Articles by Balakrishnan S. Moorthy in JoVE
Mass Spectrometric Approaches to Study Protein Structure and Interactions in Lyophilized Powders Balakrishnan S. Moorthy*1, Lavanya K. Iyer*1, Elizabeth M. Topp1 1Department of Industrial and Physical Pharmacy, Purdue University Here, we present detailed protocols for solid-state amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (ssHDX-MS) and solid-state photolytic labeling mass spectrometry (ssPL-MS) for proteins in solid powders. The methods provide high-resolution information on protein conformation and interactions in the amorphous solid-state, which may be useful in formulation design.
Other articles by Balakrishnan S. Moorthy on PubMed
Photolytic Labeling to Probe Molecular Interactions in Lyophilized Powders Molecular Pharmaceutics. Dec, 2013 | Pubmed ID: 24125175 Local side-chain interactions in lyophilized protein formulations were mapped using solid-state photolytic labeling-mass spectrometry (ssPL-MS). Photoactive amino acid analogues (PAAs) were used as probes and either added to the lyophilized matrix or incorporated within the amino acid sequence of a peptide. In the first approach, apomyoglobin was lyophilized with sucrose and varying concentrations of photoleucine (L-2-amino-4,4'-azipentanoic acid; pLeu). The lyophilized solid was irradiated at 365 nm to initiate photolabeling. The rate and extent of labeling were measured using electrospray ionization/high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (ESI-HPLC-MS), with labeling reaching a plateau at ~30 min, forming up to six labeled populations. Bottom-up MS/MS analysis was able to provide peptide-level resolution of the location of pLeu. ssPL-MS was also able to detect differences in side-chain environment between sucrose and guanidine hydrochloride formulations. In the second approach, peptide GCG (1-8)* containing p-benzoyl-L-phenylalanine (pBpA) in the amino acid sequence was lyophilized with various excipients and irradiated. Peptide-peptide and peptide-excipient adducts were detected using MS. Top-down MS/MS on the peptide dimer provided amino acid-level resolution regarding interactions and the cross-linking partner for pBpA in the solid state. The results show that ssPL-MS can provide high-resolution information about protein interactions in the lyophilized environment.
Predicting Protein Aggregation During Storage in Lyophilized Solids Using Solid State Amide Hydrogen/deuterium Exchange with Mass Spectrometric Analysis (ssHDX-MS) Molecular Pharmaceutics. Jun, 2014 | Pubmed ID: 24816133 Solid state amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange with mass spectrometric analysis (ssHDX-MS) was used to assess the conformation of myoglobin (Mb) in lyophilized formulations, and the results correlated with the extent of aggregation during storage. Mb was colyophilized with sucrose (1:1 or 1:8 w/w), mannitol (1:1 w/w), or NaCl (1:1 w/w) or in the absence of excipients. Immediately after lyophilization, samples of each formulation were analyzed by ssHDX-MS and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to assess Mb conformation, and by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and size exclusion chromatography (SEC) to determine the extent of aggregation. The remaining samples were then placed on stability at 25 °C and 60% RH or 40 °C and 75% RH for up to 1 year, withdrawn at intervals, and analyzed for aggregate content by SEC and DLS. In ssHDX-MS of samples immediately after lyophilization (t = 0), Mb was less deuterated in solids containing sucrose (1:1 and 1:8 w/w) than in those containing mannitol (1:1 w/w), NaCl (1:1 w/w), or Mb alone. Deuterium uptake kinetics and peptide mass envelopes also indicated greater Mb structural perturbation in mannitol, NaCl, or Mb-alone samples at t = 0. The extent of deuterium incorporation and kinetic parameters related to rapidly and slowly exchanging amide pools (Nfast, Nslow), measured at t = 0, were highly correlated with the extent of aggregation on storage as measured by SEC. In contrast, the extent of aggregation was weakly correlated with FTIR band intensity and peak position measured at t = 0. The results support the use of ssHDX-MS as a formulation screening tool in developing lyophilized protein drug products.
Structural Transitions and Interactions in the Early Stages of Human Glucagon Amyloid Fibrillation Biophysical Journal. Feb, 2015 | Pubmed ID: 25692598 A mechanistic understanding of the intermolecular interactions and structural changes during fibrillation is crucial for the design of safe and efficacious glucagon formulations. Amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange with mass spectrometric analysis was used to identify the interactions and amino acids involved in the initial stages of glucagon fibril formation at acidic pH. Kinetic measurements from intrinsic and thioflavin T fluorescence showed sigmoidal behavior. Secondary structural measurement of fibrillating glucagon using far-UV circular dichroism spectroscopy showed changes in structure from random coil → α-helix → β-sheet, with increase in α-helix content during the lag phase followed by increase in β-sheet content during the growth phase. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange with mass spectrometric analysis of fibrillating glucagon suggested that C-terminal residues 22-29 are involved in interactions during the lag phase, during which N-terminal residues 1-6 showed no changes. Molecular dynamics simulations of glucagon fragments showed C-terminal to C-terminal interactions with greater α-helix content for the 20-29 fragment, with hydrophobic and aromatic residues (Phe-22, Trp-25, Val-23, and Met-27) predominantly involved. Overall, the study shows that glucagon interactions during the early phase of fibrillation are mediated through C-terminal residues, which facilitate the formation of α-helix-rich oligomers, which further undergo structural rearrangement and elongation to form β-sheet-rich mature fibrils.