In JoVE (2)

Other Publications (26)

Articles by Aurélien Frobert in JoVE

Other articles by Aurélien Frobert on PubMed

Enhanced Quadrupole Collectivity at N = 40: the Case of Neutron-rich Fe Isotopes

Physical Review Letters. Jan, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21405225

The transition rates for the 2(1)+ states in (62,64,66)Fe were studied using the recoil distance Doppler-shift technique applied to projectile Coulomb excitation reactions. The deduced E2 strengths illustrate the enhanced collectivity of the neutron-rich Fe isotopes up to N = 40. The results are interpreted using the generalized concept of valence proton symmetry which describes the evolution of nuclear structure around N = 40 as governed by the number of valence protons with respect to Z ≈ 30. The trend of collectivity suggested by the experimental data is described by state-of-the-art shell-model calculations with a new effective interaction developed for the fpgd valence space.

Cardiometabolic Risk in Canada: a Detailed Analysis and Position Paper by the Cardiometabolic Risk Working Group

The Canadian Journal of Cardiology. Mar-Apr, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21459257

The concepts of "cardiometabolic risk," "metabolic syndrome," and "risk stratification" overlap and relate to the atherogenic process and development of type 2 diabetes. There is confusion about what these terms mean and how they can best be used to improve our understanding of cardiovascular disease treatment and prevention. With the objectives of clarifying these concepts and presenting practical strategies to identify and reduce cardiovascular risk in multiethnic patient populations, the Cardiometabolic Working Group reviewed the evidence related to emerging cardiovascular risk factors and Canadian guideline recommendations in order to present a detailed analysis and consolidated approach to the identification and management of cardiometabolic risk. The concepts related to cardiometabolic risk, pathophysiology, and strategies for identification and management (including health behaviours, pharmacotherapy, and surgery) in the multiethnic Canadian population are presented. "Global cardiometabolic risk" is proposed as an umbrella term for a comprehensive list of existing and emerging factors that predict cardiovascular disease and/or type 2 diabetes. Health behaviour interventions (weight loss, physical activity, diet, smoking cessation) in people identified at high cardiometabolic risk are of critical importance given the emerging crisis of obesity and the consequent epidemic of type 2 diabetes. Vascular protective measures (health behaviours for all patients and pharmacotherapy in appropriate patients) are essential to reduce cardiometabolic risk, and there is growing consensus that a multidisciplinary approach is needed to adequately address cardiometabolic risk factors. Health care professionals must also consider risk factors related to ethnicity in order to appropriately evaluate everyone in their diverse patient populations.

Identification and Management of Cardiometabolic Risk in Canada: a Position Paper by the Cardiometabolic Risk Working Group (executive Summary)

The Canadian Journal of Cardiology. Mar-Apr, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21459258

With the objectives of clarifying the concepts related to "cardiometabolic risk," "metabolic syndrome" and "risk stratification" and presenting practical strategies to identify and reduce cardiovascular risk in multiethnic patient populations, the Cardiometabolic Working Group presents an executive summary of a detailed analysis and position paper that offers a comprehensive and consolidated approach to the identification and management of cardiometabolic risk. The above concepts overlap and relate to the atherogenic process and development of type 2 diabetes. However, there is confusion about what these terms mean and how they can best be used to improve our understanding of cardiovascular disease treatment and prevention. The concepts related to cardiometabolic risk, pathophysiology, and strategies for identification and management (including health behaviours, pharmacotherapy, and surgery) in the multiethnic Canadian population are presented. "Global cardiometabolic risk" is proposed as an umbrella term for a comprehensive list of existing and emerging factors that predict cardiovascular disease and/or type 2 diabetes. Health behaviour interventions (weight loss, physical activity, diet, smoking cessation) in people identified at high cardiometabolic risk are of critical importance given the emerging crisis of obesity and the consequent epidemic of type 2 diabetes. Vascular protective measures (health behaviours for all patients and pharmacotherapy in appropriate patients) are essential to reduce cardiometabolic risk, and there is growing consensus that a multidisciplinary approach is needed to adequately address cardiometabolic risk factors. Health care professionals must also consider ethnicity-related risk factors in order to appropriately evaluate all individuals in their diverse patient populations.

Cost-effectiveness of Second-line Antihyperglycemic Therapy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Inadequately Controlled on Metformin

CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association Journal = Journal De L'Association Medicale Canadienne. Nov, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21969406

Metformin is widely accepted as first-line pharmacotherapy for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus when glycemic control cannot be achieved by lifestyle interventions alone. However, uncertainty exists regarding the optimal second-line therapy for patients whose diabetes is inadequately controlled by metformin monotherapy. Increased use of newer, more costly agents, along with the rising incidence of type 2 diabetes, carries significant budgetary implications for health care systems. We conducted this analysis to determine the relative costs, benefits and cost-effectiveness of options for second-line treatment of type 2 diabetes.

Electric Pulses Augment Reporter Gene Expression in the Beating Heart

The Journal of Gene Medicine. Mar, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22262642

Gene therapy of the heart has been attempted in a number of clinical trials with the injection of naked DNA, although quantitative information on myocellular transfection rates is not available. The present study aimed to quantify the efficacy of electropulsing protocols that differ in pulse duration and number to stimulate transfection of cardiomyocytes and to determine the impact on myocardial integrity.

Characterization of Management and Outcomes of Patients with Acromegaly in Vancouver over 30 Years

Clinical and Investigative Medicine. Médecine Clinique Et Experimentale. 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22309962

The purpose of this study was to characterize the management and outcomes of patients with acromegaly seen in single center in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada over a 30 year period.

Mapping Patterns of Long-term Settlement in Northern Mesopotamia at a Large Scale

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. Apr, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22431607

The landscapes of the Near East show both the first settlements and the longest trajectories of settlement systems. Mounding is a characteristic property of these settlement sites, resulting from millennia of continuing settlement activity at distinguished places. So far, however, this defining feature of ancient settlements has not received much attention, or even been the subject of systematic evaluation. We propose a remote sensing approach for comprehensively mapping the pattern of human settlement at large scale and establish the largest archaeological record for a landscape in Mesopotamia, mapping about 14,000 settlement sites--spanning eight millennia--at 15-m resolution in a 23,000-km(2) area in northeastern Syria. To map both low- and high-mounded places--the latter of which are often referred to as "tells"--we develop a strategy for detecting anthrosols in time series of multispectral satellite images and measure the volume of settlement sites in a digital elevation model. Using this volume as a proxy to continued occupation, we find a dependency of the long-term attractiveness of a site on local water availability, but also a strong relation to the relevance within a basin-wide exchange network that we can infer from our record and third millennium B.C. intersite routes visible on the ground until recent times. We believe it is possible to establish a nearly comprehensive map of human settlements in the fluvial plains of northern Mesopotamia and beyond, and site volume may be a key quantity to uncover long-term trends in human settlement activity from such a record.

Poor Achievement of Guidelines-recommended Targets in Type 2 Diabetes: Findings from a Contemporary Prospective Cohort Study

International Journal of Clinical Practice. May, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22452524

To prospectively evaluate diabetes management in the primary care setting and explore factors related to guideline-recommended triple target achievement [blood pressure (BP) ≤ 130/80 mmHg, A1C ≤ 7% and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol < 2.5 mmol/l].

Management of Prolactinomas During Pregnancy -- a Survey of Four Canadian Provinces

Clinical and Investigative Medicine. Médecine Clinique Et Experimentale. 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22469109

The guidelines for management of prolactinomas during pregnancy are mostly based on retrospective evidence or expert opinion. We conducted a survey to assess the current trends in management of prolactinomas during pregnancy.

Controlled Angiogenesis in the Heart by Cell-based Expression of Specific Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Levels

Human Gene Therapy Methods. Oct, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 23075102

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) can induce normal angiogenesis or the growth of angioma-like vascular tumors depending on the amount secreted by each producing cell because it remains localized in the microenvironment. In order to control the distribution of VEGF expression levels in vivo, we recently developed a high-throughput fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS)-based technique to rapidly purify transduced progenitors that homogeneously express a specific VEGF dose from a heterogeneous primary population. Here we tested the hypothesis that cell-based delivery of a controlled VEGF level could induce normal angiogenesis in the heart, while preventing the development of angiomas. Freshly isolated human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASC) were transduced with retroviral vectors expressing either rat VEGF linked to a FACS-quantifiable cell-surface marker (a truncated form of CD8) or CD8 alone as control (CTR). VEGF-expressing cells were FACS-purified to generate populations producing either a specific VEGF level (SPEC) or uncontrolled heterogeneous levels (ALL). Fifteen nude rats underwent intramyocardial injection of 10(7) cells. Histology was performed after 4 weeks. Both the SPEC and ALL cells produced a similar total amount of VEGF, and both cell types induced a 50%-60% increase in both total and perfused vessel density compared to CTR cells, despite very limited stable engraftment. However, homogeneous VEGF expression by SPEC cells induced only normal and stable angiogenesis. Conversely, heterogeneous expression of a similar total amount by the ALL cells caused the growth of numerous angioma-like structures. These results suggest that controlled VEGF delivery by FACS-purified ASC may be a promising strategy to achieve safe therapeutic angiogenesis in the heart.

New Isomers in the Full Seniority Scheme of Neutron-rich Lead Isotopes: the Role of Effective Three-body Forces

Physical Review Letters. Oct, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 23215071

The neutron-rich lead isotopes, up to (216)Pb, have been studied for the first time, exploiting the fragmentation of a primary uranium beam at the FRS-RISING setup at GSI. The observed isomeric states exhibit electromagnetic transition strengths which deviate from state-of-the-art shell-model calculations. It is shown that their complete description demands the introduction of effective three-body interactions and two-body transition operators in the conventional neutron valence space beyond (208)Pb.

COST: Cognitive State Test, a Brief Screening Battery for Alzheimer Disease in Illiterate and Literate Patients

International Psychogeriatrics / IPA. Mar, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23137551

The aim was to develop a brief screening battery, Cognitive State Test (COST), for detecting the presence of dementia in both illiterate and literate patients and to assess its validity and reliability.

Emerging Trends in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Acromegaly in Canada

Clinical Endocrinology. Jul, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23190441

To evaluate demographic data and quality of care of patients with acromegaly in Canada and their evolution over time and secondly, to evaluate predictors of co-morbidities and treatment outcomes.

2012 Update of the Canadian Cardiovascular Society Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Dyslipidemia for the Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in the Adult

The Canadian Journal of Cardiology. Feb, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23351925

Many developments have occurred since the publication of the widely-used 2009 Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) Dyslipidemia guidelines. Here, we present an updated version of the guidelines, incorporating new recommendations based on recent findings and harmonizing CCS guidelines with those from other Societies. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system was used, per present standards of the CCS. The total cardiovascular disease Framingham Risk Score (FRS), modified for a family history of premature coronary disease, is recommended for risk assessment. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol remains the primary target of therapy. However, non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol has been added to apolipoprotein B as an alternate target. There is an increased emphasis on treatment of higher risk patients, including those with chronic kidney disease and high risk hypertension. The primary panel has recommended a judicious use of secondary testing for subjects in whom the need for statin therapy is unclear. Expanded information on health behaviours is presented and is the backbone of risk reduction in all subjects. Finally, a systematic approach to statin intolerance is advocated to maximize appropriate use of lipid-lowering therapy. This document presents the recommendations and principal conclusions of this process. Along with associated Supplementary Material that can be accessed online, this document will be part of a program of knowledge translation. The goal is to increase the appropriate use of evidence-based cardiovascular disease event risk assessment in the management of dyslipidemia as a fundamental means of reducing global risk in the Canadian population.

Inflammatory Biomarkers CRP, MCP-1, Serum Amyloid Alpha and Interleukin-18 in Patients with HTN and Dyslipidemia: Impact of Diabetes Mellitus on Metabolic Syndrome and the Effect of Statin Therapy

Hypertension Research : Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension. Jun, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23388885

The objective of this study was to determine the relationship of HTN (HTN) and the inflammatory markers C-reactive protein (CRP), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), amyloid alpha (AA) and interleukin-18 (IL-18) in persons with HTN, considering concomitant diabetes mellitus (DM) or metabolic syndrome (MS). This was a multicenter twelve-week, single-step titration, open-label study of individuals with dyslipidemia, assigned according to their initial risk assessment, to atorvastatin starting doses of 10, 20, 40 or 80 mg. In subjects with HTN (N=677) versus no HTN (N=581), there were significantly (P<0.02) higher levels of CRP, IL-18, MCP-1 and AA but not for IL-18 when combined with DM or MS, and AA or CRP when combined with MS. Systolic blood pressure significantly (P<0.02) correlated with CRP, MCP-1 and AA but not IL-18. The greatest increase in CRP was with HTN plus DM. Statin therapy produced significant dose-dependent reductions in CRP but not with similar changes in other inflammatory markers. In summary, these data suggest a complex relationship between inflammation and HTN with dyslipidemia. Although HTN is associated with an increase in these inflammatory markers, the associated conditions DM or MS lead to different patterns of increases-MCP-1 being the most consistently increased with HTN, the greatest CRP increase was with HTN and DM, and no relationship was found with IL-18 and HTN in the presence of DM or MS. In addition, there are different responses to statins depending on the nature of the inflammatory marker.

Results on Neutrinoless Double-β Decay of 76Ge from Phase I of the GERDA Experiment

Physical Review Letters. Sep, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 24093254

Neutrinoless double beta decay is a process that violates lepton number conservation. It is predicted to occur in extensions of the standard model of particle physics. This Letter reports the results from phase I of the Germanium Detector Array (GERDA) experiment at the Gran Sasso Laboratory (Italy) searching for neutrinoless double beta decay of the isotope (76)Ge. Data considered in the present analysis have been collected between November 2011 and May 2013 with a total exposure of 21.6 kg yr. A blind analysis is performed. The background index is about 1 × 10(-2) counts/(keV kg yr) after pulse shape discrimination. No signal is observed and a lower limit is derived for the half-life of neutrinoless double beta decay of (76)Ge, T(1/2)(0ν) >2.1 × 10(25) yr (90% C.L.). The combination with the results from the previous experiments with (76)Ge yields T(1/2)(0ν)>3.0 × 10(25) yr (90% C.L.).

Glucocorticoid-induced Hyperglycemia is Prevalent and Unpredictable for Patients Undergoing Cancer Therapy: an Observational Cohort Study

Current Oncology (Toronto, Ont.). Dec, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 24311953

Patients with cancer are often treated with glucocorticoids (gcs) as part of therapy, which may cause hyperglycemia. We sought to define the prevalence of, and risk factors for, hyperglycemia in this setting.

Are the ACC/AHA Guidelines on the Treatment of Blood Cholesterol a Game Changer? A Perspective from the Canadian Cardiovascular Society Dyslipidemia Panel

The Canadian Journal of Cardiology. Apr, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24589194

RAAV9 Combined with Renal Vein Injection is Optimal for Kidney-targeted Gene Delivery: Conclusion of a Comparative Study

Gene Therapy. Jun, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 24784447

Effective gene therapy strategies for the treatment of kidney disorders remain elusive. We report an optimized kidney-targeted gene delivery strategy using recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) administered via retrograde renal vein injection in mice. Renal vein injection of rAAV consistently resulted in superior kidney transduction compared with tail vein injection using as little as half the tail vein dose. We compared rAAV5, 6, 8 and 9, containing either green fluorescent protein (GFP) or luciferase reporter genes driven by the Cytomegalovirus promoter. We demonstrated that although rAAV6 and 8 injected via renal vein transduced the kidney, transgene expression was mainly restricted to the medulla. Transgene expression was systematically low after rAAV5 injection, attributed to T-cell immune response, which could be overcome by transient immunosuppression. However, rAAV9 was the only serotype that permitted high-transduction efficiency of both the cortex and medulla. Moreover, both the glomeruli and tubules were targeted, with a higher efficiency within the glomeruli. To improve the specificity of kidney-targeted gene delivery with rAAV9, we used the parathyroid hormone receptor 'kidney-specific' promoter. We obtained a more efficient transgene expression within the kidney, and a significant reduction in other tissues. Our work represents the first comprehensive and clinically relevant study for kidney gene delivery.

Isospin Character of Low-lying Pygmy Dipole States in 208Pb Via Inelastic Scattering of 17O Ions

Physical Review Letters. Jul, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 25032921

The properties of pygmy dipole states in 208Pb were investigated using the 208Pb(17O, 17O'γ) reaction at 340 MeV and measuring the γ decay with high resolution with the AGATA demonstrator array. Cross sections and angular distributions of the emitted γ rays and of the scattered particles were measured. The results are compared with (γ, γ') and (p, p') data. The data analysis with the distorted wave Born approximation approach gives a good description of the elastic scattering and of the inelastic excitation of the 2+ and 3- states. For the dipole transitions a form factor obtained by folding a microscopically calculated transition density was used for the first time. This has allowed us to extract the isoscalar component of the 1- excited states from 4 to 8 MeV.

Neutron Pair Transfer in ^{60}Ni+^{116}Sn Far Below the Coulomb Barrier

Physical Review Letters. Aug, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 25126912

An excitation function of one- and two-neutron transfer channels for the ^{60}Ni+^{116}Sn system has been measured with the magnetic spectrometer PRISMA in a wide energy range, from the Coulomb barrier to far below it. The experimental transfer probabilities are well reproduced, for the first time with heavy ions, in absolute values and in slope by microscopic calculations which incorporate nucleon-nucleon pairing correlations.

Lysosomal Cross-correction by Hematopoietic Stem Cell-derived Macrophages Via Tunneling Nanotubes

Stem Cells (Dayton, Ohio). Sep, 2014  |  Pubmed ID: 25186209

Despite controversies on the potential of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to promote tissue repair, we previously showed that HSC transplantation could correct cystinosis, a multi-systemic lysosomal storage disease, caused by a defective lysosomal membrane cystine transporter, cystinosin (CTNS). Addressing the cellular mechanisms, we here report vesicular cross-correction after HSC differentiation into macrophages. Upon co-culture with cystinotic fibroblasts, macrophages produced tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) allowing transfer of cystinosin-bearing lysosomes into Ctns-deficient cells, which exploited the same route to retrogradely transfer cystine-loaded lysosomes to macrophages, providing a bidirectional correction mechanism. TNT formation was enhanced by contact with diseased cells. In vivo, HSCs grafted to cystinotic kidneys also generated nanotubular extensions resembling invadopodia that crossed the dense basement membranes and delivered cystinosin into diseased proximal tubular cells. This is the first report of correction of a genetic lysosomal defect by bidirectional vesicular exchange via TNTs and suggests broader potential for HSC transplantation for other disorders due to defective vesicular proteins. Stem Cells 2014.

Subsurface Ablation of Atherosclerotic Plaque Using Ultrafast Laser Pulses

Biomedical Optics Express. Jul, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26203381

We perform subsurface ablation of atherosclerotic plaque using ultrafast pulses. Excised mouse aortas containing atherosclerotic plaque were ablated with ultrafast near-infrared (NIR) laser pulses. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to observe the ablation result, while the physical damage was inspected in histological sections. We characterize the effects of incident pulse energy on surface damage, ablation hole size, and filament propagation. We find that it is possible to ablate plaque just below the surface without causing surface damage, which motivates further investigation of ultrafast ablation for subsurface atherosclerotic plaque removal.

Prognostic Value of Troponin I for Infarct Size to Improve Preclinical Myocardial Infarction Small Animal Models

Frontiers in Physiology. 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26640441

Coronary artery ligations to induce myocardial infarction (MI) in mice and rats are widely used in preclinical investigation. However, myocardial ischemic damage and subsequent infarct size are highly variable. The lack of standardization of the model impairs the probability of effective translation to the clinic. Cardiac Troponin I (cTnI) is a major clinically relevant biomarker.

Heart Rate Never Lies: Interventional Cardiologist and Braude's Quote Revised

Open Heart. 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 26835145

Interventional cardiologists may be immune to stress, allowing them to perform complex percutaneous interventions under pressure.

Intra-Arterial Drug and Light Delivery for Photodynamic Therapy Using Visudyne®: Implication for Atherosclerotic Plaque Treatment

Frontiers in Physiology. 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 27672369

Photodynamic therapy (PDT), which is based on the activation of photosensitizers with light, can be used to reduce plaque burden. We hypothesized that intra-arterial photosensitizer administration and photo-activation will lead to high and rapid accumulation within the plaque with reduced systemic adverse effects. Thus, this "intra-arterial" PDT would be expected to have less side effects and due to the short time involved would be compatible with percutaneous coronary interventions.

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