In JoVE (1)
Articles by Brittany E. Campbell in JoVE
A Method for Evaluating Insecticide Efficacy against Bed Bug, Cimex lectularius, Eggs and First Instars Brittany E. Campbell1, Dini M. Miller2 1Department of Entomology and Nematology, University of Florida, 2Department of Entomology, Virginia Tech Insecticide evaluations are often targeted against adult insects, rather than immature stages. Here, we present a protocol for evaluating insecticides against bed bug eggs with a comparison to the first nymphal bed bug stage. These protocols could be adjusted for other insects to evaluate insecticide efficacy in non-adult life stages.
Other articles by Brittany E. Campbell on PubMed
Insecticide Resistance in Eggs and First Instars of the Bed Bug, Cimex Lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) Insects. Jan, 2015 | Pubmed ID: 26463070 Two strains of the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., eggs and first instars collected from pyrethroid-resistant adults were evaluated for insecticide resistance and compared to a susceptible strain. Dose-response bioassays were conducted using two insecticide formulations (Temprid: imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin, and Transport: acetamiprid/ bifenthrin). The lethal concentration (LC50) for the two resistant egg strains exposed to imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin ranged from 3 to 5-fold higher than susceptible strain eggs. Resistant strain eggs dipped into formulations of acetamiprid/bifenthrin had LC50 values which were significantly greater (39 to 1,080-fold) than susceptible strain eggs. Similar to eggs, resistant strain first instars exposed to residual applications of imidacloprid/β-cyfluthrin had LC50 values ranging from 121 to 493-fold greater than susceptible strain first instars. When resistant strain first instars were treated with acetamiprid/bifenthrin, they had LC50 values that were 99 to >1,900-fold greater than susceptible strain first instars. To determine differences between egg and first instar resistance, stage resistance ratios (SRR) were compared between the two stages. There was little difference between the egg and first instar stages, indicated by small SRR values ranging from 1.1 to 10.0. This study suggests that insecticide resistance is expressed early during bed bug development.
Prevalence of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in the General Population: A Systematic Review Sleep Medicine Reviews. Jul, 2016 | Pubmed ID: 27568340 With this systematic review we aimed to determine the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in adults in the general population and how it varied between population sub-groups. Twenty-four studies out of 3807 found by systematically searching PubMed and Embase databases were included in this review. Substantial methodological heterogeneity in population prevalence studies has caused a wide variation in the reported prevalence, which, in general, is high. At ≥5 events/h apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), the overall population prevalence ranged from 9% to 38% and was higher in men. It increased with increasing age and, in some elderly groups, was as high as 90% in men and 78% in women. At ≥15 events/h AHI, the prevalence in the general adult population ranged from 6% to 17%, being as high as 49% in the advanced ages. OSA prevalence was also greater in obese men and women. This systematic review of the overall body of evidence confirms that advancing age, male sex, and higher body-mass index increase OSA prevalence. The need to a) consider OSA as having a continuum in the general population and b) generate consensus on methodology and diagnostic threshold to define OSA so that the prevalence of OSA can be validly compared across regions and countries, and within age-/sex-specific subgroups, is highlighted.