In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (5)

Articles by Carlo Malabanan in JoVE

 JoVE Medicine

Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic Clamps in Conscious, Unrestrained Mice

1Diabetes and Obesity Research Center, Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute at Lake Nona, 2Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 3Vanderbilt Mouse Metabolic Phenotyping Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 4Department of Pediatrics and Cellular and Integrative Physiology, Indiana University School of Medicine


JoVE 3188

Other articles by Carlo Malabanan on PubMed

Contrasting Effects of Exercise and NOS Inhibition on Tissue-specific Fatty Acid and Glucose Uptake in Mice

American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism. Jul, 2002  |  Pubmed ID: 12067851

Isotopic techniques were used to test the hypothesis that exercise and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition have distinct effects on tissue-specific fatty acid and glucose uptakes in a conscious, chronically catheterized mouse model. Uptakes were measured using the radioactive tracers (125)I-labeled beta-methyl-p-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) and deoxy-[2-(3)H]glucose (DG) during treadmill exercise with and without inhibition of NOS. [(125)I]BMIPP uptake at rest differed substantially among tissues with the highest levels in heart. With exercise, [(125)I]BMIPP uptake increased in both heart and skeletal muscles. In sedentary mice, NOS inhibition induced by nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) feeding increased heart and soleus [(125)I]BMIPP uptake. In contrast, exercise, but not L-NAME feeding, resulted in increased heart and skeletal muscle [2-(3)H]DG uptake. Significant interactions were not observed in the effects of combined exercise and L-NAME feeding on [(125)I]BMIPP and [2-(3)H]DG uptakes. In the conscious mouse, exercise and NOS inhibition produce distinct patterns of tissue-specific fatty acid and glucose uptake; NOS is not required for important components of exercise-associated metabolic signaling, or other mechanisms compensate for the absence of this regulatory mechanism.

Hexokinase II Partial Knockout Impairs Exercise-stimulated Glucose Uptake in Oxidative Muscles of Mice

American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism. Nov, 2003  |  Pubmed ID: 12865258

Muscle glucose uptake (MGU) is distributively controlled by three serial steps: delivery of glucose to the muscle membrane, transport across the muscle membrane, and intracellular phosphorylation to glucose 6-phosphate by hexokinase (HK). During states of high glucose fluxes such as moderate exercise, the HK activity is of increased importance, since augmented muscle perfusion increases glucose delivery, and increased GLUT4 at the cell membrane increases glucose transport. Because HK II overexpression augments exercise-stimulated MGU, it was hypothesized that a reduction in HK II activity would impair exercise-stimulated MGU and that the magnitude of this impairment would be greatest in tissues with the largest glucose requirement. To this end, mice with a HK II partial knockout (HK+/-) were compared with their wild-type control (WT) littermates during either sedentary or moderate exercise periods. Rg, an index of glucose metabolism, was measured using 2-deoxy-[3H]glucose. No differences in glucose metabolism were detected between sedentary groups. The increase in Rg due to exercise was impaired in the highly oxidative heart and soleus muscles of HK+/- compared with WT mice (7 +/- 10 vs. 29 +/- 9 and 8 +/- 3 vs. 25 +/- 7 micromol. 100 g-1. min-1, respectively). However, the increase in Rg due to exercise was not altered in gastrocnemius and superficial vastus lateralis muscles in HK+/- and WT mice (8 +/- 2 vs. 12 +/- 3 and 5 +/- 2 vs. 8 +/- 2 micromol. 100 g-1. min-1, respectively). In conclusion, MGU is impaired by reductions in HK activity during exercise, a physiological condition characterized by high glucose flux. This impairment is critically dependent on the tissue's glucose metabolic rate and correlates with tissue oxidative capacity.

Hexokinase II Overexpression Improves Exercise-stimulated but Not Insulin-stimulated Muscle Glucose Uptake in High-fat-fed C57BL/6J Mice

Diabetes. Feb, 2004  |  Pubmed ID: 14747279

The aim of the present study was to determine the specific sites of impairment to muscle glucose uptake (MGU) in the insulin-resistant high-fat-fed, conscious C57BL/6J mouse. Wild type (WT) and hexokinase II overexpressing (HK(Tg)) mice were fed either a standard diet or high-fat diet and studied at 4 months of age. A carotid artery and jugular veins had catheters chronically implanted for sampling and infusions, respectively, and mice were allowed to recovery for at least 5 days. Mice were fasted for 5 h and underwent a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp or saline infusion for 120 min. Separate groups of mice were studied during 30-min sedentary or treadmill exercise periods. A bolus of 2-deoxy[(3)H]glucose was administered 25 min before the end of each study for determination of R(g), an index of tissue-specific glucose uptake. Fasting blood glucose was increased in high-fat compared with standard diet-fed WT (194 +/- 4 vs. 171 +/- 4 mg/dl) but not HK(Tg) (179 +/- 5 vs. 171 +/- 3 mg/dl) mice. High-fat feeding created hyperinsulinemia in both WT and HK(Tg) mice (58 +/- 8 and 77 +/- 15 micro U/ml) compared with standard diet-fed mice (21 +/- 2 and 20 +/- 1 micro U/ml). R(g) was not affected by genotype or diet during either saline infusion or sedentary conditions. HK II overexpression augmented insulin-stimulated R(g) in standard diet-fed but not high-fat-fed mice. Exercise-stimulated R(g) was impaired by high-fat feeding in WT mice, but this impairment was largely rectified in HK(Tg) mice. In conclusion, high-fat feeding impairs both insulin- and exercise-stimulated MGU, but only exercise-stimulated MGU was corrected by HK II overexpression.

Distributed Control of Glucose Uptake by Working Muscles of Conscious Mice: Roles of Transport and Phosphorylation

American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism. Jan, 2004  |  Pubmed ID: 13129858

Muscle glucose uptake (MGU) is determined by glucose delivery, transport, and phosphorylation. C57Bl/6J mice overexpressing GLUT4, hexokinase II (HK II), or both were used to determine the barriers to MGU. A carotid artery and jugular vein were catheterized for arterial blood sampling and venous infusions. Experiments were conducted in conscious mice approximately 7 days after surgery. 2-Deoxy-[3H]glucose was administered during rest or treadmill exercise to calculate glucose concentration-dependent (Rg) and -independent (Kg) indexes of MGU. Compared with wild-type controls, GLUT4-overexpressing mice had lowered fasting glycemia (165 +/- 6 vs. 115 +/- 6 mg/dl) and increased Rg by 230 and 166% in the gastrocnemius and superficial vastus lateralis (SVL) muscles under sedentary conditions. GLUT4 overexpression was not able to augment exercise-stimulated Rg or Kg. Whereas HK II overexpression had no effect on fasting glycemia (170 +/- 6 mg/dl) or sedentary Rg, it increased exercise-stimulated Rg by 82, 60, and 169% in soleus, gastrocnemius, and SVL muscles, respectively. Combined GLUT4 and HK II overexpression lowered fasting glycemia (106 +/- 6 mg/dl), increased nonesterified fatty acids, and increased sedentary Rg. Combined GLUT4 and HK II overexpression did not enhance exercise-stimulated Rg compared with HK II-overexpressing mice because of the reduced glucose concentration. GLUT4 combined with HK II overexpression resulted in a marked increase in exercise-stimulated Kg. In conclusion, control of MGU shifts from membrane transport at rest to phosphorylation during exercise. Glucose transport is not normally a significant barrier during exercise. However, when the phosphorylation barrier is lowered by HK II overexpression, glucose transport becomes a key site of control for regulating MGU during exercise.

Impact of Portal Glucose Delivery on Glucose Metabolism in Conscious, Unrestrained Mice

American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism. Dec, 2006  |  Pubmed ID: 16822956

Previous studies in mice suggest that portal venous infusion of glucose at a low rate paradoxically causes hypoglycemia; this does not occur in dogs, rats, and humans. A possible explanation is that fasting status in the mouse studies may have altered the response. We sought to determine whether the response to portal glucose delivery in the mouse was similar to that seen in other species and whether it was dependent on fasting status. Studies were performed on chronically catheterized conscious mice. Catheters were placed into the portal and jugular veins and carotid artery 5 days before study. After a 5- or 16-h fast, glucose was infused into either the portal (PO) or the jugular vein (JU) for 6 h at 25 microg.g(-1).min(-1). [3-(3)H]glucose was infused into the JU to measure glucose turnover. In 5-h-fasted mice, PO and JU exhibited similar increases in arterial blood glucose from 155 +/- 11 to 173 +/- 19 and 147 +/- 8 to 173 +/- 10 mg/dl, respectively. Endogenous glucose production decreased and arterial insulin increased to the same extent in both PO and JU. A similar response was observed in 16-h-fasted mice; however, the proportion of hepatic glycogen synthesis occurring by the indirect pathway was increased by fasting. In summary, portal glucose delivery in the mouse did not cause hypoglycemia even when the duration of the fast was extended. The explanation of the differing response from previous reports in the mouse is unclear.

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