In JoVE (1)
Articles by Cedric Lion in JoVE
Other articles by Cedric Lion on PubMed
Improved Workflow for the Efficient Preparation of Ready to Use CMP-activated Sialic Acids Glycobiology. | Pubmed ID: 27543325 Natural and synthetically modified cytidine monophosphate activated sialic acids (CMP-Sias) are essential research assets in the field of glycobiology: among other applications, they can be used to probe glycans, detect sialylation defects at the cell surface or carry out detailed studies of sialyltransferase activities. However, these chemical tools are notoriously unstable because of hydrolytic decomposition, and are very time-consuming and costly to obtain. They are nigh impossible to store with satisfactory purity, and their preparation requires multiple laborious purification steps that usually lead to heavy product loss. Using in situ time-resolved 31P phosphorus nuclear magnetic resonance (31P NMR), we precisely established the kinetics of formation and degradation of a number of CMP-Sias including CMP-Neu5Ac, CMP-Neu5Gc, CMP-SiaNAl and CMP-SiaNAz in several experimental conditions. 31P NMR can be carried out in undeuterated solvents and is a sensitive and nondestructive technique that allows for direct in situ monitoring and optimization of chemo-enzymatic syntheses that involve phosphorus-containing species. Thus, we showed that CMP-sialic acid derivatives can be robustly obtained in high yields using the readily available Neisseria meningitidis CMP-sialic acid synthase. This integrated workflow takes less than an hour, and the freshly prepared CMP-Sias can be directly transferred to sialylation biological assays without any purification step.
BLISS: A Bioorthogonal Dual-Labeling Strategy to Unravel Lignification Dynamics in Plants Cell Chemical Biology. | Pubmed ID: 28262560 A better in vivo understanding of lignin formation within plant cell walls will contribute to improving the valorization of plant-derived biomass. Although bioorthogonal chemistry provides a promising platform to study the lignification process, methodologies that simultaneously detect multiple chemical reporters in living organisms are still scarce. Here, we have developed an original bioorthogonal labeling imaging sequential strategy (BLISS) to visualize and analyze the incorporation of both p-hydroxyphenyl (H) and guaiacyl (G) units into lignin in vivo with a combination of strain-promoted and copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloadditions. On our path to BLISS, we designed a new azide-tagged monolignol reporter for H units in metabolic lignin engineering and used it in conjunction with an alkyne-tagged G unit surrogate to study lignification dynamics in flax. Here, we show that BLISS provides precise spatial information on the zones of active lignification and reveals polarization in single-cell lignification dynamics.
Probing the CMP-Sialic Acid Donor Specificity of Two Human β-d-Galactoside Sialyltransferases (ST3Gal I and ST6Gal I) Selectively Acting on O- and N-Glycosylproteins Chembiochem : a European Journal of Chemical Biology. | Pubmed ID: 28395125 Sialylation of glycoproteins and glycolipids is catalyzed by sialyltransferases in the Golgi of mammalian cells, whereby sialic acid residues are added at the nonreducing ends of oligosaccharides. Because sialylated glycans play critical roles in a number of human physio-pathological processes, the past two decades have witnessed the development of modified sialic acid derivatives for a better understanding of sialic acid biology and for the development of new therapeutic targets. However, nothing is known about how individual mammalian sialyltransferases tolerate and behave towards these unnatural CMP-sialic acid donors. In this study, we devised several approaches to investigate the donor specificity of the human β-d-galactoside sialyltransferases ST6Gal I and ST3Gal I by using two CMP-sialic acids: CMP-Neu5Ac, and CMP-Neu5N-(4pentynoyl)neuraminic acid (CMP-SiaNAl), an unnatural CMP-sialic acid donor with an extended and functionalized N-acyl moiety.
BLISS: Shining a Light on Lignification in Plants Plant Signaling & Behavior. | Pubmed ID: 28786751 Lignin is a polyphenolic polymer of the plant cell wall formed by the oxidative polymerization of 3 main monomers called monolignols that give rise to the lignin H-, G- and S-units. Together with cellulose and hemicelluloses, lignin is a major component of plant biomass that is widely exploited by humans in numerous industrial processes. Despite recent advances in our understanding of monolignol biosynthesis, our current understanding of the spatio-temporal regulation of their transport and polymerization is more limited. In a recent publication, we have reported the development of an original Bioorthogonal Labeling Imaging Sequential Strategy (BLISS) that allows us to visualize the simultaneous incorporation dynamics of H and G monolignol reporters into lignifying cell walls of the flax stem. 11 Here, we extend the application of this strategy to other plant organs such as roots and rapidly discuss some of the contributions and perspectives of this new technique for improving our understanding of the lignification process in plants.