Articles by Brahim El Mathari in JoVE
Using Adeno-associated Virus as a Tool to Study Retinal Barriers in Disease Ophélie Vacca1,2,3, Brahim El Mathari1,2,3, Marie Darche1,2,3, José-Alain Sahel1,2,3, Alvaro Rendon1,2,3, Deniz Dalkara1,2,3 1Department of Therapeutics, Institut de la Vision, Sorbonne Universtés, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR_S 968, 2INSERM, U968, 3CNRS, UMR_7210 To investigate the blood-retinal barrier permeability and the inner limiting membrane integrity in animal models of retinal disease, we used several adeno-associated virus (AAV) variants as tools to label retinal neurons and glia. Virus mediated reporter gene expression is then used as an indicator of retinal barrier permeability.
Other articles by Brahim El Mathari on PubMed
Functional Implication of Dp71 in Osmoregulation and Vascular Permeability of the Retina PloS One. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19809515 Functional alterations of Müller cells, the principal glia of the retina, are an early hallmark of most retina diseases and contribute to their further progression. The molecular mechanisms of these reactive Müller cell alterations, resulting in disturbed retinal homeostasis, remain largely unknown. Here we show that experimental detachment of mouse retina induces mislocation of the inwardly rectifying potassium channels (Kir4.1) and a downregulation of the water channel protein (AQP4) in Müller cells. These alterations are associated with a strong decrease of Dp71, a cytoskeleton protein responsible for the localization and the clustering of Kir4.1 and AQP4. Partial (in detached retinas) or total depletion of Dp71 in Müller cells (in Dp71-null mice) impairs the capability of volume regulation of Müller cells under osmotic stress. The abnormal swelling of Müller cells In Dp71-null mice involves the action of inflammatory mediators. Moreover, we investigated whether the alterations in Müller cells of Dp71-null mice may interfere with their regulatory effect on the blood-retina barrier. In the absence of Dp71, the retinal vascular permeability was increased as compared to the controls. Our results reveal that Dp71 is crucially implicated in the maintenance of potassium homeostasis, in transmembraneous water transport, and in the Müller cell-mediated regulation of retinal vascular permeability. Furthermore, our data provide novel insights into the mechanisms of retinal homeostasis provided by Müller cells under normal and pathological conditions.
In Vivo Observation of the Locomotion of Microglial Cells in the Retina Glia. Nov, 2010 | Pubmed ID: 20578032 Microglial cells (MCs) are active sensors and reactive phagocytes of neural tissues. They are known to migrate and accumulate in areas of neuronal damage. Thus, microglial locomotion is an essential feature of the inflammatory reaction in neural tissue. Yet, to our knowledge there has been no report of direct in vivo observation of the migration of MCs. Here, we show that intravitreally injected cyanine dyes (DiO, DiI, and indocyanine green) are sequestrated in MCs during several months, and subsequently in vivo images of these fluorescent MCs can be obtained by confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. This enabled noninvasive, time-lapse observation of the migrating behavior of MCs, both in the basal state and following laser damage. In the basal state, a slow, intermittent, random-like locomotion was observed. Following focal laser damage, MCs promptly (i.e., within 1 h) initiated centripetal, convergent migration. MCs up to 400 μm away migrated into the scar at velocities up to 7 μm/min. This early phase of centripetal migration was followed by a more prolonged phase of nontargeted locomotion around and within injured sites during at least 24 h. Cyanine-positive cells persisted within the scar during several weeks. To our knowledge, this is the first in vivo observation of the locomotion of individual MCs. Our results show that the locomotion of MCs is not limited to translocation to acutely damaged area, but may also be observed in the basal state and after completion of the recruitment of MCs into scars.