In JoVE (1)
Other Publications (12)
- Molecular Medicine (Cambridge, Mass.)
- American Journal of Human Genetics
- Human Mutation
- Journal of Clinical Neuroscience : Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
- Neuromuscular Disorders : NMD
- JAMA Neurology
- Journal of Molecular Neuroscience : MN
- Molecular Therapy : the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
- Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
- Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
Articles by Carlo Rinaldi in JoVE
Systemische Lieferung von MicroRNA mit rekombinanten Adeno-assoziierten Virus Serotyp 9 zur Behandlung von neuromuskulärer Erkrankungen bei Nagern Naemeh Pourshafie1, Philip R. Lee2, Ke-lian Chen1, George G. Harmison1, Laura C. Bott1,3, Kenneth H. Fischbeck1, Carlo Rinaldi1,4 1Neurogenetics Branch, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, 2Section on Nervous System Development and Plasticity, The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, 3Department of Molecular Biosciences, Rice Institute for Biomedical Research, Northwestern University, 4Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford Hier beschreiben wir die Lieferung von MicroRNA verwenden ein rekombinantes Adeno-assoziierten Virus Serotyp 9 in einem Mausmodell der neuromuskulären Erkrankungen. Eine einzelne periphere Verabreichung bei Mäusen führte zu nachhaltigen MiRNA Überexpression in Muskel und motorischen Neuronen, bietet eine Möglichkeit, MiRNA Lernfunktion und therapeutische Potenzial in Vivo.
Other articles by Carlo Rinaldi on PubMed
Insulinlike Growth Factor (IGF)-1 Administration Ameliorates Disease Manifestations in a Mouse Model of Spinal and Bulbar Muscular Atrophy Molecular Medicine (Cambridge, Mass.). Dec, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 22952056 Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy is an X-linked motor neuron disease caused by polyglutamine expansion in the androgen receptor. Patients develop slowly progressive proximal muscle weakness, muscle atrophy and fasciculations. Affected individuals often show gynecomastia, testicular atrophy and reduced fertility as a result of mild androgen insensitivity. No effective disease-modifying therapy is currently available for this disease. Our recent studies have demonstrated that insulinlike growth factor (IGF)-1 reduces the mutant androgen receptor toxicity through activation of Akt in vitro, and spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy transgenic mice that also overexpress a noncirculating muscle isoform of IGF-1 have a less severe phenotype. Here we sought to establish the efficacy of daily intraperitoneal injections of mecasermin rinfabate, recombinant human IGF-1 and IGF-1 binding protein 3, in a transgenic mouse model expressing the mutant androgen receptor with an expanded 97 glutamine tract. The study was done in a controlled, randomized, blinded fashion, and, to reflect the clinical settings, the injections were started after the onset of disease manifestations. The treatment resulted in increased Akt phosphorylation and reduced mutant androgen receptor aggregation in muscle. In comparison to vehicle-treated controls, IGF-1-treated transgenic mice showed improved motor performance, attenuated weight loss and increased survival. Our results suggest that peripheral tissue can be targeted to improve the spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy phenotype and indicate that IGF-1 warrants further investigation in clinical trials as a potential treatment for this disease.
Cowchock Syndrome is Associated with a Mutation in Apoptosis-inducing Factor American Journal of Human Genetics. Dec, 2012 | Pubmed ID: 23217327 Cowchock syndrome (CMTX4) is a slowly progressive X-linked recessive disorder with axonal neuropathy, deafness, and cognitive impairment. The disease locus was previously mapped to an 11 cM region at chromosome X: q24-q26. Exome sequencing of an affected individual from the originally described family identified a missense change c.1478A>T (p.Glu493Val) in AIFM1, the gene encoding apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) mitochondrion-associated 1. The change is at a highly conserved residue and cosegregated with the phenotype in the family. AIF is an FAD-dependent NADH oxidase that is imported into mitochondria. With apoptotic insults, a N-terminal transmembrane linker is cleaved off, producing a soluble fragment that is released into the cytosol and then transported into the nucleus, where it triggers caspase-independent apoptosis. Another AIFM1 mutation that predicts p.Arg201del has recently been associated with severe mitochondrial encephalomyopathy in two infants by impairing oxidative phosphorylation. The c.1478A>T (p.Glu493Val) mutation found in the family reported here alters the redox properties of the AIF protein and results in increased cell death via apoptosis, without affecting the activity of the respiratory chain complexes. Our findings expand the spectrum of AIF-related disease and provide insight into the effects of AIFM1 mutations.
Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia Type 43 (SPG43) is Caused by Mutation in C19orf12 Human Mutation. Oct, 2013 | Pubmed ID: 23857908 We report here the genetic basis for a form of progressive hereditary spastic paraplegia (SPG43) previously described in two Malian sisters. Exome sequencing revealed a homozygous missense variant (c.187G>C; p.Ala63Pro) in C19orf12, a gene recently implicated in neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA). The same mutation was subsequently also found in a Brazilian family with features of NBIA, and we identified another NBIA patient with a three-nucleotide deletion (c.197_199del; p.Gly66del). Haplotype analysis revealed that the p.Ala63Pro mutations have a common origin, but MRI scans showed no brain iron deposition in the Malian SPG43 subjects. Heterologous expression of these SPG43 and NBIA variants resulted in similar alterations in the subcellular distribution of C19orf12. The SPG43 and NBIA variants reported here as well as the most common C19orf12 missense mutation reported in NBIA patients are found within a highly conserved, extended hydrophobic domain in C19orf12, underscoring the functional importance of this domain.
Muscle Matters in Kennedy's Disease Neuron. Apr, 2014 | Pubmed ID: 24742452 Polyglutamine expansion in the androgen receptor causes Kennedy's disease. Two recent reports, Cortes et al. (2014) in this issue of Neuron and Lieberman et al. (2014) in Cell Reports, raise the possibility that targeting expression of the mutant protein in skeletal muscle, instead of the nervous system, may mitigate manifestations of this disorder.
Ataxia with Oculomotor Apraxia Type 2 Fibroblasts Exhibit Increased Susceptibility to Oxidative DNA Damage Journal of Clinical Neuroscience : Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia. Sep, 2014 | Pubmed ID: 24814856 Ataxia with oculomotor apraxia type 2 (AOA2) is an autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia associated with mutations in SETX, which encodes the senataxin protein, a DNA/RNA helicase. We describe the clinical phenotype and molecular characterization of a Colombian AOA2 patient who is compound heterozygous for a c.994 C>T (p.R332W) missense mutation in exon 7 and a c.6848_6851delCAGA (p.T2283KfsX32) frameshift deletion in SETX exon 21. Immunocytochemistry of patient-derived fibroblasts revealed a normal cellular distribution of the senataxin protein, suggesting that these mutations do not lead to loss or mis-localization of the protein, but rather that aberrant function of senataxin underlies the disease pathogenesis. Furthermore, we used the alkaline comet assay to demonstrate that patient-derived fibroblast cells exhibit an increased susceptibility to oxidative DNA damage. This assay provides a novel and additional means to establish pathogenicity of SETX mutations.
Early Onset and Novel Features in a Spinal and Bulbar Muscular Atrophy Patient with a 68 CAG Repeat Neuromuscular Disorders : NMD. Nov, 2014 | Pubmed ID: 25047668 Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is an X-linked neuromuscular disease caused by a trinucleotide (CAG) repeat expansion in the androgen receptor gene. Patients with SBMA have weakness, atrophy, and fasciculations in the bulbar and extremity muscles. Individuals with CAG repeat lengths greater than 62 have not previously been reported. We evaluated a 29year old SBMA patient with 68 CAGs who had unusually early onset and findings not seen in others with the disease. Analysis of the androgen receptor gene confirmed the repeat length of 68 CAGs in both peripheral blood and fibroblasts. Evaluation of muscle and sensory function showed deficits typical of SBMA, and in addition the patient had manifestations of autonomic dysfunction and abnormal sexual development. These findings extend the known phenotype associated with SBMA and shed new insight into the effects of the mutated androgen receptor.
Mutation in CPT1C Associated With Pure Autosomal Dominant Spastic Paraplegia JAMA Neurology. May, 2015 | Pubmed ID: 25751282 The family of genes implicated in hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) is quickly expanding, mostly owing to the widespread availability of next-generation DNA sequencing methods. Nevertheless, a genetic diagnosis remains unavailable for many patients.
Targeted Molecular Therapies for SBMA Journal of Molecular Neuroscience : MN. Mar, 2016 | Pubmed ID: 26576772 Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a late-onset neuromuscular disease caused by a polyglutamine expansion in the androgen receptor gene which results in progressive spinal and bulbar motor neuron degeneration, and muscle atrophy. Although the causative genetic defect is known, until recently, the molecular pathogenesis of the disease was unclear, resulting in few, if any, targets for therapy development. However, over the past decade, our understanding of the pathomechanisms that play a role in SBMA has increased dramatically, and several of these pathways and mechanisms have now been investigated as possible therapeutic targets. In this review, we discuss some of the key pathomechanisms implicated in SBMA and describe some of the therapeutic strategies that have been tested in SBMA to date, which fall into four main categories: (i) gene silencing; (ii) protein quality control and/or increased protein degradation; (iii) androgen deprivation; and (iv) modulation of AR function. Finally, it is also now clear that in addition to a greater understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie disease, the development of an effective disease modifying therapy for SBMA will require the coordinated, collaborative effort of research teams with diverse areas of expertise, clinicians, pharmaceutical companies as well as patient groups.
MiR-298 Counteracts Mutant Androgen Receptor Toxicity in Spinal and Bulbar Muscular Atrophy Molecular Therapy : the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy. 05, 2016 | Pubmed ID: 26755334 Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a currently untreatable adult-onset neuromuscular disease caused by expansion of a polyglutamine repeat in the androgen receptor (AR). In SBMA, as in other polyglutamine diseases, a toxic gain of function in the mutant protein is an important factor in the disease mechanism; therefore, reducing the mutant protein holds promise as an effective treatment strategy. In this work, we evaluated a microRNA (miRNA) to reduce AR expression. From a list of predicted miRNAs that target human AR, we selected microRNA-298 (miR-298) for its ability to downregulate AR mRNA and protein levels when transfected in cells overexpressing wild-type and mutant AR and in SBMA patient-derived fibroblasts. We showed that miR-298 directly binds to the 3'-untranslated region of the human AR transcript, and counteracts AR toxicity in vitro. Intravenous delivery of miR-298 with adeno-associated virus serotype 9 vector resulted in efficient transduction of muscle and spinal cord and amelioration of the disease phenotype in SBMA mice. Our findings support the development of miRNAs as a therapeutic strategy for SBMA and other neurodegenerative disorders caused by toxic proteins.
From Gene to Therapy in Spinal and Bulbar Muscular Atrophy: Are We There Yet? Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. Apr, 2018 | Pubmed ID: 28688959 Abnormal polyglutamine expansions in the androgen receptor (AR) cause a muscular condition, known as Kennedy's disease or spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA). The disease is transmitted in an X-linked fashion and is clinically characterized by weakness, atrophy and fasciculations of the limb and bulbar muscles as a result of a toxic gain-of-function of the mutant protein. Notably, affected males also show signs of androgen insensitivity, such as gynaecomastia and reduced fertility. The characterization of the natural history of the disease, the increasing understanding of the mechanism of pathogenesis and the elucidation of the functions of normal and mutant AR have offered a momentum for developing a rational therapeutic strategy for this disease. In this special issue on androgens and AR functions, we will review the molecular, biochemical, and cellular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of SBMA. We will discuss recent advances on therapeutic approaches and opportunities for this yet incurable disease, ranging from androgen deprivation, to gene silencing, to an expanding repertoire of peripheral targets, including muscle. With the advancement of these strategies into the clinic, it can be reasonably anticipated that the landscape of treatment options for SBMA and other neuromuscular conditions will change rapidly in the near future.
Beyond Motor Neurons: Expanding the Clinical Spectrum in Kennedy's Disease Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry. Aug, 2018 | Pubmed ID: 29353237 Kennedy's disease, or spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA), is an X-linked neuromuscular condition clinically characterised by weakness, atrophy and fasciculations of the limb and bulbar muscles, as a result of lower motor neuron degeneration. The disease is caused by an abnormally expanded triplet repeat expansions in the ubiquitously expressed androgen receptor gene, through mechanisms which are not entirely elucidated. Over the years studies from both humans and animal models have highlighted the involvement of cell populations other than motor neurons in SBMA, widening the disease phenotype. The most compelling aspect of these findings is their potential for therapeutic impact: muscle, for example, which is primarily affected in the disease, has been recently shown to represent a valid alternative target for therapy to motor neurons. In this review, we discuss the emerging study of the extra-motor neuron involvement in SBMA, which, besides increasingly pointing towards a multidisciplinary approach for affected patients, deepens our understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms and holds potential for providing new therapeutic targets for this disease.