionally, TSKI almost completely blocked dieldrin-induced apoptotic cell death. To further confirm Fyn's role in the pro-apoptotic function of PKCδ, we adopted the RNAi approach. siRNA-mediated knockdown of Fyn kinase also effectively attenuated dieldrin-induced phosphorylation of PKCδ-tyr311, caspase-3-mediated PKCδ proteolytic cleavage, and DNA fragmentation, suggesting that Fyn kinase regulates the pro-apoptotic function of PKCδ. Collectively, these results demonstrate for the first time that Fyn kinase is a pro-apoptotic kinase that regulates upstream signaling of the PKCδ-mediated apoptotic cell death pathway in neurotoxicity models of pesticide exposure.
Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21815074
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative diseases, which occurs in both inheritable and sporadic forms. The interplay of the genetic mutations and environmental exposure to disease risk factors contributes to the pathogenic events leading to the demise of dopaminergic neurons in PD. Proteasome is one of the major proteolytic machinery responsible for degrading unwanted and damaged intracellular proteins. Emerging evidence implicates the incomplete proteolysis by ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) in PD pathogenesis. Proteasome inhibition recapitulates some of the key features of PD in vivo and in vitro. Varieties of dopaminergic neurotoxins emerge to inhibit proteasomal function. Given that some PD-related gene mutations impair proteolytic function of UPS, it has been well-accepted that both genetic and environmental factors may conspire to compromise the UPS in the initiation and progression of the disease. The enzymatic assays for the proteasomal activities with fluorogenic substrates and western blot analysis of ubiquitinated proteins provide an entry point to determine UPS function in the process of dopaminergic degeneration.
Dopaminergic Neurotoxicant 6-OHDA Induces Oxidative Damage Through Proteolytic Activation of PKCδ in Cell Culture and Animal Models of Parkinson's Disease
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21846476
The neurotoxicant 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is used to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying selective degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). Oxidative stress and caspase activation contribute to the 6-OHDA-induced apoptotic cell death of dopaminergic neurons. In the present study, we sought to systematically characterize the key downstream signaling molecule involved in 6-OHDA-induced dopaminergic degeneration in cell culture and animal models of PD. Treatment of mesencephalic dopaminergic neuronal N27 cells with 6-OHDA (100 μM) for 24h significantly reduced mitochondrial activity and increased cytosolic cytochrome c, followed by sequential activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Co-treatment with the free radical scavenger MnTBAP (10 μM) significantly attenuated 6-OHDA-induced caspase activities. Interestingly, 6-OHDA induced proteolytic cleavage and activation of protein kinase C delta (PKCδ) was completely suppressed by treatment with a caspase-3-specific inhibitor, Z-DEVD-FMK (50 μM). Furthermore, expression of caspase-3 cleavage site-resistant mutant PKCδ(D327A) and kinase dead PKCδ(K376R) or siRNA-mediated knockdown of PKCδ protected against 6-OHDA-induced neuronal cell death, suggesting that caspase-3-dependent PKCδ promotes oxidative stress-induced dopaminergic degeneration. Suppression of PKCδ expression by siRNA also effectively protected N27 cells from 6-OHDA-induced apoptotic cell death. PKCδ cleavage was also observed in the substantia nigra of 6-OHDA-injected C57 black mice but not in control animals. Viral-mediated delivery of PKCδ(D327A) protein protected against 6-OHDA-induced PKCδ activation in mouse substantia nigra. Collectively, these results strongly suggest that proteolytic activation of PKCδ is a key downstream event in dopaminergic degeneration, and these results may have important translational value for development of novel treatment strategies for PD.
Manganese Nanoparticle Activates Mitochondrial Dependent Apoptotic Signaling and Autophagy in Dopaminergic Neuronal Cells
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21856324
The production of man-made nanoparticles for various modern applications has increased exponentially in recent years, but the potential health effects of most nanoparticles are not well characterized. Unfortunately, in vitro nanoparticle toxicity studies are extremely limited by yet unresolved problems relating to dosimetry. In the present study, we systematically characterized manganese (Mn) nanoparticle sizes and examined the nanoparticle-induced oxidative signaling in dopaminergic neuronal cells. Differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies revealed that Mn nanoparticles range in size from single nanoparticles (~25 nM) to larger agglomerates when in treatment media. Manganese nanoparticles were effectively internalized in N27 dopaminergic neuronal cells, and they induced a time-dependent upregulation of the transporter protein transferrin. Exposure to 25-400 Î¼g/mL Mn nanoparticles induced cell death in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Mn nanoparticles also significantly increased ROS, accompanied by a caspase-mediated proteolytic cleavage of proapoptotic protein kinase CÎ´ (PKCÎ´), as well as activation loop phosphorylation. Blocking Mn nanoparticle-induced ROS failed to protect against the neurotoxic effects, suggesting the involvement of other pathways. Further mechanistic studies revealed changes in Beclin 1 and LC3, indicating that Mn nanoparticles induce autophagy. Primary mesencephalic neuron exposure to Mn nanoparticles induced loss of TH positive dopaminergic neurons and neuronal processes. Collectively, our results suggest that Mn nanoparticles effectively enter dopaminergic neuronal cells and exert neurotoxic effects by activating an apoptotic signaling pathway and autophagy, emphasizing the need for assessing possible health risks associated with an increased use of Mn nanoparticles in modern applications.
Infectious Prion Protein Alters Manganese Transport and Neurotoxicity in a Cell Culture Model of Prion Disease
Neurotoxicology. Oct, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21871919
Protein misfolding and aggregation are considered key features of many neurodegenerative diseases, but biochemical mechanisms underlying protein misfolding and the propagation of protein aggregates are not well understood. Prion disease is a classical neurodegenerative disorder resulting from the misfolding of endogenously expressed normal cellular prion protein (PrP(C)). Although the exact function of PrP(C) has not been fully elucidated, studies have suggested that it can function as a metal binding protein. Interestingly, increased brain manganese (Mn) levels have been reported in various prion diseases indicating divalent metals also may play a role in the disease process. Recently, we reported that PrP(C) protects against Mn-induced cytotoxicity in a neural cell culture model. To further understand the role of Mn in prion diseases, we examined Mn neurotoxicity in an infectious cell culture model of prion disease. Our results show CAD5 scrapie-infected cells were more resistant to Mn neurotoxicity as compared to uninfected cells (EC(50)=428.8 μM for CAD5 infected cells vs. 211.6 μM for uninfected cells). Additionally, treatment with 300 μM Mn in persistently infected CAD5 cells showed a reduction in mitochondrial impairment, caspase-3 activation, and DNA fragmentation when compared to uninfected cells. Scrapie-infected cells also showed significantly reduced Mn uptake as measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and altered expression of metal transporting proteins DMT1 and transferrin. Together, our data indicate that conversion of PrP to the pathogenic isoform enhances its ability to regulate Mn homeostasis, and suggest that understanding the interaction of metals with disease-specific proteins may provide further insight to protein aggregation in neurodegenerative diseases.
Neuroprotective Effect of Resveratrol Against Methamphetamine-induced Dopaminergic Apoptotic Cell Death in a Cell Culture Model of Neurotoxicity
Current Neuropharmacology. Mar, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21886561
A growing body of evidence suggests that oxidative stress-mediated cell death signaling mechanisms may exert neurotoxic effects of methamphetamine (MA)-induced dopaminergic neuronal loss. However, the means by which oxidative stress induced by MA causes neurodegeneration remains unclear. In recent years, resveratrol has garnered considerable attention owing to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-aging, and neuroprotective properties. In the present study, we sought to investigate the neuroprotective effects of resveratrol against apoptotic cell death in a mesencephalic dopaminergic neuronal cell culture model of MA neurotoxicity. MA treatment in the N27 dopaminergic neuronal cell model produced a time-dependent activation of the apoptotic cascade involving caspase-3 and DNA fragmentation. We found that the caspase-3 activation preceded DNA fragmentation. Notably, treatment with resveratrol almost completely attenuated MA-induced caspase-3 activity, but only partially reduced apoptotic cell death. We conclude that the neuroprotective effect of resveratrol is at least in part mediated by suppression of caspase-3 dependent cell death pathways. Collectively, our results demonstrate that resveratrol can attenuate MA-induced apoptotic cell death and suggest that resveratrol or its analogs may have therapeutic benefits in mitigating MA-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration.
Neurotoxicology. Aug, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22342404
Exposure to environmental neurotoxic metals, pesticides and other chemicals is increasingly recognized as a key risk factor in the pathogenesis of chronic neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. Oxidative stress and apoptosis have been actively investigated as neurotoxic mechanisms over the past two decades, resulting in a greater understanding of neurotoxic processes. Nevertheless, emerging evidence indicates that epigenetic changes, protein aggregation and autophagy are important cellular and molecular correlates of neurodegenerative diseases resulting from chronic neurotoxic chemical exposure. During the Joint Conference of the 13th International Neurotoxicology Association and the 11th International Symposium on Neurobehavioral Methods and Effects in Occupational and Environmental Health, the recent progress made toward understanding epigenetic mechanisms, protein aggregation, autophagy, and deregulated kinase activation following neurotoxic chemical exposure and the relevance to neurodegenerative conditions were one of the themes of the symposium. Dr. Anumantha G. Kanthasamy described the role of acetylation of histones and non-histone proteins in neurotoxicant-induced neurodegenerative processes in the nigral dopaminergic neuronal system. Dr. Arthi Kanthasamy illustrated the role of autophagy as a key determinant in cell death events during neurotoxic insults. Dr. Ajay Rana provided evidence for posttranslational modification of α-synuclein protein by the Mixed Linage Kinase (MLK) group of kinases to initiate protein aggregation in cell culture and animal models of Parkinson's disease. These presentations outlined emerging cutting edge mechanisms that might set the stage for future mechanistic investigations into new frontiers of molecular neurotoxicology. This report summarizes the views of symposium participants, with emphasis on future directions for study of environmentally and occupationally linked chronic neurodegenerative diseases.
Proteolytic Activation of Proapoptotic Kinase Protein Kinase Cδ by Tumor Necrosis Factor α Death Receptor Signaling in Dopaminergic Neurons During Neuroinflammation
Journal of Neuroinflammation. Apr, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22540228
The mechanisms of progressive dopaminergic neuronal loss in Parkinson's disease (PD) remain poorly understood, largely due to the complex etiology and multifactorial nature of disease pathogenesis. Several lines of evidence from human studies and experimental models over the last decade have identified neuroinflammation as a potential pathophysiological mechanism contributing to disease progression. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF) has recently emerged as the primary neuroinflammatory mediator that can elicit dopaminergic cell death in PD. However, the signaling pathways by which TNF mediates dopaminergic cell death have not been completely elucidated.
Autophagy. Apr, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22966490
In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
N-Acetyl Cysteine Protects Against Methamphetamine-Induced Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration Via Modulation of Redox Status and Autophagy in Dopaminergic Cells
Parkinson's Disease. 2012 | Pubmed ID: 23056996
Methamphetamine- (MA-) induced neurotoxicity is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and enhanced oxidative stress. Our previous study demonstrated that MA induces autophagy in a dopaminergic neuronal cell model (N27 cells). The cellular mechanisms underlying MA-induced autophagy and apoptosis remain poorly characterized. In the present study we sought to investigate the importance of GSH redox status in MA-induced neurotoxicity using a thiol antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Morphological and biochemical analysis revealed that MA-induced autophagy in N27 dopaminergic cells was associated with pronounced depletion of GSH levels. Moreover, pretreatment with NAC reduced MA-induced GSH depletion and autophagy, while depletion of GSH using L-buthionine sulfoximine (L-BSO) enhanced autophagy. Furthermore, treatment with NAC significantly attenuated MA-induced apoptotic cell death as well as oxidative stress markers, namely, 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE). Together, these results suggest that NAC exhibits significant protective effects against MA-induced dopaminergic cell death, presumably via modulation of the GSH level and autophagy. Collectively, our data provide mechanistic insights into the role of cellular GSH redox status in MA-induced autophagy and apoptotic cell death, and additional studies are needed to determine the therapeutic effectiveness of cellular redox modifiers in attenuating dopaminergic neurodegeneration in vivo.
Anti-inflammatory and Neuroprotective Effects of an Orally Active Apocynin Derivative in Pre-clinical Models of Parkinson's Disease
Journal of Neuroinflammation. Oct, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 23092448
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive motor debilitation, which affects several million people worldwide. Recent evidence suggests that glial cell activation and its inflammatory response may contribute to the progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in PD. Currently, there are no neuroprotective agents available that can effectively slow the disease progression. Herein, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant efficacy of diapocynin, an oxidative metabolite of the naturally occurring agent apocynin, in a pre-clinical 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD.
The Peptidyl-prolyl Isomerase Pin1 Up-regulation and Proapoptotic Function in Dopaminergic Neurons: Relevance to the Pathogenesis of Parkinson Disease
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Jul, 2013 | Pubmed ID: 23754278
Parkinson disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease characterized by a slow and progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying PD remain unclear. Pin1, a major peptidyl-prolyl isomerase, has recently been associated with certain diseases. Notably, Ryo et al. (Ryo, A., Togo, T., Nakai, T., Hirai, A., Nishi, M., Yamaguchi, A., Suzuki, K., Hirayasu, Y., Kobayashi, H., Perrem, K., Liou, Y. C., and Aoki, I. (2006) J. Biol. Chem. 281, 4117-4125) implicated Pin1 in PD pathology. Therefore, we sought to systematically characterize the role of Pin1 in PD using cell culture and animal models. To our surprise we observed a dramatic up-regulation of Pin1 mRNA and protein levels in dopaminergic MN9D neuronal cells treated with the parkinsonian toxicant 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) as well as in the substantia nigra of the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced PD mouse model. Notably, a marked expression of Pin1 was also observed in the substantia nigra of human PD brains along with a high co-localization of Pin1 within dopaminergic neurons. In functional studies, siRNA-mediated knockdown of Pin1 almost completely prevented MPP(+)-induced caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation, indicating that Pin1 plays a proapoptotic role. Interestingly, multiple pharmacological Pin1 inhibitors, including juglone, attenuated MPP(+)-induced Pin1 up-regulation, α-synuclein aggregation, caspase-3 activation, and cell death. Furthermore, juglone treatment in the MPTP mouse model of PD suppressed Pin1 levels and improved locomotor deficits, dopamine depletion, and nigral dopaminergic neuronal loss. Collectively, our findings demonstrate for the first time that Pin1 is up-regulated in PD and has a pathophysiological role in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system and suggest that modulation of Pin1 levels may be a useful translational therapeutic strategy in PD.
Mitochondria-targeted Antioxidants for Treatment of Parkinson's Disease: Preclinical and Clinical Outcomes
Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta. Aug, 2014 | Pubmed ID: 24060637
Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease in the elderly, and no cure or disease-modifying therapies exist. Several lines of evidence suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress have a central role in the dopaminergic neurodegeneration of Parkinson's disease. In this context, mitochondria-targeted therapies that improve mitochondrial function may have great promise in the prevention and treatment of Parkinson's disease. In this review, we discuss the recent developments in mitochondria-targeted antioxidants and their potential beneficial effects as a therapy for ameliorating mitochondrial dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.
Neurotoxicology. Jul, 2014 | Pubmed ID: 24362016
Epidemiological evidence indicates chronic environmental exposure to transition metals may play a role in chronic neurodegenerative conditions such as Parkinson's disease (PD). Chronic inhalation exposure to welding fumes containing metal mixtures may be associated with development of PD. A significant amount of vanadium is present in welding fumes, as vanadium pentoxide (V2O5), and incorporation of vanadium in the production of high strength steel has become more common. Despite the increased vanadium use in recent years, the neurotoxicological effects of this metal are not well characterized. Recently, we demonstrated that V2O5 induces dopaminergic neurotoxicity via protein kinase C delta (PKCδ)-dependent oxidative signaling mechanisms in dopaminergic neuronal cells. Since anosmia (inability to perceive odors) and non-motor deficits are considered to be early symptoms of neurological diseases, in the present study, we examined the effect of V2O5 on the olfactory bulb in animal models. To mimic the inhalation exposure, we intranasally administered C57 black mice a low-dose of 182μg of V2O5 three times a week for one month, and behavioral, neurochemical and biochemical studies were performed. Our results revealed a significant decrease in olfactory bulb weights, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) levels, levels of dopamine (DA) and its metabolite, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and increases in astroglia of the glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb in the treatment groups relative to vehicle controls. Neurochemical changes were accompanied by impaired olfaction and locomotion. These findings suggest that nasal exposure to V2O5 adversely affects olfactory bulbs, resulting in neurobehavioral and neurochemical impairments. These results expand our understanding of vanadium neurotoxicity in environmentally-linked neurological conditions.
Prion. Jan-Feb, 2014 | Pubmed ID: 24576946
Prion diseases are infectious and inevitably fatal neurodegenerative diseases characterized by prion replication, widespread protein aggregation and spongiform degeneration of major brain regions controlling motor function. Oxidative stress has been implicated in prion-related neuronal degeneration, but the molecular mechanisms underlying prion-induced oxidative damage are not well understood. In this study, we evaluated the role of oxidative stress-sensitive, pro-apoptotic protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) in prion-induced neuronal cell death using cerebellar organotypic slice cultures (COSC) and mouse models of prion diseases. We found a significant upregulation of PKCδ in RML scrapie-infected COSC, as evidenced by increased levels of both PKCδ protein and its mRNA. We also found an enhanced regulatory phosphorylation of PKCδ at its two regulatory sites, Thr505 in the activation loop and Tyr311 at the caspase-3 cleavage site. The prion infection also induced proteolytic activation of PKCδ in our COSC model. Immunohistochemical analysis of scrapie-infected COSC revealed loss of PKCδ positive Purkinje cells and enhanced astrocyte proliferation. Further examination of PKCδ signaling in the RML scrapie adopted in vivo mouse model showed increased proteolytic cleavage and Tyr 311 phosphorylation of the kinase. Notably, we observed a delayed onset of scrapie-induced motor symptoms in PKCδ knockout (PKCδ(-/-)) mice as compared with wild-type (PKCδ(+/+)) mice, further substantiating the role of PKCδ in prion disease. Collectively, these data suggest that PKCδ signaling likely plays a role in the neurodegenerative processes associated with prion diseases.
Protein Kinase D1 (PKD1) Phosphorylation Promotes Dopaminergic Neuronal Survival During 6-OHDA-induced Oxidative Stress
PloS One. 2014 | Pubmed ID: 24806360
Oxidative stress is a major pathophysiological mediator of degenerative processes in many neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease (PD). Aberrant cell signaling governed by protein phosphorylation has been linked to oxidative damage of dopaminergic neurons in PD. Although several studies have associated activation of certain protein kinases with apoptotic cell death in PD, very little is known about protein kinase regulation of cell survival and protection against oxidative damage and degeneration in dopaminergic neurons. Here, we characterized the PKD1-mediated protective pathway against oxidative damage in cell culture models of PD. Dopaminergic neurotoxicant 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OHDA) was used to induce oxidative stress in the N27 dopaminergic cell model and in primary mesencephalic neurons. Our results indicated that 6-OHDA induced the PKD1 activation loop (PKD1S744/S748) phosphorylation during early stages of oxidative stress and that PKD1 activation preceded cell death. We also found that 6-OHDA rapidly increased phosphorylation of the C-terminal S916 in PKD1, which is required for PKD1 activation loop (PKD1S744/748) phosphorylation. Interestingly, negative modulation of PKD1 activation by RNAi knockdown or by the pharmacological inhibition of PKD1 by kbNB-14270 augmented 6-OHDA-induced apoptosis, while positive modulation of PKD1 by the overexpression of full length PKD1 (PKD1WT) or constitutively active PKD1 (PKD1S744E/S748E) attenuated 6-OHDA-induced apoptosis, suggesting an anti-apoptotic role for PKD1 during oxidative neuronal injury. Collectively, our results demonstrate that PKD1 signaling plays a cell survival role during early stages of oxidative stress in dopaminergic neurons and therefore, positive modulation of the PKD1-mediated signal transduction pathway can provide a novel neuroprotective strategy against PD.
Histone Hyperacetylation Up-regulates Protein Kinase Cδ in Dopaminergic Neurons to Induce Cell Death: Relevance to Epigenetic Mechanisms of Neurodegeneration in Parkinson Disease
The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Dec, 2014 | Pubmed ID: 25342743
The oxidative stress-sensitive protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) has been implicated in dopaminergic neuronal cell death. However, little is known about the epigenetic mechanisms regulating PKCδ expression in neurons. Here, we report a novel mechanism by which the PKCδ gene can be regulated by histone acetylation. Treatment with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor sodium butyrate (NaBu) induced PKCδ expression in cultured neurons, brain slices, and animal models. Several other HDAC inhibitors also mimicked NaBu. The chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that hyperacetylation of histone H4 by NaBu is associated with the PKCδ promoter. Deletion analysis of the PKCδ promoter mapped the NaBu-responsive element to an 81-bp minimal promoter region. Detailed mutagenesis studies within this region revealed that four GC boxes conferred hyperacetylation-induced PKCδ promoter activation. Cotransfection experiments and Sp inhibitor studies demonstrated that Sp1, Sp3, and Sp4 regulated NaBu-induced PKCδ up-regulation. However, NaBu did not alter the DNA binding activities of Sp proteins or their expression. Interestingly, a one-hybrid analysis revealed that NaBu enhanced transcriptional activity of Sp1/Sp3. Overexpression of the p300/cAMP-response element-binding protein-binding protein (CBP) potentiated the NaBu-mediated transactivation potential of Sp1/Sp3, but expressing several HDACs attenuated this effect, suggesting that p300/CBP and HDACs act as coactivators or corepressors in histone acetylation-induced PKCδ up-regulation. Finally, using genetic and pharmacological approaches, we showed that NaBu up-regulation of PKCδ sensitizes neurons to cell death in a human dopaminergic cell model and brain slice cultures. Together, these results indicate that histone acetylation regulates PKCδ expression to augment nigrostriatal dopaminergic cell death, which could contribute to the progressive neuropathogenesis of Parkinson disease.
α-Synuclein Protects Against Manganese Neurotoxic Insult During the Early Stages of Exposure in a Dopaminergic Cell Model of Parkinson's Disease
Toxicological Sciences : an Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology. Feb, 2015 | Pubmed ID: 25416158
The pathological role of α-synuclein (α-Syn) aggregation in neurodegeneration is well recognized, but the physiological function of normal α-Syn remains unknown. As α-Syn protein contains multiple divalent metal binding sites, herein we conducted a comprehensive characterization of the role of α-Syn in manganese-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity. We established transgenic N27 dopaminergic neuronal cells by stably expressing human wild-type α-Syn at normal physiological levels. α-Syn-expressing dopaminergic cells significantly attenuated Mn-induced neurotoxicity for 24-h exposures relative to vector control cells. To further explore cellular mechanisms, we studied the mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway. Analysis of a key mitochondrial apoptotic initiator, cytochrome c, revealed that α-Syn significantly reduces the Mn-induced cytochrome c release into cytosol. The downstream caspase cascade, involving caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation, during Mn exposure was also largely attenuated in Mn-treated α-Syn cells in a time-dependent manner. α-Syn cells also showed a dramatic reduction in the Mn-induced proteolytic activation of the pro-apoptotic kinase PKCδ. The generation of Mn-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) did not differ between α-Syn and vector control cells, indicating that α-Syn exerts its protective effect independent of altering ROS generation. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) revealed no significant differences in intracellular Mn levels between treated vector and α-Syn cells. Notably, the expression of wild-type α-Syn in primary mesencephalic cells also rescued cells from Mn-induced neurotoxicity. However, prolonged exposure to Mn promoted protein aggregation in α-Syn-expressing cells. Collectively, these results demonstrate that wild-type α-Syn exhibits neuroprotective effects against Mn-induced neurotoxicity during the early stages of exposure in a dopaminergic neuronal model of PD.
Methods in Molecular Biology (Clifton, N.J.). 2015 | Pubmed ID: 25431070
Parkinson's disease (PD ) is mainly characterized by a progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra resulting in chronic deficits in motor functions. Administration of the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP ) produces PD symptoms and recapitulates the main features of PD in human and animal models. MPTP is converted to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine (MPP+ ), which is the active toxic compound that selectively destroys dopaminergic neurons. Here, we describe methods and protocols to evaluate MPTP/MPP+-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration in both murine primary mesencephalic cultures and animal models. The ability of MPTP/MPP+ to cause dopaminergic neuronal cell death is assessed by immunostaining of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH).
Fyn Kinase Regulates Microglial Neuroinflammatory Responses in Cell Culture and Animal Models of Parkinson's Disease
The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Jul, 2015 | Pubmed ID: 26157004
Sustained neuroinflammation mediated by resident microglia is recognized as a key pathophysiological contributor to many neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD), but the key molecular signaling events regulating persistent microglial activation have yet to be clearly defined. In the present study, we examined the role of Fyn, a non-receptor tyrosine kinase, in microglial activation and neuroinflammatory mechanisms in cell culture and animal models of PD. The well-characterized inflammogens LPS and TNFα rapidly activated Fyn kinase in microglia. Immunocytochemical studies revealed that activated Fyn preferentially localized to the microglial plasma membrane periphery and the nucleus. Furthermore, activated Fyn phosphorylated PKCδ at tyrosine residue 311, contributing to an inflammogen-induced increase in its kinase activity. Notably, the Fyn-PKCδ signaling axis further activated the LPS- and TNFα-induced MAP kinase phosphorylation and activation of the NFκB pathway, implying that Fyn is a major upstream regulator of proinflammatory signaling. Functional studies in microglia isolated from wild-type (Fyn(+/+)) and Fyn knock-out (Fyn(-/-)) mice revealed that Fyn is required for proinflammatory responses, including cytokine release as well as iNOS activation. Interestingly, a prolonged inflammatory insult induced Fyn transcript and protein expression, indicating that Fyn is upregulated during chronic inflammatory conditions. Importantly, in vivo studies using MPTP, LPS, or 6-OHDA models revealed a greater attenuation of neuroinflammatory responses in Fyn(-/-) and PKCδ (-/-) mice compared with wild-type mice. Collectively, our data demonstrate that Fyn is a major upstream signaling mediator of microglial neuroinflammatory processes in PD.
Molecular Cloning, Epigenetic Regulation, and Functional Characterization of Prkd1 Gene Promoter in Dopaminergic Cell Culture Models of Parkinson's Disease
Journal of Neurochemistry. Oct, 2015 | Pubmed ID: 26230914
We recently identified a compensatory survival role for protein kinase D1 (PKD1) in protecting dopaminergic neurons from oxidative insult. To investigate the molecular mechanism of Prkd1 gene expression, we cloned the 5'-flanking region (1620-bp) of the mouse Prkd1 gene. Deletion analyses revealed that the -250/+113 promoter region contains full promoter activity in MN9D dopaminergic neuronal cells. In silico analysis of the Prkd1 promoter uncovered binding sites for key redox transcription factors including Sp1 and NF-κB. Over-expression of Sp1, Sp3, and NF-κB-p65 proteins stimulated Prkd1 promoter activity. Binding of Sp3 and NF-κB-p65 to the Prkd1 promoter was confirmed using chromatin immunoprecipitation. Treatment with the Sp inhibitor mithramycin A significantly attenuated Prkd1 promoter activity and PKD1 mRNA and protein expression. Further mechanistic studies revealed that inhibition of histone deacetylation and DNA methylation up-regulated PKD1 mRNA expression. Importantly, negative modulation of PKD1 signaling by pharmacological inhibition or shRNA knockdown increased dopaminergic neuronal sensitivity to oxidative damage in a human mesencephalic neuronal cell model. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that Sp1, Sp3, and NF-κB-p65 can transactivate the mouse Prkd1 promoter and that epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation and histone modification, are key regulatory events controlling the expression of pro-survival kinase PKD1 in dopaminergic neuronal cells. Previously, we demonstrated that protein kinase D1 (PKD1) plays a survival role during the early stage of oxidative stress in dopaminergic neuronal cells.
Alterations in Mitochondrial Dynamics Induced by Tebufenpyrad and Pyridaben in a Dopaminergic Neuronal Cell Culture Model
Neurotoxicology. Mar, 2016 | Pubmed ID: 26141520
Tebufenpyrad and pyridaben are two agro-chemically important acaricides that function like the known mitochondrial toxicant rotenone. Although these two compounds have been commonly used to kill populations of mites and ticks in commercial greenhouses, their neurotoxic profiles remain largely unknown. Therefore, we investigated the effects of these two pesticides on mitochondrial structure and function in an in vitro cell culture model using the Seahorse bioanalyzer and confocal fluorescence imaging. The effects were compared with rotenone. Exposing rat dopaminergic neuronal cells (N27 cells) to tebufenpyrad and pyridaben for 3h induced dose-dependent cell death with an EC50 of 3.98μM and 3.77μM, respectively. Also, tebufenpyrad and pyridaben (3μM) exposure induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and m-aconitase damage, suggesting that the pesticide toxicity is associated with oxidative damage. Morphometric image analysis with the MitoTracker red fluorescent probe indicated that tebufenpyrad and pyridaben, as well as rotenone, caused abnormalities in mitochondrial morphology, including reduced mitochondrial length and circularity. Functional bioenergetic experiments using the Seahorse XF96 analyzer revealed that tebufenpyrad and pyridaben very rapidly suppressed the basal mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate similar to that of rotenone. Further analysis of bioenergetic curves also revealed dose-dependent decreases in ATP-linked respiration and respiratory capacity. The luminescence-based ATP measurement further confirmed that pesticide-induced mitochondrial inhibition of respiration is accompanied by the loss of cellular ATP. Collectively, our results suggest that exposure to the pesticides tebufenpyrad and pyridaben induces neurotoxicity by rapidly initiating mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage in dopaminergic neuronal cells. Our findings also reveal that monitoring the kinetics of mitochondrial respiration with Seahorse could be used as an early neurotoxicological high-throughput index for assessing the risk that pesticides pose to the dopaminergic neuronal system.
Mitoapocynin Treatment Protects Against Neuroinflammation and Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration in a Preclinical Animal Model of Parkinson's Disease
Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology : the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology. Jun, 2016 | Pubmed ID: 26838361
Mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation have been implicated as key mediators contributing to the progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson's disease (PD). Currently, we lack a pharmacological agent that can intervene in all key pathological mechanisms, which would offer better neuroprotective efficacy than a compound that targets a single degenerative mechanism. Herein, we investigated whether mito-apocynin (Mito-Apo), a newly-synthesized and orally available derivative of apocynin that targets mitochondria, protects against oxidative damage, glial-mediated inflammation and nigrostriatal neurodegeneration in cellular and animal models of PD. Mito-Apo treatment in primary mesencephalic cultures significantly attenuated the 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+))-induced loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neuronal cells and neurites. Mito-Apo also diminished MPP(+)-induced increases in glial cell activation and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. Additionally, Mito-Apo decreased nitrotyrosine (3-NT) and 4-hydroxynonenol (4-HNE) levels in primary mesencephalic cultures. Importantly, we assessed the neuroprotective property of Mito-Apo in the MPTP mouse model of PD, wherein it restored the behavioral performance of MPTP-treated mice. Immunohistological analysis of nigral dopaminergic neurons and monoamine measurement further confirmed the neuroprotective effect of Mito-Apo against MPTP-induced nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuronal loss. Mito-Apo showed excellent brain bioavailability and also markedly attenuated MPTP-induced oxidative markers in the substantia nigra (SN). Furthermore, oral administration of Mito-Apo significantly suppressed MPTP-induced glial cell activation, upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines, iNOS and gp91phox in IBA1-positive cells of SN. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the novel mitochondria-targeted compound Mito-Apo exhibits profound neuroprotective effects in cellular and pre-clinical animal models of PD by attenuating oxidative damage and neuroinflammatory processes.
Protein Kinase Cδ Upregulation in Microglia Drives Neuroinflammatory Responses and Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration in Experimental Models of Parkinson's Disease
Neurobiology of Disease. Sep, 2016 | Pubmed ID: 27151770
Chronic microglial activation has been linked to the progressive degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons evidenced in Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis. The exact etiology of PD remains poorly understood. Although both oxidative stress and neuroinflammation are identified as co-contributors in PD pathogenesis, signaling mechanisms underlying neurodegenerative processes have yet to be defined. Indeed, we recently identified that protein kinase C delta (PKCδ) activation is critical for induction of dopaminergic neuronal loss in response to neurotoxic stressors. However, it remains to be defined whether PKCδ activation contributes to immune signaling events driving microglial neurotoxicity. In the present study, we systematically investigated whether PKCδ contributes to the heightened microglial activation response following exposure to major proinflammatory stressors, including α-synuclein, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We report that exposure to the aforementioned inflammatory stressors dramatically upregulated PKCδ with a concomitant increase in its kinase activity and nuclear translocation in both BV-2 microglial cells and primary microglia. Importantly, we also observed a marked upregulation of PKCδ in the microglia of the ventral midbrain region of PD patients when compared to age-matched controls, suggesting a role for microglial PKCδ in neurodegenerative processes. Further, shRNA-mediated knockdown and genetic ablation of PKCδ in primary microglia blunted the microglial proinflammatory response elicited by the inflammogens, including ROS generation, nitric oxide production, and proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine release. Importantly, we found that PKCδ activated NFκB, a key mediator of inflammatory signaling events, after challenge with inflammatory stressors, and that transactivation of NFκB led to translocation of the p65 subunit to the nucleus, IκBα degradation and phosphorylation of p65 at Ser536. Furthermore, both genetic ablation and siRNA-mediated knockdown of PKCδ attenuated NFκB activation, suggesting that PKCδ regulates NFκB activation subsequent to microglial exposure to inflammatory stimuli. To further investigate the pivotal role of PKCδ in microglial activation in vivo, we utilized pre-clinical models of PD. We found that PKCδ deficiency attenuated the proinflammatory response in the mouse substantia nigra, reduced locomotor deficits and recovered mice from sickness behavior in an LPS-induced neuroinflammation model of PD. Likewise, we found that PKCδ knockout mice treated with MPTP displayed a dampened microglial inflammatory response. Moreover, PKCδ knockout mice exhibited reduced susceptibility to the neurotoxin-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration and associated motor impairments. Taken together, our studies propose a pivotal role for PKCδ in PD pathology, whereby sustained PKCδ activation drives sustained microglial inflammatory responses and concomitant dopaminergic neurotoxicity consequently leading to neurobehavioral deficits. We conclude that inhibiting PKCδ activation may represent a novel therapeutic strategy in PD treatment.
Acute Hydrogen Sulfide-induced Neuropathology and Neurological Sequelae: Challenges for Translational Neuroprotective Research
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. Aug, 2016 | Pubmed ID: 27442775
Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S), the gas with the odor of rotten eggs, was formally discovered in 1777, over 239 years ago. For many years, it was considered an environmental pollutant and a health concern only in occupational settings. Recently, however, it was discovered that H2 S is produced endogenously and plays critical physiological roles as a gasotransmitter. Although at low physiological concentrations it is physiologically beneficial, exposure to high concentrations of H2 S is known to cause brain damage, leading to neurodegeneration and long-term neurological sequelae or death. Neurological sequelae include motor, behavioral, and cognitive deficits, which are incapacitating. Currently, there are concerns about accidental or malicious acute mass civilian exposure to H2 S. There is a major unmet need for an ideal neuroprotective treatment, for use in the field, in the event of mass civilian exposure to high H2 S concentrations. This review focuses on the neuropathology of high acute H2 S exposure, knowledge gaps, and the challenges associated with development of effective neuroprotective therapy to counteract H2 S-induced neurodegeneration.
Prokineticin-2 Upregulation During Neuronal Injury Mediates a Compensatory Protective Response Against Dopaminergic Neuronal Degeneration
Nature Communications. Oct, 2016 | Pubmed ID: 27703142
Prokineticin-2 (PK2), a recently discovered secreted protein, regulates important physiological functions including olfactory biogenesis and circadian rhythms in the CNS. Interestingly, although PK2 expression is low in the nigral system, its receptors are constitutively expressed on nigrostriatal neurons. Herein, we demonstrate that PK2 expression is highly induced in nigral dopaminergic neurons during early stages of degeneration in multiple models of Parkinson's disease (PD), including PK2 reporter mice and MitoPark mice. Functional studies demonstrate that PK2 promotes mitochondrial biogenesis and activates ERK and Akt survival signalling pathways, thereby driving neuroprotection. Importantly, PK2 overexpression is protective whereas PK2 receptor antagonism exacerbates dopaminergic degeneration in experimental PD. Furthermore, PK2 expression increased in surviving nigral dopaminergic neurons from PD brains, indicating that PK2 upregulation is clinically relevant to human PD. Collectively, our results identify a paradigm for compensatory neuroprotective PK2 signalling in nigral dopaminergic neurons that could have important therapeutic implications for PD.
Brain Research Bulletin. Dec, 2016 | Pubmed ID: 27993598
Protein misfolding and aggregation are key pathological features of many neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease (PD) and other forms of human Parkinsonism. PD is a complex and multifaceted disorder whose etiology is not fully understood. However, several lines of evidence support the multiple hit hypothesis that genetic vulnerability and environmental toxicants converge to trigger PD pathology. Alpha-synuclein (α-Syn) aggregation in the brain is an important pathophysiological characteristic of synucleinopathies including PD. Epidemiological and experimental studies have shown that metals and pesticides play a crucial role in α-Syn aggregation leading to the onset of various neurodegenerative diseases including PD. In this review, we will emphasize key findings of several epidemiological as well as experimental studies of metal- and pesticide-induced α-Syn aggregation and neurodegeneration. We will also discuss other factors such as traumatic brain injury and oxidative insult in the context of α-Syn-related neurodegenerative processes.
Neurotoxicology. Mar, 2017 | Pubmed ID: 27107493
Chronic exposure to elevated levels of manganese (Mn) has been linked to a Parkinsonian-like movement disorder, resulting from dysfunction of the extrapyramidal motor system within the basal ganglia. However, the exact cellular and molecular mechanisms of Mn-induced neurotoxicity remain elusive. In this study, we treated C57BL/6J mice with 30mg/kg Mn via oral gavage for 30 days. Interestingly, in nigral tissues of Mn-exposed mice, we found a significant downregulation of the truncated isoform of p73 protein at the N-terminus (ΔNp73). To further determine the functional role of Mn-induced p73 downregulation in Mn neurotoxicity, we examined the interrelationship between the effect of Mn on p73 gene expression and apoptotic cell death in an N27 dopaminergic neuronal model. Consistent with our animal study, 300μM Mn treatment significantly suppressed p73 mRNA expression in N27 dopaminergic cells. We further determined that protein levels of the ΔNp73 isoform was also reduced in Mn-treated N27 cells and primary striatal cultures. Furthermore, overexpression of ΔNp73 conferred modest cellular protection against Mn-induced neurotoxicity. Taken together, our results demonstrate that Mn exposure downregulates p73 gene expression resulting in enhanced susceptibility to apoptotic cell death. Thus, further characterization of the cellular mechanism underlying p73 gene downregulation will improve our understanding of the molecular underpinnings of Mn neurotoxicity.
Integrated Organotypic Slice Cultures and RT-QuIC (OSCAR) Assay: Implications for Translational Discovery in Protein Misfolding Diseases
Scientific Reports. Feb, 2017 | Pubmed ID: 28233859
Protein misfolding is a key pathological event in neurodegenerative diseases like prion diseases, synucleinopathies, and tauopathies that are collectively termed protein misfolding disorders. Prions are a prototypic model to study protein aggregation biology and therapeutic development. Attempts to develop anti-prion therapeutics have been impeded by the lack of screening models that faithfully replicate prion diseases and the lack of rapid, sensitive biological screening systems. Therefore, a sensitive model encompassing prion replication and neurotoxicity would be indispensable to the pursuit of intervention strategies. We present an ultra-sensitive screening system coupled to an ex vivo prion organotypic slice culture model to rapidly advance rationale-based high-throughput therapeutic strategies. This hybrid Organotypic Slice Culture Assay coupled with RT-QuIC (OSCAR) permits sensitive, specific and quantitative detection of prions from an infectious slice culture model on a reduced time scale. We demonstrate that the anti-prion activity of test compounds can be readily resolved based on the power and kinetics of seeding activity in the OSCAR screening platform and that the prions generated in slice cultures are biologically active. Collectively, our results imply that OSCAR is a robust model of prion diseases that offers a promising platform for understanding prion proteinopathies and advancing anti-prion therapeutics.
Mito-Apocynin Prevents Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Microglial Activation, Oxidative Damage, and Progressive Neurodegeneration in MitoPark Transgenic Mice
Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. Apr, 2017 | Pubmed ID: 28375739
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive motor deficits and degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. Caused by a number of genetic and environmental factors, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress play a role in neurodegeneration in PD. By selectively knocking out mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) in dopaminergic neurons, the transgenic MitoPark mice recapitulate many signature features of the disease, including progressive motor deficits, neuronal loss, and protein inclusions. In the present study, we evaluated the neuroprotective efficacy of a novel mitochondrially targeted antioxidant, Mito-apocynin, in MitoPark mice and cell culture models of neuroinflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction.
Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Protective Effects of Quercetin Against Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Progressive Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration in Cell Culture and MitoPark Transgenic Mouse Models of Parkinson's Disease
Journal of Neurochemistry. Apr, 2017 | Pubmed ID: 28376279
Quercetin, one of the major flavonoids in plants, has been recently reported to have neuroprotective effects against neurodegenerative processes. However, since the molecular signaling mechanisms governing these effects are not well clarified, we evaluated quercetin's effect on the neuroprotective signaling events in dopaminergic neuronal models and further tested its efficacy in the MitoPark transgenic mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Western blotting analysis revealed that quercetin significantly induced the activation of two major cell survival kinases, protein kinase D1 (PKD1) and Akt in MN9D dopaminergic neuronal cells. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition or siRNA knockdown of PKD1 blocked the activation of Akt, suggesting that PKD1 acts as an upstream regulator of Akt in quercetin-mediated neuroprotective signaling. Quercetin also enhanced CREB phosphorylation and expression of the CREB target gene BDNF. Results from qRT-PCR, Western blot analysis, mtDNA content analysis, and MitoTracker assay experiments revealed that quercetin augmented mitochondrial biogenesis. Quercetin also increased mitochondrial bioenergetics capacity and protected MN9D cells against 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity. To further evaluate the neuroprotective efficacy of quercetin against the mitochondrial dysfunction underlying PD, we used the progressive dopaminergic neurodegenerative MitoPark transgenic mouse model of PD. Oral administration of quercetin significantly reversed behavioral deficits, striatal dopamine depletion, and TH neuronal cell loss in MitoPark mice. Together, our findings demonstrate that quercetin activates PKD1-Akt cell survival signaling axis and suggest that further exploration of quercetin as a promising neuroprotective agent for treating PD may offer clinical benefits. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.