Other Publications (10)
- The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
- Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
- Journal of Neuroinflammation
- Cell Transplantation
- Neurobiology of Disease
- European Journal of Cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
- Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
- Case Reports in Medicine
- PloS One
Articles by Beatrice Paradiso in JoVE
Personalized Needles for Microinjections in the Rodent Brain Giovanna Paolone*1, Chiara Falcicchia*1, Gianluca Verlengia*1, Mario Barbieri1, Anna Binaschi1, Federico Paliotto1, Beatrice Paradiso1, Marie Soukupova1, Silvia Zucchini1,2, Michele Simonato1,2 1Department of Medical Sciences, Section of Pharmacology, and National Institute of Neurosciences, University of Ferrara, 2Laboratory for the Technologies for Advanced Therapies (LTTA), University of Ferrara We describe here a protocol for microinjection in the rodent brain that uses quartz needles. These needles do not produce detectable tissue damage and ensure reliable delivery even in deep regions. Moreover, they can be adapted to research needs by personalized designs and can be re-used.
Other articles by Beatrice Paradiso on PubMed
Fgf-2 Overexpression Increases Excitability and Seizure Susceptibility but Decreases Seizure-induced Cell Loss The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. | Pubmed ID: 19052202 Fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) has multiple, pleiotropic effects on the nervous system that include neurogenesis, neuroprotection and neuroplasticity. Thus, alteration in FGF-2 expression patterns may have a profound impact in brain function, both in normal physiology and in pathology. Here, we used FGF-2 transgenic mice (TgFGF2) to study the effects of endogenous FGF-2 overexpression on susceptibility to seizures and to the pathological consequences of seizures. TgFGF2 mice display increased FGF-2 expression in hippocampal pyramidal neurons and dentate granule cells. Increased density of glutamatergic synaptic vesicles was observed in the hippocampus of TgFGF2 mice, and electrophysiological data (input/output curves and patch-clamp recordings in CA1) confirmed an increase in excitatory inputs in CA1, suggesting the presence of a latent hyperexcitability. Indeed, TgFGF2 mice displayed increased susceptibility to kainate-induced seizures compared with wild-type (WT) littermates, in that latency to generalized seizure onset was reduced, whereas behavioral seizure scores and lethality were increased. Finally, WT and TgFGF2 mice with similar seizure scores were used for examining seizure-induced cellular consequences. Neurogenesis and mossy fiber sprouting were not significantly different between the two groups. In contrast, cell damage (assessed with Fluoro-Jade B, silver impregnation and anti-caspase 3 immunohistochemistry) was significantly lower in TgFGF2 mice, especially in the areas of overexpression (CA1 and CA3), indicating reduction of seizure-induced necrosis and apoptosis. These data suggest that FGF-2 may be implicated in seizure susceptibility and in seizure-induced plasticity, exerting different, and apparently contrasting effects: favoring ictogenesis but reducing seizure-induced cell death.
Localized Delivery of Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 and Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor Reduces Spontaneous Seizures in an Epilepsy Model Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. | Pubmed ID: 19366663 A loss of neurons is observed in the hippocampus of many patients with epilepsies of temporal lobe origin. It has been hypothesized that damage limitation or repair, for example using neurotrophic factors (NTFs), may prevent the transformation of a normal tissue into epileptic (epileptogenesis). Here, we used viral vectors to locally supplement two NTFs, fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), when epileptogenic damage was already in place. These vectors were first characterized in vitro, where they increased proliferation of neural progenitors and favored their differentiation into neurons, and they were then tested in a model of status epilepticus-induced neurodegeneration and epileptogenesis. When injected in a lesioned hippocampus, FGF-2/BDNF expressing vectors increased neuronogenesis, embanked neuronal damage, and reduced epileptogenesis. It is concluded that reduction of damage reduces epileptogenesis and that supplementing specific NTFs in lesion areas represents a new approach to the therapy of neuronal damage and of its consequences.
Hippocampal FGF-2 and BDNF Overexpression Attenuates Epileptogenesis-associated Neuroinflammation and Reduces Spontaneous Recurrent Seizures Journal of Neuroinflammation. | Pubmed ID: 21087489 Under certain experimental conditions, neurotrophic factors may reduce epileptogenesis. We have previously reported that local, intrahippocampal supplementation of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) increases neurogenesis, reduces neuronal loss, and reduces the occurrence of spontaneous seizures in a model of damage-associated epilepsy. Here, we asked if these possibly anti-epileptogenic effects might involve anti-inflammatory mechanisms. Thus, we used a Herpes-based vector to supplement FGF-2 and BDNF in rat hippocampus after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus that established an epileptogenic lesion. This model causes intense neuroinflammation, especially in the phase that precedes the occurrence of spontaneous seizures. The supplementation of FGF-2 and BDNF attenuated various parameters of inflammation, including astrocytosis, microcytosis and IL-1β expression. The effect appeared to be most prominent on IL-1β, whose expression was almost completely prevented. Further studies will be needed to elucidate the molecular mechanism(s) for these effects, and for that on IL-1β in particular. Nonetheless, the concept that neurotrophic factors affect neuroinflammation in vivo may be highly relevant for the understanding of the epileptogenic process.
Localized Overexpression of FGF-2 and BDNF in Hippocampus Reduces Mossy Fiber Sprouting and Spontaneous Seizures Up to 4 Weeks After Pilocarpine-induced Status Epilepticus Epilepsia. | Pubmed ID: 21269288 We have recently reported that viral vector-mediated supplementation of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in a lesioned, epileptogenic rat hippocampus limits neuronal damage, favors neurogenesis, and reduces spontaneous recurrent seizures. To test if this treatment can also prevent hippocampal circuit reorganization, we examined here its effect on mossy fiber sprouting, the best studied form of axonal plasticity in epilepsy.
Bystander Effect on Brain Tissue of Mesoangioblasts Producing Neurotrophins Cell Transplantation. | Pubmed ID: 22525962 Neurotrophic factors (NTFs) are involved in the regulation of neuronal survival and function and, thus, may be used to treat neurological diseases associated with neuronal death. A major hurdle for their clinical application is the delivery mode. We describe here a new strategy based on the use of progenitor cells called mesoangioblasts (MABs). MABs can be isolated from postnatal mesoderm tissues and, because of a high adhesin-dependent migratory capacity, can reach perivascular targets especially in damaged areas. We generated genetically modified MABs producing nerve growth factor (MABs-NGF) or brain-derived neurotrophic factor (MABs-BDNF) and assessed their bystander effects in vitro using PC12 cells, primary cultures, and organotypic cultures of adult hippocampal slices. MABs-NGF-conditioned medium induced differentiation of PC12 cells, while MABs-BDNF-conditioned medium increased viability of cultured neurons and slices. Slices cultured with MABs-BDNF medium also better retained their morphology and functional connections, and all these effects were abolished by the TrkB kinase blocker K252a or the BDNF scavenger TrkB-IgG. Interestingly, the amount of BDNF released by MABs-BDNF produced greater effects than an identical amount of recombinant BDNF, suggesting that other NTFs produced by MABs synergize with BDNF. Thus, MABs can be an effective vehicle for NTF delivery, promoting differentiation, survival, and functionality of neurons. In summary, MABs hold distinct advantages over other currently evaluated approaches for NTF delivery in the CNS, including synergy of MAB-produced NTF with the neurotrophins. Since MABs may be capable of homing into damaged brain areas, they represent a conceptually novel, promising therapeutic approach to treat neurodegenerative diseases.
Loss of Cortical GABA Terminals in Unverricht-Lundborg Disease Neurobiology of Disease. | Pubmed ID: 22538221 Unverricht-Lundborg disease (ULD) is the most common progressive myoclonic epilepsy. Its etiology has been identified in a defect of a protease inhibitor, cystatin B (CSTB), but the mechanism(s) by which this defect translates in the clinical manifestations of the disease are still obscure. We tested the hypothesis that ULD is accompanied by a loss of cortical GABA inhibition in a murine model (the CSTB knockout mouse) and in a human case. Cortical GABA signaling has been investigated measuring VGAT immunohistochemistry (a histological marker of the density of GABA terminals), GABA release from synaptosomes and paired-pulse stimulation. In CSTB knockout mice, a progressive decrease in neocortex thickness was found, associated with a prevalent loss of GABA interneurons. A marked reduction in VGAT labeling was found in the cortex of both CSTB knockout mice and an ULD patient. This implicates a reduction in GABA synaptic transmission, which was confirmed in the mouse model as reduction in GABA release from isolated nerve terminals and as loss of electrophysiologically measured GABA inhibition. The alterations in VGAT immunolabeling progressed in time, paralleling the worsening of myoclonus. These results provide direct evidence that loss of cortical GABA input occurs in a relevant animal model and in a case of human ULD, leading to a condition of latent hyperexcitability that favors myoclonus and seizures. These findings contribute to the understanding of the pathogenic mechanism of ULD and of the neurobiological basis of the effect of currently employed drugs.
The Stimulation of A(3) Adenosine Receptors Reduces Bone-residing Breast Cancer in a Rat Preclinical Model European Journal of Cancer (Oxford, England : 1990). | Pubmed ID: 22770890 Amongst cancers with poor prognosis those originating from breast commonly metastasise to the skeleton for the high affinity of breast cancer cells to bone. A(3) adenosine receptor (A(3)AR) agonists were found to be potent anti-tumour agents even if their effect on bone-residing breast cancer has not yet been investigated. An animal model of surgery-induced metastasis was used to mimic the human condition in an attempt to develop a novel effective treatment strategy. Sprague-Dawley rats receiving intra-tibial injections of syngeneic MRMT-1 rat mammary gland carcinoma cells developed cancer-associated osteolytic lesions and structural damage that were monitored by microcomputed tomography imaging and histological analysis. To address the involvement of A(3)ARs in tumour-related signalling pathway, A(3)AR expression and functional role were analysed in MRMT-1 cells. The effect of chronic treatment with an A(3)AR agonist, 2-chloro-N(6)-(3-iodobenzyl)-adenosine-5'-N-methyl-uronamide (Cl-IB-MECA) in comparison with cisplatin, was evaluated on rat tumour growth and bone cancer pain. A(3)ARs were expressed in MRMT-1 cells and their activation reduced NF-kB, increased p53 expression and apoptosis, inhibited tumour cell proliferation and migration. In vivo Cl-IB-MECA administration, started on day 1 after tumour cell injection, produced a significant reduction in tumour growth and cancer pain. Cl-IB-MECA treatment, performed on days 5 and 10 after the tumour cell inoculation, revealed the capability of A(3)AR stimulation to partially reduce tumour progression. Our findings highlighted the effectiveness of A(3)AR stimulation in the inhibition of breast tumour-derived bone metastasis growth strongly suggesting that targeting A(3)ARs may have promising therapeutic value in the treatment of bone-residing breast cancer.
Implication of Fibroblast Growth Factors in Epileptogenesis-associated Circuit Rearrangements Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience. | Pubmed ID: 24062643 The transformation of a normal brain in epileptic (epileptogenesis) is associated with extensive morpho-functional alterations, including cell death, axonal and dendritic plasticity, neurogenesis, and others. Neurotrophic factors (NTFs) appear to be very strongly implicated in these phenomena. In this review, we focus on the involvement of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family members. Available data demonstrate that the FGFs are highly involved in the generation of the morpho-functional alterations in brain circuitries associated with epileptogenesis. For example, data on FGF2, the most studied member, suggest that it may be implicated both in seizure susceptibility and in seizure-induced plasticity, exerting different, and apparently contrasting effects: favoring acute seizures but reducing seizure-induced cell death. Even if many FGF members are still unexplored and very limited information is available on the FGF receptors, a complex and fascinating picture is emerging: multiple FGFs producing synergic or antagonistic effects one with another (and/or with other NTFs) on biological parameters that, in turn, facilitate or oppose transformation of the normal tissue in epileptic. In principle, identifying key elements in these phenomena may lead to effective therapies, but reaching this goal will require confronting a huge complexity. One first step could be to generate a "neurotrophicome" listing the FGFs (and all other NTFs) that are active during epileptogenesis. This should include identification of the extent to which each NTF is active (concentrations at the site of action); how it is active (local representation of receptor subtypes); when in the natural history of disease this occurs; how the NTF at hand will possibly interact with other NTFs. This is extraordinarily challenging, but holds the promise of a better understanding of epileptogenesis and, at large, of brain function.
A New Case of Syringocystadenocarcinoma Papilliferum: a Rare Pathology for a Wide-ranging Comprehension Case Reports in Medicine. | Pubmed ID: 24959179 We report a new case of p63/cytokeratin 7 (CK7) positive syringocystadenocarcinoma papilliferum (SCACP), on the shoulder of an 88-year-old man, with superficial dermal infiltration and squamoid differentiation. We describe the 24th case of SCACP, the malignant counterpart of syringocystadenoma papilliferum (SCAP). At the present, we do not know whether SCACP arises from eccrine or apocrine glands because of the contrasting opinions in the literature. Only few histochemical and ultrastructural studies have previously advised that SCACP could arise from pluripotent stem cells. Through our case, we wish to suggest the stem cell-like properties of the syringocystadenocarcinoma papilliferum. This rare neoplasm shows two different patterns of stem cell marker expression in the glandular and squamous components, respectively. For the double phenotype of SCACP, we propose it like an intriguing model to study histogenesis and stem cell properties for more wide-ranging epithelial tumors.
Identification of MiRNAs Differentially Expressed in Human Epilepsy with or Without Granule Cell Pathology PloS One. 2014 | Pubmed ID: 25148080 The microRNAs (miRNAs) are small size non-coding RNAs that regulate expression of target mRNAs at post-transcriptional level. miRNAs differentially expressed under pathological conditions may help identifying mechanisms underlying the disease and may represent biomarkers with prognostic value. However, this kind of studies are difficult in the brain because of the cellular heterogeneity of the tissue and of the limited access to fresh tissue. Here, we focused on a pathology affecting specific cells in a subpopulation of epileptic brains (hippocampal granule cells), an approach that bypasses the above problems. All patients underwent surgery for intractable temporal lobe epilepsy and had hippocampal sclerosis associated with no granule cell pathology in half of the cases and with type-2 granule cell pathology (granule cell layer dispersion or bilamination) in the other half. The expression of more than 1000 miRNAs was examined in the laser-microdissected dentate granule cell layer. Twelve miRNAs were differentially expressed in the two groups. One of these, miR487a, was confirmed to be expressed at highly differential levels in an extended cohort of patients, using RT-qPCR. Bioinformatics searches and RT-qPCR verification identified ANTXR1 as a possible target of miR487a. ANTXR1 may be directly implicated in granule cell dispersion because it is an adhesion molecule that favors cell spreading. Thus, miR487a could be the first identified element of a miRNA signature that may be useful for prognostic evaluation of post-surgical epilepsy and may drive mechanistic studies leading to the identification of therapeutic targets.