Articles by Celine Heinl in JoVE
In Vivo SiRNA transfecção e Gene Knockdown em Spinal Cord via rápida não invasiva lombar intratecal Injeções em Ratos Christian Njoo1, Celine Heinl1, Rohini Kuner1 1Institute for Pharmacology, University of Heidelberg Este relatório descreve uma técnica simples e rápida de punção intratecal para a transfecção localizada de siRNA na medula espinhal lombar em rato sob anestesia luz de curta duração.
Other articles by Celine Heinl on PubMed
Distinct Mechanisms Underlying Pronociceptive Effects of Opioids The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience. Nov, 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22090501 In addition to analgesia, opioids may also produce paradoxical pain amplification [opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH)] either on abrupt withdrawal or during continuous long-term application. Here, we assessed antinociceptive and pronociceptive effects of three clinically used opioids at C-fiber synapses in the rat spinal dorsal horn in vivo. During 60 min of intravenous infusions of remifentanil (450 μg·kg⁻¹·h⁻¹), fentanyl (48 μg·kg⁻¹·h⁻¹), or morphine (14 mg·kg⁻¹·h⁻¹), C-fiber-evoked field potentials were depressed and paired-pulse ratios (PPR) were increased, indicating a presynaptic inhibition by all three opioids. After withdrawal, postsynaptic responses were enhanced substantially for the remaining of the recording periods of at least 3 h. Withdrawal from remifentanil led to long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic strength in C-fibers via activation of spinal μ-opioid receptors (MORs) and spinal NMDA receptors (NMDARs). Fentanyl and morphine caused an enhancement of synaptic transmission at C-fibers, which involved two distinct mechanisms: (1) an opioid withdrawal LTP that also required activation of spinal MORs and NMDARs and that was associated with a decrease in PPR suggestive of a presynaptic mechanism of its expression, and (2) an immediate-onset, descending facilitation of C-fiber-evoked field potentials during and after intravenous infusion of fentanyl and morphine. Immediate-onset, descending facilitation was mediated by the activation of extraspinal MORs, descending serotonergic pathways, and spinal 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 receptors (5-HT₃Rs). Our study identified fundamentally different pronociceptive effects of clinically used opioids and suggests that OIH can be prevented by the combined use of NMDAR and 5-HT₃R antagonists.