Articles by Ashley Kita in JoVE
Endothelialized على microfluidics لدراسة التفاعلات الاوعية الدموية الدقيقة في الأمراض الدموية David R. Myers*1,2,3,4, Yumiko Sakurai*1,2,3,4, Reginald Tran1,2,3,4, Byungwook Ahn1,2,3,4, Elaissa Trybus Hardy1,2,3,4, Robert Mannino1,2,3,4, Ashley Kita1,2,3,4, Michelle Tsai1,2,3,4, Wilbur A. Lam1,2,3,4 1Department of Pediatrics, Emory University School of Medicine, 2Wallace H. Coulter Department of Biomedical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University, 3Aflac Cancer Center and Blood Disorders Service of Children's Healthcare of Atlanta, 4Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University
Other articles by Ashley Kita on PubMed
Mechanics and Contraction Dynamics of Single Platelets and Implications for Clot Stiffening Nature Materials. Jan, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 21131961 Platelets interact with fibrin polymers to form blood clots at sites of vascular injury. Bulk studies have shown clots to be active materials, with platelet contraction driving the retraction and stiffening of clots. However, neither the dynamics of single-platelet contraction nor the strength and elasticity of individual platelets, both of which are important for understanding clot material properties, have been directly measured. Here we use atomic force microscopy to measure the mechanics and dynamics of single platelets. We find that platelets contract nearly instantaneously when activated by contact with fibrinogen and complete contraction within 15 min. Individual platelets can generate an average maximum contractile force of 29 nN and form adhesions stronger than 70 nN. Our measurements show that when exposed to stiffer microenvironments, platelets generated higher stall forces, which indicates that platelets may be able to contract heterogeneous clots more uniformly. The high elasticity of individual platelets, measured to be 10 kPa after contraction, combined with their high contractile forces, indicates that clots may be stiffened through direct reinforcement by platelets as well as by strain stiffening of fibrin under tension due to platelet contraction. These results show how the mechanosensitivity and mechanics of single cells can be used to dynamically alter the material properties of physiologic systems.
Microenvironmental Geometry Guides Platelet Adhesion and Spreading: a Quantitative Analysis at the Single Cell Level PloS One. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22028878 To activate clot formation and maintain hemostasis, platelets adhere and spread onto sites of vascular injury. Although this process is well-characterized biochemically, how the physical and spatial cues in the microenvironment affect platelet adhesion and spreading remain unclear. In this study, we applied deep UV photolithography and protein micro/nanostamping to quantitatively investigate and characterize the spatial guidance of platelet spreading at the single cell level and with nanoscale resolution. Platelets adhered to and spread only onto micropatterned collagen or fibrinogen surfaces and followed the microenvironmental geometry with high fidelity and with single micron precision. Using micropatterned lines of different widths, we determined that platelets are able to conform to micropatterned stripes as thin as 0.6 µm and adopt a maximum aspect ratio of 19 on those protein patterns. Interestingly, platelets were also able to span and spread over non-patterned regions of up to 5 µm, a length consistent with that of maximally extended filopodia. This process appears to be mediated by platelet filopodia that are sensitive to spatial cues. Finally, we observed that microenvironmental geometry directly affects platelet biology, such as the spatial organization and distribution of the platelet actin cytoskeleton. Our data demonstrate that platelet spreading is a finely-tuned and spatially-guided process in which spatial cues directly influence the biological aspects of how clot formation is regulated.
In Vitro Modeling of the Microvascular Occlusion and Thrombosis That Occur in Hematologic Diseases Using Microfluidic Technology The Journal of Clinical Investigation. Jan, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22156199 In hematologic diseases, such as sickle cell disease (SCD) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), pathological biophysical interactions among blood cells, endothelial cells, and soluble factors lead to microvascular occlusion and thrombosis. Here, we report an in vitro "endothelialized" microfluidic microvasculature model that recapitulates and integrates this ensemble of pathophysiological processes. Under controlled flow conditions, the model enabled quantitative investigation of how biophysical alterations in hematologic disease collectively lead to microvascular occlusion and thrombosis. Using blood samples from patients with SCD, we investigated how the drug hydroxyurea quantitatively affects microvascular obstruction in SCD, an unresolved issue pivotal to understanding its clinical efficacy in such patients. In addition, we demonstrated that our microsystem can function as an in vitro model of HUS and showed that shear stress influences microvascular thrombosis/obstruction and the efficacy of the drug eptifibatide, which decreases platelet aggregation, in the context of HUS. These experiments establish the versatility and clinical relevance of our microvasculature-on-a-chip model as a biophysical assay of hematologic pathophysiology as well as a drug discovery platform.