In JoVE (2)
Other Publications (11)
- The Journal of Biological Chemistry
- Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985)
- EMBO Molecular Medicine
- PloS One
- Cell Communication and Signaling : CCS
- Toxicology in Vitro : an International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
- Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
- Molecules (Basel, Switzerland)
- Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology : Organ of the Society for Minerals and Trace Elements (GMS)
- Scientific Reports
Articles by Christian Martin in JoVE
Long Term Intravital Multiphoton Microscopy Imaging of Immune Cells in Healthy and Diseased Liver Using CXCR6.Gfp Reporter Mice Felix Heymann*1, Patricia M. Niemietz*1, Julia Peusquens1, Can Ergen1, Marlene Kohlhepp1, Jana C. Mossanen1, Carlo Schneider1, Michael Vogt2, Rene H. Tolba3, Christian Trautwein1, Christian Martin4, Frank Tacke1 1Department of Medicine III, RWTH University-Hospital Aachen, 2IZKF Aachen Core Facility "Two-Photon Imaging", RWTH University-Hospital Aachen, 3Institute for Laboratory Animal Science & Experimental Surgery, RWTH Aachen University, 4Institute for Pharmacology, RWTH University-Hospital Aachen Stable intravital high-resolution imaging of immune cells in the liver is challenging. Here we provide a highly sensitive and reliable method to study migration and cell-cell-interactions of immune cells in mouse liver over long periods (about 6 hours) by intravital multiphoton laser scanning microscopy in combination with intensive care monitoring.
Assessment of the Cytotoxic and Immunomodulatory Effects of Substances in Human Precision-cut Lung Slices Vanessa Neuhaus*1, Olga Danov*1, Sebastian Konzok1, Helena Obernolte1, Susann Dehmel1, Peter Braubach2, Danny Jonigk2, Hans-Gerd Fieguth3, Patrick Zardo4, Gregor Warnecke4, Christian Martin5, Armin Braun1,6, Katherina Sewald1 1Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine (ITEM), German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Biomedical Research in Endstage and Obstructive Lung Disease Hannover (BREATH), Member of REBIRTH Cluster of Excellence, 2Institute for Pathology, Hannover Medical School, German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Biomedical Research in Endstage and Obstructive Lung Disease Hannover (BREATH), 3Division of Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Klinikum Region Hannover (KRH), 4Department of Cardiothoracic, Transplantation and Vascular Surgery (HTTG), Hannover Medical School, German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Biomedical Research in Endstage and Obstructive Lung Disease Hannover (BREATH), 5Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, RWTH Aachen University, 6Institute for Immunology, Hannover Medical School In view of the 3Rs principle, respiratory models as alternatives to animal studies are evolving. Especially for risk assessment of respiratory substances, there is a lack of appropriate assays. Here, we describe the use of human precision-cut lung slices for the assessment of airborne substances.
Other articles by Christian Martin on PubMed
A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17) Mediates Inflammation-induced Shedding of Syndecan-1 and -4 by Lung Epithelial Cells The Journal of Biological Chemistry. | Pubmed ID: 19875451 Syndecans are cell surface proteoglycans that bind and modulate various proinflammatory mediators and can be proteolytically shed from the cell surface. Within the lung, syndecan-1 and -4 are expressed as transmembrane proteins on epithelial cells and released in the bronchoalveolar fluid during inflammation. We here characterize the mechanism leading to the generation of soluble syndecan-1 and -4 in cultured epithelial cells and murine lung tissue. We show that the bladder carcinoma epithelial cell line ECV304, the lung epithelial cell line A459 and primary alveolar epithelial cells express and constitutively release syndecan-1 and -4. This release involves the activity of the disintegrin-like metalloproteinase ADAM17 as demonstrated by use of specific inhibitors and lentivirally transduced shRNA. Stimulation of epithelial cells with PMA, thrombin, or proinflammatory cytokines (TNFalpha/IFNgamma) led to the down-regulation of surface-expressed syndecan-1 and -4, which was associated with a significant increase of soluble syndecans and cell-associated cleavage fragments. The enhanced syndecan release was not related to gene induction of syndecans or ADAM17, but rather due to increased ADAM17 activity. Soluble syndecan-1 and -4 were also released into the bronchoalveolar fluid of mice. Treatment with TNFalpha/IFNgamma increased ADAM17 activity and syndecan release in murine lungs. Both constitutive and induced syndecan shedding was prevented by the ADAM17 inhibitor. ADAM17 may therefore be an important regulator of syndecan functions on inflamed lung epithelium.
Electric Field Stimulation of Precision-cut Lung Slices Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985). | Pubmed ID: 21109600 The precision-cut lung slice (PCLS) technique is widely used to examine airway responses in different species. We developed a method to study nerve-dependent bronchoconstriction by the application of electric field stimulation (EFS) to PCLS. PCLS prepared from Wistar rats were placed between two platinum electrodes to apply serial rectangular impulses (5-100 Hz), and bronchoconstriction was studied by videomicroscopy. The extent of airway contractions increased with higher frequencies. Stable repeated airway contractions were obtained at a frequency of 50 Hz, a width of 1 ms, and an output of 200 mA for 2.5 s each minute. Larger airways showed stronger responses. The EFS-triggered contractions were increased by the acetylcholine esterase inhibitor neostigmine (10 μM) and reversed by the muscarinic antagonist atropine (10 μM), whereas the thromboxane protanoid receptor antagonist SQ29548 (10 μM) had no effect. Magnesium ions (10 mM) antagonized airway contractions induced by EFS, but not by methacholine, indicating that nerve endings remain intact in PCLS. Our data further show that the electrically evoked airway contractions in PCLS are mediated by cholinergic nerves, independent of thromboxane and more prominent in larger airways. Taken together these findings show that nerve endings remain intact in PCLS, and they suggest that the present method is useful to study neurogenic responses in airways of different size.
Lung Endothelial ADAM17 Regulates the Acute Inflammatory Response to Lipopolysaccharide EMBO Molecular Medicine. | Pubmed ID: 22367719 Acute lung injury (ALI) is associated with increased vascular permeability, leukocyte recruitment, and pro-inflammatory mediator release. We investigated the role of the metalloproteinase ADAM17 in endotoxin-induced ALI with focus on endothelial ADAM17. In vitro, endotoxin-mediated induction of endothelial permeability and IL-8-induced transmigration of neutrophils through human microvascular endothelial cells required ADAM17 as shown by inhibition with GW280264X or shRNA-mediated knockdown. In vivo, ALI was induced by intranasal endotoxin-challenge combined with GW280264X treatment or endothelial adam17-knockout. Endotoxin-triggered upregulation of ADAM17 mRNA in the lung was abrogated in knockout mice and associated with reduced ectodomain shedding of the junctional adhesion molecule JAM-A and the transmembrane chemokine CX3CL1. Induced vascular permeability, oedema formation, release of TNF-α and IL-6 and pulmonary leukocyte recruitment were all markedly reduced by GW280264X or endothelial adam17-knockout. Intranasal application of TNF-α could not restore leukocyte recruitment and oedema formation in endothelial adam17-knockout animals. Thus, activation of endothelial ADAM17 promotes acute pulmonary inflammation in response to endotoxin by multiple endothelial shedding events most likely independently of endothelial TNF-α release leading to enhanced vascular permeability and leukocyte recruitment.
Neurally Mediated Airway Constriction in Human and Other Species: a Comparative Study Using Precision-cut Lung Slices (PCLS) PloS One. | Pubmed ID: 23056631 The peripheral airway innervation of the lower respiratory tract of mammals is not completely functionally characterized. Recently, we have shown in rats that precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) respond to electric field stimulation (EFS) and provide a useful model to study neural airway responses in distal airways. Since airway responses are known to exhibit considerable species differences, here we examined the neural responses of PCLS prepared from mice, rats, guinea pigs, sheep, marmosets and humans. Peripheral neurons were activated either by EFS or by capsaicin. Bronchoconstriction in response to identical EFS conditions varied between species in magnitude. Frequency response curves did reveal further species-dependent differences of nerve activation in PCLS. Atropine antagonized the EFS-induced bronchoconstriction in human, guinea pig, sheep, rat and marmoset PCLS, showing cholinergic responses. Capsaicin (10 µM) caused bronchoconstriction in human (4 from 7) and guinea pig lungs only, indicating excitatory non-adrenergic non-cholinergic responses (eNANC). However, this effect was notably smaller in human responder (30 ± 7.1%) than in guinea pig (79 ± 5.1%) PCLS. The transient receptor potential (TRP) channel blockers SKF96365 and ruthenium red antagonized airway contractions after exposure to EFS or capsaicin in guinea pigs. In conclusion, the different species show distinct patterns of nerve-mediated bronchoconstriction. In the most common experimental animals, i.e. in mice and rats, these responses differ considerably from those in humans. On the other hand, guinea pig and marmoset monkey mimic human responses well and may thus serve as clinically relevant models to study neural airway responses.
The 1,4-benzodiazepine Ro5-4864 (4-chlorodiazepam) Suppresses Multiple Pro-inflammatory Mast Cell Effector Functions Cell Communication and Signaling : CCS. | Pubmed ID: 23425659 Activation of mast cells (MCs) can be achieved by the high-affinity receptor for IgE (FcεRI) as well as by additional receptors such as the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) receptor and the receptor tyrosine kinase Kit (stem cell factor [SCF] receptor). Thus, pharmacological interventions which stabilize MCs in response to different receptors would be preferable in diseases with pathological systemic MC activation such as systemic mastocytosis. 1,4-Benzodiazepines (BDZs) have been reported to suppress MC effector functions. In the present study, our aim was to analyze molecularly the effects of BDZs on MC activation by comparison of the effects of the two BDZs Ro5-4864 and clonazepam, which markedly differ in their affinities for the archetypical BDZ recognition sites, i.e., the GABAA receptor and TSPO (previously termed peripheral-type BDZ receptor). Ro5-4864 is a selective agonist at TSPO, whereas clonazepam is a selective agonist at the GABAA receptor. Ro5-4864 suppressed pro-inflammatory MC effector functions in response to antigen (Ag) (degranulation/cytokine production) and LPS and SCF (cytokine production), whereas clonazepam was inactive. Signaling pathway analyses revealed inhibitory effects of Ro5-4864 on Ag-triggered production of reactive oxygen species, calcium mobilization and activation of different downstream kinases. The initial activation of Src family kinases was attenuated by Ro5-4864 offering a molecular explanation for the observed impacts on various downstream signaling elements. In conclusion, BDZs structurally related to Ro5-4864 might serve as multifunctional MC stabilizers without the sedative effect of GABAA receptor-interacting BDZs.
Leukocytes Require ADAM10 but Not ADAM17 for Their Migration and Inflammatory Recruitment into the Alveolar Space Blood. | Pubmed ID: 24833351 Inflammation is a key process in various diseases, characterized by leukocyte recruitment to the inflammatory site. This study investigates the role of a disintegrin and a metalloproteinase (ADAM) 10 and ADAM17 for leukocyte migration in vitro and in a murine model of acute pulmonary inflammation. Inhibition experiments or RNA knockdown indicated that monocytic THP-1 cells and primary human neutrophils require ADAM10 but not ADAM17 for efficient chemokine-induced cell migration. Signaling and adhesion events that are linked to cell migration such as p38 and ρ GTPase-family activation, F-actin polymerization, adhesion to fibronectin, and up-regulation of α5 integrin were also dependent on ADAM10 but not ADAM17. This was confirmed with leukocytes isolated from mice lacking either ADAM10 or ADAM17 in all hematopoietic cells (vav 1 guanine nucleotide exchange factor [Vav]-Adam10(-/-) or Vav-Adam17(-/-) mice). In lipopolysaccharide-induced acute pulmonary inflammation, alveolar recruitment of neutrophils and monocytes was transiently increased in Vav-Adam17(-/-) but steadily reduced in Vav-Adam10(-/-) mice. This deficit in alveolar leukocyte recruitment was also observed in LysM-Adam10(-/-) mice lacking ADAM10 in myeloid cells and correlated with protection against edema formation. Thus, with regard to leukocyte migration, leukocyte-expressed ADAM10 but not ADAM17 displays proinflammatory activities and may therefore serve as a target to limit inflammatory cell recruitment.
Prevalidation of the Ex-vivo Model PCLS for Prediction of Respiratory Toxicity Toxicology in Vitro : an International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA. | Pubmed ID: 26778741 In acute inhalation toxicity studies, animals inhale substances at given concentrations. Without additional information, however, appropriate starting concentrations for in-vivo inhalation studies are difficult to estimate. The goal of this project was the prevalidation of precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) as an ex-vivo alternative to reduce the number of animals used in inhalation toxicity studies. According to internationally agreed principles for Prevalidation Studies, the project was conducted in three independent laboratories. The German BfR provided consultancy in validation principles and independent support with biostatistics. In all laboratories, rat PCLS were prepared and exposed to 5 concentrations of 20 industrial chemicals under submerged culture conditions for 1h. After 23 h post-incubation, toxicity was assessed by measurement of released lactate dehydrogenase and mitochondrial activity. In addition, protein content and pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1α were measured. For all endpoints IC50 values were calculated if feasible. For each endpoint test acceptance criteria were established. This report provides the final results for all 20 chemicals. More than 900 concentration-response curves were analyzed. Log10[IC50 (μM)], obtained for all assay endpoints, showed best intra- and inter-laboratory consistency for the data obtained by WST-1 and BCA assays. While WST-1 and LDH indicated toxic effects for the majority of substances, only some of the substances induced an increase in extracellular IL-1α. Two prediction models (two-group classification model, prediction of LC50 by IC50) were developed and showed promising results.
Experimental Characterization and Model Identification of the Nonlinear Compressible Material Behavior of Lung Parenchyma Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials. | Pubmed ID: 28822739 The mechanical properties of lung parenchyma are essential both in lung function and biology; consequently, experimental methods are developed to describe the mechanical behavior of lung parenchyma. During breathing and mechanical ventilation, volume change is the physiologically dominating deformation mode of lung parenchyma; nevertheless, most studies examine lung tissue in mainly isochoric tension tests. In this paper, a novel experimental method for the quantification of the compressible material behavior at high volume changes of viable lung parenchyma is proposed. This volume-pressure-change experiment quantifies the pressure and corresponding volume change of lung parenchyma slices. For the characterization of the compressible constitutive properties over the whole physiological pressure range, we combine this newly derived experiment with uniaxial tension tests. The experimental results of both the volume-pressure-change experiments, for which 287 samples were examined, and the uniaxial tension tests, which were performed on 36 specimens, are presented. The resulting measurements are utilized to optimize the material parameters of one suitable hyperelastic strain-energy function describing the nonlinear compressible material behavior of viable lung parenchyma. The derived constitutive model can be used for simulations of lung parenchyma, and will help to quantify the strains and stresses of lung tissue during normal breathing and mechanical ventilation.
Diallylthiosulfinate (Allicin), a Volatile Antimicrobial from Garlic (Allium Sativum), Kills Human Lung Pathogenic Bacteria, Including MDR Strains, As a Vapor Molecules (Basel, Switzerland). | Pubmed ID: 29023413 Garlic () has potent antimicrobial activity due to allicin (diallylthiosulfinate) synthesized by enzyme catalysis in damaged garlic tissues. Allicin gives crushed garlic its characteristic odor and its volatility makes it potentially useful for combating lung infections. Allicin was synthesized (>98% pure) by oxidation of diallyl disulfide by H₂O₂ using formic acid as a catalyst and the growth inhibitory effect of allicin vapor and allicin in solution to clinical isolates of lung pathogenic bacteria from the genera , , and , including multi-drug resistant (MDR) strains, was demonstrated. Minimal inhibitory (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) were determined and compared to clinical antibiotics using standard European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) procedures. The cytotoxicity of allicin to human lung and colon epithelial and murine fibroblast cells was tested in vitro and shown to be ameliorated by glutathione (GSH). Similarly, the sensitivity of rat precision-cut lung slices (PCLS) to allicin was decreased by raising the [GSH] to the approximate blood plasma level of 1 mM. Because allicin inhibited bacterial growth as a vapor, it could be used to combat bacterial lung infections via direct inhalation. Since there are no volatile antibiotics available to treat pulmonary infections, allicin, particularly at sublethal doses in combination with oral antibiotics, could make a valuable addition to currently available treatments.
The Effects of Zinc- and Copper-containing Welding Fumes on Murine, Rat and Human Precision-cut Lung Slices Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology : Organ of the Society for Minerals and Trace Elements (GMS). | Pubmed ID: 29551464 Recently, the pro-inflammatory effects of metal inert gas brazing welding fumes containing zinc and copper have been demonstrated in humans. Here, murine, rat and human precision cut lung slices (PCLS) were incubated in welding fume containing media with 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 μg/ml for 24 or 48 h. 24 h incubation were determined either by incubation for the total time or for only 6 h followed by a 18 h post-incubation phase. Cytotoxicity, proliferation and DNA repair rates, and cytokine levels were determined. Welding fume particle concentrations of 0.1 and 1 μg/ml showed no toxic effects on PCLS of all three species, while for 10 and 100 μg/ml a concentration-dependent toxicity occurred. Proliferation and DNA repair rates were reduced for all tested concentrations and incubation times. Additionally, the cytokine levels in the supernatants were markedly reduced, while after 6 h of exposure with 18 h of post-incubation time a trend towards increased cytokine levels occurred. PCLS are a reliable and feasible method to assess and offer a prediction of toxic effects of welding fume particles on human lungs. Rat PCLS showed similar responses compared to human PCLS and are suitable for further evaluation of toxic effects exerted by welding fume particles.
The Effects of Hydroxyethyl Starch and Gelatine on Pulmonary Cytokine Production and Oedema Formation Scientific Reports. | Pubmed ID: 29572534 Recently, side effects of plasma expanders like hydroxyethyl starch and gelatine gained considerable attention. Most studies have focused on the kidneys; lungs remain unconsidered. Isolated mouse lungs were perfused for 4 hours with buffer solutions based on hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 130/0.4, HES 200/0.5 or gelatine and ventilated with low or high pressure under physiological pH and alkalosis. Outcome parameters were cytokine levels and the wet-to-dry ratio. For cytokine release, murine and human PCLS were incubated in three different buffers and time points.In lungs perfused with the gelatine based buffer IL-6, MIP-2 and KC increased when ventilated with high pressure. Wet-to-dry ratios increased stronger in lungs perfused with gelatine - compared to HES 130/0.4. Alkalotic perfusion resulted in higher cytokine levels but normal wet-to-dry ratio. Murine PCLS supernatants showed increased IL-6 and KC when incubated in gelatine based buffer, whereas in human PCLS IL-8 was elevated. In murine IPL HES 130/0.4 has lung protective effects in comparison to gelatine based infusion solutions, especially in the presence of high-pressure ventilation. Gelatine perfusion resulted in increased cytokine production. Our findings suggest that gelatine based solutions may have side effects in patients with lung injury or lung oedema.