Articles by Balaji Olety in JoVE
Other articles by Balaji Olety on PubMed
Myosin 1G (Myo1G) is a Haematopoietic Specific Myosin That Localises to the Plasma Membrane and Regulates Cell Elasticity FEBS Letters. Feb, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 19968988 Immune cells navigate through different environments where they experience different mechanical forces. Responses to external forces are determined by the mechanical properties of a cell and they depend to a large extent on the actin-rich cell cortex. We report here that Myo1G, a previously uncharacterised member of class I myosins, is expressed specifically in haematopoietic tissues and cells. It is associated with the plasma membrane. This association is dependent on a conserved PH-domain-like myosin I tail homology motif and the head domain. However, the head domain does not need to be a functional motor. Knockdown of Myo1G in Jurkat cells decreased cell elasticity significantly. We propose that Myo1G regulates cell elasticity by deformations of the actin network at the cell cortex.
HIV-1 Gag Associates with Specific Uropod-directed Microdomains in a Manner Dependent on Its MA Highly Basic Region Journal of Virology. Jun, 2013 | Pubmed ID: 23536680 In polarized T cells, HIV-1 Gag localizes to a rear-end protrusion known as the uropod in a multimerization-dependent manner. Gag-laden uropods participate in formation of virological synapses, intercellular contact structures that play a key role in cell-to-cell HIV-1 transmission. Our previous observations suggest that Gag associates with uropod-directed microdomains (UDMs) that eventually comigrate with Gag to the uropod over the cell surface. However, the nature of Gag multimerization required for this movement, the composition of the UDMs, and the molecular determinants for Gag association with these microdomains remain unknown. In this study, we found that Gag multimerization prior to budding but beyond dimerization is necessary for Gag localization to the uropods, indicating that uropod localization occurs early in the assembly process. We also found that prior to membrane curvature, Gag multimers associate with a specific subset of UDMs containing PSGL-1, CD43, and CD44 but not ICAM-1, ICAM-3, or CD59. Notably, upon association, Gag excludes ICAM-3 from this subset of UDMs, revealing an active and selective reorganization of these microdomains by Gag. This specific association between Gag and UDMs is dependent on the highly basic region (HBR) in the Gag matrix (MA) domain. The overall positive charge of the HBR was needed for the interaction with the specific UDM subset, while the exact HBR sequence was not, unlike that seen for MA binding to the plasma membrane phospholipid phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2]. Taken together, these findings revealed that HIV-1 Gag associates with specific microdomains present in polarized T cells in an MA-dependent manner, which results in modification of the microdomain constituents.
Roles Played by Acidic Lipids in HIV-1 Gag Membrane Binding Virus Research. Nov, 2014 | Pubmed ID: 24998886 The MA domain mediates plasma membrane (PM) targeting of HIV-1 Gag, leading to particle assembly at the PM. The interaction between MA and acidic phospholipids, in addition to N-terminal myristoyl moiety, promotes Gag binding to lipid membranes. Among acidic phospholipids, PI(4,5)P2, a PM-specific phosphoinositide, is essential for proper HIV-1 Gag localization to the PM and efficient virus particle production. Recent studies further revealed that MA-bound RNA negatively regulates HIV-1 Gag membrane binding and that PI(4,5)P2 is necessary to overcome this RNA-imposed block. In this review, we will summarize the current understanding of Gag-membrane interactions and discuss potential roles played by acidic phospholipids.
Phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-Bisphosphate Acyl Chains Differentiate Membrane Binding of HIV-1 Gag from That of the Phospholipase Cδ1 Pleckstrin Homology Domain Journal of Virology. Aug, 2015 | Pubmed ID: 25995263 HIV-1 Gag, which drives virion assembly, interacts with a plasma membrane (PM)-specific phosphoinositide, phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2]. While cellular acidic phospholipid-binding proteins/domains, such as the PI(4,5)P2-specific pleckstrin homology domain of phospholipase Cδ1 (PHPLCδ1), mediate headgroup-specific interactions with corresponding phospholipids, the exact nature of the Gag-PI(4,5)P2 interaction remains undetermined. In this study, we used giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) to examine how PI(4,5)P2 with unsaturated or saturated acyl chains affect membrane binding of PHPLCδ1 and Gag. Both unsaturated dioleoyl-PI(4,5)P2 [DO-PI(4,5)P2] and saturated dipalmitoyl-PI(4,5)P2 [DP-PI(4,5)P2] successfully recruited PHPLCδ1 to membranes of single-phase GUVs. In contrast, DO-PI(4,5)P2 but not DP-PI(4,5)P2 recruited Gag to GUVs, indicating that PI(4,5)P2 acyl chains contribute to stable membrane binding of Gag. GUVs containing PI(4,5)P2, cholesterol, and dipalmitoyl phosphatidylserine separated into two coexisting phases: one was a liquid phase, and the other appeared to be a phosphatidylserine-enriched gel phase. In these vesicles, the liquid phase recruited PHPLCδ1 regardless of PI(4,5)P2 acyl chains. Likewise, Gag bound to the liquid phase when PI(4,5)P2 had DO-acyl chains. DP-PI(4,5)P2-containing GUVs showed no detectable Gag binding to the liquid phase. Unexpectedly, however, DP-PI(4,5)P2 still promoted recruitment of Gag, but not PHPLCδ1, to the dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylserine-enriched gel phase of these GUVs. Altogether, these results revealed different roles for PI(4,5)P2 acyl chains in membrane binding of two PI(4,5)P2-binding proteins, Gag and PHPLCδ1. Notably, we observed that nonmyristylated Gag retains the preference for PI(4,5)P2 containing an unsaturated acyl chain over DP-PI(4,5)P2, suggesting that Gag sensitivity to PI(4,5)P2 acyl chain saturation is determined directly by the matrix-PI(4,5)P2 interaction, rather than indirectly by a myristate-dependent mechanism.