In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (10)

Articles by Björn Schniedewind in JoVE

 JoVE Medicine

Quantification of the Immunosuppressant Tacrolimus on Dried Blood Spots Using LC-MS/MS

1iC42 Clinical Research and Development, University of Colorado, Anschutz Medical Campus, 2Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, 3Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Center of Drug Evaluation Research - Office of Generic Drugs, 4Transplant Clinical Research, University of Cincinnati


JoVE 52424

Other articles by Björn Schniedewind on PubMed

Comparison of Lung Proteome Profiles in Two Rodent Models of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

Proteomics. Jul, 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 17623304

We studied the lung proteome changes in two widely used models of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH): monocrotaline (MCT) injection and chronic hypoxia (CH); untreated rats were used as controls (n = 6/group). After 28 days, invasive right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) was measured. Lungs were immunostained for alpha-smooth muscle actin (alphaSMA). 2-DE (n = 4/group) followed by nano-LC-MS/MS was applied for protein identification. Western blotting was used additionally if possible. RVSP was significantly increased in MCT- and CH-rats (MCT 62.5 +/- 4.4 mmHg, CH 62.2 +/- 4.1 mmHg, control 25.0 +/- 1.7 mmHg, p<0.001). This was associated with an increase of alphaSMA positive vessels. In both groups, there was a significantly increased expression of proteins associated with the contractile apparatus (diphosphoHsp27 (p<0.001), Septin2 (p<0.001), F-actin capping protein (p<0.01), and tropomyosin beta (p<0.02)). In CH, proteins of the nitric oxide (Hsc70; p = 0.002), carbon monoxide (biliverdin reductase; p = 0.005), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway (annexin 3; p<0.001) were significantly increased. In MCT, proteins involved in serotonin synthesis (14-3-3; p = 0.02), the enhanced unfolded protein response (ERp57; p = 0.02), and intracellular chloride channels (CLIC 1; p = 0.002) were significantly elevated. Therefore, MCT- and CH-induced vasoconstriction and remodeling seemed to be mediated via different signaling pathways. These differences should be considered in future studies using either PAH model.

A Low Blood Volume LC-MS/MS Assay for the Quantification of Fentanyl and Its Major Metabolites Norfentanyl and Despropionyl Fentanyl in Children

Journal of Separation Science. Dec, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21916010

Preterm and term neonates often require surgical procedures and analgesia. However, our knowledge about neonatal pharmacokinetics of fentanyl, the most commonly used drug for these procedures, and its metabolites is still incomplete. To facilitate pharmacokinetic studies of fentanyl and its metabolites in neonates and other children, we developed and validated an LC-MS/MS method based on minimally invasive, low blood volume sampling. LC-MS/MS was used for the simultaneous analysis of fentanyl, despropionyl fentanyl (DPF), and norfentanyl from dried blood samples (DBS) collected on filter paper. Positive ions were monitored using multiple reaction monitoring. Since the standard matrix for measuring fentanyl blood concentrations is plasma, the assay was developed and validated in plasma, whole blood, and then DBS. Our method was able to measure clinically relevant levels of fentanyl and its metabolites. In DBS, the lower limits of quantification were 100 pg/mL for fentanyl with a range of reliable response from 0.1 to 100 ng/mL (r(2)>0.99) and 250 pg/mL for both DPF and norfentanyl with a range of reliable response from 0.25 to 100 ng/mL (r(2)>0.99). In plasma and in DBS inter-day accuracy and precisions of fentanyl met predefined acceptance criteria and also indicated comparable assay performance in both matrices.

A High-throughput U-HPLC-MS/MS Assay for the Quantification of Mycophenolic Acid and Its Major Metabolites Mycophenolic Acid Glucuronide and Mycophenolic Acid Acyl-glucuronide in Human Plasma and Urine

Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences. Feb, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 21839692

Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is used as an immunosuppressant after organ transplantation and for the treatment of immune diseases. There is increasing evidence that therapeutic drug monitoring and plasma concentration-guided dose adjustments are beneficial for patients to maintain immunosuppressive efficacy and to avoid toxicity. The major MPA metabolite that can be found in high concentrations in plasma is MPA glucuronide (MPAG). A metabolite usually present at lower concentrations, MPA acyl-glucuronide (AcMPAG), has been implicated in some of the adverse effects of MPA. We developed and validated an automated high-throughput ultra-high performance chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (U-HPLC-MS/MS) assay using liquid-handling robotic extraction for the quantification of MPA, MPAG, and AcMPAG in human EDTA plasma and urine. The ranges of reliable response were 0.097 (lower limit of quantitation) to 200 μg/mL for MPA and MPAG and 0.156-10 μg/mL for AcMPAG in human urine and plasma. The inter-day accuracies were 94.3-104.4%, 93.8-105.0% and 94.4-104.7% for MPA, MPAG and AcMPAG, respectively. Inter-day precisions were 0.7-7.8%, 0.9-6.9% and 1.6-8.6% for MPA, MPAG and AcMPAG. No matrix interferences, ion suppression/enhancement and carry-over were detected. The total assay run time was 2.3 min. The assay met all predefined acceptance criteria and the quantification of MPA was successfully cross-validated with an LC-MS/MS assay routinely used for clinical therapeutic drug monitoring. The assay has proven to be robust and reliable during the measurement of samples from several pharmacokinetics trials.

Influence of SLCO1B1 Polymorphisms on the Drug-drug Interaction Between Darunavir/ritonavir and Pravastatin

Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. Nov, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22174437

The authors investigated whether SLCO1B1 polymorphisms contribute to variability in pravastatin pharmacokinetics when pravastatin is administered alone versus with darunavir/ritonavir. HIV-negative healthy participants were prospectively enrolled on the basis of SLCO1B1 diplotype: group 1 (*1A/*1A, n = 9); group 2 (*1A/*1B, n = 10; or *1B/*1B, n = 2); and group 3 (*1A/*15, n = 1; *1B/*15, n = 5; or *1B/*17, n = 1). Participants received pravastatin (40 mg) daily on days 1 through 4, washout on days 5 through 11, darunavir/ritonavir (600/100 mg) twice daily on days 12 through 18, with pravastatin 40 mg added back on days 15 through 18. Pharmacokinetic studies were conducted on day 4 (pravastatin alone) and day 18 (pravastatin + darunavir/ritonavir). Pravastatin area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(tau)) was 21% higher during administration with darunavir/ritonavir compared with pravastatin alone; however, this difference was not statistically significant (P = .11). Group 3 variants had 96% higher pravastatin AUC(tau) on day 4 and 113% higher pravastatin AUC(tau) on day 18 compared with group 1. The relative change in pravastatin pharmacokinetics was largest in group 3 but did not differ significantly between diplotype groups. In sum, the influence of SLCO1B1*15 and *17 haplotypes on pravastatin pharmacokinetics was maintained in the presence of darunavir/ritonavir. Because OATP1B1 inhibition would be expected to be greater in carriers of normal or high-functioning SLCO1B1 haplotypes, these findings suggest that darunavir/ritonavir is not a potent inhibitor of OATP1B1-mediated pravastatin transport in vivo.

Everolimus and Sirolimus in Combination with Cyclosporine Have Different Effects on Renal Metabolism in the Rat

PloS One. 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 23118926

Enhancement of calcineurin inhibitor nephrotoxicity by sirolimus (SRL) is limiting the clinical use of this drug combination. We compared the dose-dependent effects of the structurally related everolimus (EVL) and sirolimus (SRL) alone, and in combination with cyclosporine (CsA), on the rat kidney. Lewis rats were treated by oral gavage for 28 days using a checkerboard dosing format (0, 3.0, 6.0 and 10.0 CsA and 0, 0.5, 1.5 and 3.0 mg/kg/day SRL or EVL, n = 4/dose combination). After 28 days, oxidative stress, energy charge, kidney histologies, glomerular filtration rates, and concentrations of the immunosuppressants were measured along with (1)H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and gas chromatography- mass spectrometry profiles of cellular metabolites in urine. The combination of CsA with SRL led to higher urinary glucose concentrations and decreased levels of urinary Krebs cycle metabolites when compared to controls, suggesting that CsA+SRL negatively impacted proximal tubule metabolism. Unsupervised principal component analysis of MRS spectra distinguished unique urine metabolite patterns of rats treated with CsA+SRL from those treated with CsA+EVL and the controls. SRL, but not EVL blood concentrations were inversely correlated with urine Krebs cycle metabolite concentrations. Interestingly, the higher the EVL concentration, the closer urine metabolite patterns resembled those of controls, while in contrast, the combination of the highest doses of CsA+SRL showed the most significant differences in metabolite patterns. Surprisingly in this rat model, EVL and SRL in combination with CsA had different effects on kidney biochemistry, suggesting that further exploration of EVL in combination with low dose calcineurin inhibitors may be of potential benefit.

Concentration of Tacrolimus and Major Metabolites in Kidney Transplant Recipients As a Function of Diabetes Mellitus and Cytochrome P450 3A Gene Polymorphism

Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems. Jul, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23278282

1. Disposition of tacrolimus and its major metabolites, 13-O-desmethyl tacrolimus and 15-O-desmethyl tacrolimus, was evaluated in stable kidney transplant recipients in relation to diabetes mellitus and genetic polymorphism of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A. 2. Steady-state concentration-time profiles were obtained for 12-hour or 2-hour post-dose, in 20 (11 with diabetes) and 32 (24 with diabetes) patients, respectively. In addition, single nucleotide polymorphisms of the following genes: CYP3A4 (CYP3A4: CYP3A4*1B, -392A > G), 3A5 (CYP3A5: CYP3A5*3, 6986A > G) and P-glycoprotein (ABCB1: 3435C > T) were characterized. 3. Dose-normalized concentrations of tacrolimus or metabolites were higher in diabetic patients. CYP3A4*1B carriers and CYP3A5 expressers, independently or when assessed as a combined CYP3A4-3A5 genotype, had significantly lower dose-normalized pre-dose (C0/dose) and 2-hour post-dose (C2/dose) concentrations of tacrolimus and metabolites. Non-diabetic patients with at least one CYP3A4*1B and CYP3A5*1 allele had lower C0/dose as compared to the rest of the population. 4. Genetic polymorphism of CYP3A5 or CYP3A4 influence tacrolimus or metabolites dose-normalized concentrations but not metabolite to parent concentration ratios. The effect of diabetes on tacrolimus metabolism is subject to debate and requires a larger sample size of genetically stratified subjects.

Comparison of the Quantification of Acetaminophen in Plasma, Cerebrospinal Fluid and Dried Blood Spots Using High-performance Liquid Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry

Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis. Sep, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23670126

Acetaminophen (paracetamol, N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) acetamide) is one of the most commonly prescribed drugs for the management of pain in children. Quantification of acetaminophen in pre-term and term neonates and small children requires the availability of highly sensitive assays in small volume blood samples. We developed and validated an LC-MS/MS assay for the quantification of acetaminophen in human plasma, cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) and dried blood spots (DBS). Reconstitution in water (DBS only) and addition of a protein precipitation solution containing the deuterated internal standard were the only manual steps. Extracted samples were analyzed on a Kinetex 2.6 μm PFP column using an acetonitrile/formic acid gradient. The analytes were detected in the positive multiple reaction mode. Alternatively, DBS were automatically processed using direct desorption in a sample card and preparation (SCAP) robotic autosampler in combination with online extraction. The range of reliable response in plasma and CSF was 3.05-20,000 ng/ml (r(2)>0.99) and 27.4-20,000 ng/ml (r(2)>0.99) for DBS (manual extraction and automated direct desorption). Inter-day accuracy was always within 85-115% and inter-day precision for plasma, CSF and manually extracted DBS were less than 15%. Deming regression analysis comparing 167 matching pairs of plasma and DBS samples showed a correlation coefficient of 0.98. Bland Altman analysis indicated a 26.6% positive bias in DBS, most likely reflecting the blood: plasma distribution ratio of acetaminophen. DBS are a valid matrix for acetaminophen pharmacokinetic studies.

Age-dependent Changes in Sirolimus Metabolite Formation in Patients with Neurofibromatosis Type 1

Therapeutic Drug Monitoring. Jun, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25162215

Sirolimus is an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin, which exhibits large interindividual pharmacokinetic variability. We report sirolimus pharmacokinetic data collected as part of a concentration-controlled multicenter phase II clinical trial in pediatric patients with neurofibromatosis type 1. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of growth on age-dependent changes in sirolimus clearance with a focus on cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) subfamily mediated metabolism.

Long-term Cross-validation of Everolimus Therapeutic Drug Monitoring Assays: the Zortracker Study

Therapeutic Drug Monitoring. Jun, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 25970506

This ongoing academic collaboration was initiated for providing support to set up, validate, and maintain everolimus therapeutic drug monitoring assays and to study long-term interlaboratory performance.

Memory-updating Abrogates Extinction of Learned Immunosuppression

Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. Sep, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26386321

When memories are recalled, they enter a transient labile phase in which they can be impaired or enhanced followed by a new stabilization process termed reconsolidation. It is unknown, however, whether reconsolidation is restricted to neurocognitive processes such as fear memories or can be extended to peripheral physiological functions as well. Here, we show in a paradigm of behaviorally conditioned taste aversion in rats memory-updating in learned immunosuppression. The administration of sub-therapeutic doses of the immunosuppressant cyclosporin A together with the conditioned stimulus (CS/saccharin) during retrieval blocked extinction of conditioned taste aversion and learned suppression of T cell cytokine (interleukin-2; interferon-γ) production. This conditioned immunosuppression is of clinical relevance since it significantly prolonged the survival time of heterotopically transplanted heart allografts in rats. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that memories can be updated on both neural and behavioral levels as well as on the level of peripheral physiological systems such as immune functioning.

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