Articles by Bhushan J. Toley in JoVE
Microfluidic Device for Recreating a Tumor Microenvironment in Vitro Bhushan J. Toley*1, Dan E. Ganz*1, Colin L. Walsh1, Neil S. Forbes1 1Department of Chemical Engineering, University Of Massachusetts Amherst We present the procedure for fabrication and operation of a microfluidic device that recreates heterogeneous tumor microenvironments in vitro. The variability in apoptosis within tumor tissue was quantified using fluorescent stains and the effective diffusion coefficient of the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin into tumor tissue was evaluated.
Other articles by Bhushan J. Toley on PubMed
Tuning Payload Delivery in Tumour Cylindroids Using Gold Nanoparticles Nature Nanotechnology. Jun, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20383126 Nanoparticles have great potential as controllable drug delivery vehicles because of their size and modular functionality. Timing and location are important parameters when optimizing nanoparticles for delivery of chemotherapeutics. Here, we show that gold nanoparticles carrying either fluorescein or doxorubicin molecules move and localize differently in an in vitro three-dimensional model of tumour tissue, depending on whether the nanoparticles are positively or negatively charged. Fluorescence microscopy and mathematical modelling show that uptake, not diffusion, is the dominant mechanism in particle delivery. Our results indicate that positive particles may be more effective for drug delivery because they are taken up to a greater extent by proliferating cells. Negative particles, which diffuse more quickly, may perform better when delivering drugs deep into tissues. An understanding of how surface charge can control tissue penetration and drug release may overcome some of the current limitations in drug delivery.
Micrometer-scale Oxygen Delivery Rearranges Cells and Prevents Necrosis in Tumor Tissue in Vitro Biotechnology Progress. Dec, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22228537 Oxygen availability plays a critical role in cancer progression and is correlated with poor prognosis. Despite this connection, the independent effects of oxygen gradients on tumor tissues have not been measured. To address this, we developed an oxygen delivery device that uses microelectrodes to generate oxygen directly underneath three-dimensional tumor cylindroids composed of colon carcinoma cells. The extent of cell death was measured using fluorescence staining. Supplying oxygen for 60 h eliminated the necrotic region typically found in the center of cylindroids despite the continued presence of other nutrient gradients. A mathematical model of cylindroid growth showed that the rate of cell death was more sensitive to oxygen than the growth rate. After oxygenation, a ring of dead cells was observed at the outside edge of cylindroids, and dead cells were observed moving outward from cylindroid centers. This movement suggests that dead cells were pushed by viable cells migrating in response to oxygen gradients, a mechanism that may connect transient oxygen gradients to metastasis formation. These measurements show that oxygen gradients are a primary factor governing cell viability and rearrange cells in tumors. Â© 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2012.
Motility is Critical for Effective Distribution and Accumulation of Bacteria in Tumor Tissue Integrative Biology : Quantitative Biosciences from Nano to Macro. Feb, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22193245 Motile bacteria can overcome the penetration limitations of cancer chemotherapeutics because they can actively migrate into solid tumors. Although several genera of bacteria have been shown to accumulate preferentially in tumors, the spatiotemporal dynamics of bacterial tumor colonization and their dependence on bacterial motility are not clear. For effective tumor regression, bacteria must penetrate and distribute uniformly throughout tumors. To measure these dynamics, we used an in vitro model of continuously perfused tumor tissue to mimic the delivery and systemic clearance of Salmonella typhimurium strains SL1344 and VNP20009, and Escherichia coli strains K12 and DH5Î±. Tissues were treated for 1 hour with 10(5) or 10(7) CFU ml(-1) suspensions of each strain and the location and extent of bacterial accumulation were observed for 30 hours. Salmonella had 14.5 times greater average swimming speed than E. coli and colonized tissues at 100 times lower doses than E. coli. Bacterial motility strongly correlated (R(2) = 99.3%) with the extent of tissue accumulation. When inoculated at 10(5) CFU ml(-1), motile Salmonella formed colonies denser than 10(10) CFU/(g-tissue) and less motile E. coli showed no detectable colonization. Based on spatiotemporal profiles and a mathematical model of motility and growth, bacterial dispersion was found to be necessary for deep penetration into tissue. Bacterial colonization caused apoptosis in tumors and apoptosis levels correlated (R(2) = 98.6%) with colonization density. These results show that motility is critical for effective distribution of bacteria in tumors and is essential for designing cancer therapies that can overcome the barrier of limited tumor penetration.