Articles by Bastian Kubsch in JoVE
Phase Behavior of Charged Vesicles Under Symmetric and Asymmetric Solution Conditions Monitored with Fluorescence Microscopy Bastian Kubsch1, Tom Robinson1, Jan Steinkühler1, Rumiana Dimova1 1Max Planck Institute of Colloids and Interfaces Experiments on phase separated giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) frequently neglect physiological solution conditions. This work presents approaches to study the effect of high-salinity buffer on liquid-liquid phase separation in charged multicomponent GUVs as a function of trans-membrane solution asymmetry and temperature.
Other articles by Bastian Kubsch on PubMed
An Unusual Mode of Iron-sulfur-cluster Coordination in a Teleost Glutaredoxin Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. Jul, 2013 | Pubmed ID: 23756812 Glutaredoxins that contain a Cys-X-X-Cys active site motif are glutathione-dependent thiol-disulfide oxidoreductases. Vertebrate glutaredoxin 2 is characterized by two extra cysteines that form an intra-molecular disulfide bridge. Zebrafish glutaredoxin 2 contains four additional cysteines that are conserved within the infraclass of bony fish (teleosts). Here, we present a biochemical and biophysical characterization of zebrafish glutaredoxin 2, focusing on iron-sulfur-cluster coordination. The coordination of [2Fe2S](2+)-clusters in monomers of this protein was revealed by both absorption and Mössbauer spectroscopy as well as size exclusion chromatography. All other holo-glutaredoxins represent [FeS]-cluster bridged dimers using two molecules of non-covalently bound glutathione and the N-terminal active site cysteines as ligands. These cysteine residues were not required for [FeS]-cluster coordination in zebrafish glutaredoxin 2. A crystal structure of the teleost protein revealed high structural similarity to its human homologue. The two vertebrate-specific cysteines as well as two of the teleost-specific cysteines are positioned within a radius of 7Å near the C-terminus suggesting a potential role in [FeS]-cluster coordination. Indeed, mutated proteins lacking these teleost-specific cysteines lost the ability to bind the cofactor. Hence, the apparent mode of [FeS]-cluster coordination in zebrafish glutaredoxin 2 could be different from all yet described [FeS]-glutaredoxins.
Differential Effects of Mutations on the Transport Properties of the Na+/H+ Antiporter NhaA from Escherichia Coli The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Aug, 2013 | Pubmed ID: 23836890 Na(+)/H(+) antiporters show a marked pH dependence, which is important for their physiological function in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. In NhaA, the Escherichia coli Na(+)/H(+) antiporter, specific single site mutations modulating the pH profile of the transporter have been described in the past. To clarify the mechanism by which these mutations influence the pH dependence of NhaA, the substrate dependence of the kinetics of selected NhaA variants was electrophysiologically investigated and analyzed with a kinetic model. It is shown that the mutations affect NhaA activity in quite different ways by changing the properties of the binding site or the dynamics of the transporter. In the first case, pK and/or KD(Na) are altered, and in the second case, the rate constants of the conformational transition between the inside and the outside open conformation are modified. It is shown that residues as far apart as 15-20 Å from the binding site can have a significant impact on the dynamics of the conformational transitions or on the binding properties of NhaA. The implications of these results for the pH regulation mechanism of NhaA are discussed.
Solution Asymmetry and Salt Expand Fluid-Fluid Coexistence Regions of Charged Membranes Biophysical Journal. Jun, 2016 | Pubmed ID: 27288275 Liquid-liquid phase separation in giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) leads to the formation of intramembrane domains. To mimic charged biological membranes, we studied phase separation and domain formation in GUVs of ternary lipid mixtures composed of egg sphingomyelin, cholesterol, and the negatively charged lipid dioleoylphosphatidylglycerol. The GUVs were exposed to solutions of sucrose and high-saline buffer. The phase diagram was determined using epifluorescence microscopy for vesicle populations with symmetric and asymmetric solution compositions across the membranes. Trans-membrane solution asymmetry was found to affect the membrane phase state. Furthermore, compared to the case of salt-free conditions, the phase diagram in the presence of high-saline buffer (both symmetrically or asymmetrically present across the membrane) was found to exhibit a significantly extended region of liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered coexistence. These observations were confirmed on single GUVs using microfluidics and confocal microscopy. Moreover, we found that the miscibility temperatures markedly increased for vesicles in the presence of symmetric and asymmetric salt solutions. Our results demonstrate a substantial effect of salt and solution asymmetry on the phase behavior of charged membranes, which has direct implications for protein adsorption onto these membranes and for the repartitioning of proteins within the membrane domains.