Articles by Christopher Acquafondata in JoVE
Other articles by Christopher Acquafondata on PubMed
The Real Deal: Using Cytochalasin B in Sonodynamic Therapy to Preferentially Damage Leukemia Cells Anticancer Research. May, 2014 | Pubmed ID: 24778021 Sonodynamic therapy (SDT) is a form of ultrasound therapy in which chemotherapeutic agents known as sonosensitizers are administered to increase the efficacy of ultrasound's preferential damage to neoplastic cells. Perhaps one of the most intriguing capabilities of ultrasound is its ability to preferentially lyse cells based on size. Cytochalasin B is a cytokinesis inhibitor that preferentially enlarges and multinucleates malignant cells, making them much more sensitive to ultrasonic irradiation.
Chemotherapy in Vivo Against M109 Murine Lung Carcinoma with Cytochalasin B by Localized, Systemic, and Liposomal Administration Investigational New Drugs. Apr, 2015 | Pubmed ID: 25560541 Cytochalasin B is a potentially novel microfilament-directed chemotherapeutic agent that prevents actin polymerization, thereby inhibiting cytokinesis. Although cytochalasin B has been extensively studied in vitro, only limited data are available to assess its in vivo potential. Cytochalasin B was administered to Balb/c mice challenged i.d. with M109 murine lung carcinoma to determine whether the agent could affect an established i.d. tumor when the compound is administered s.c. in the region of the i.d. tumor, but not in direct contact with it. Cytochalasin B was also administered either i.p. or s.c. at a distant site or i.v. to determine whether it could affect the long-term development of an established i.d. tumor. Cytochalasin B was then liposome encapsulated to determine whether the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of the compound could be increased, while reducing immunosuppression that we have previously characterized. Liposomal cytochalasin B was also administered to mice challenged i.d. with M109 lung carcinoma to assess its chemotherapeutic efficacy. The results can be summarized as follows: 1) cytochalasin B substantially delayed the growth of i.d. M109 tumor nodules, inhibited metastatic progression in surrounding tissues, and produced long-term cures in treated mice; 2) liposomal cytochalasin B increased the i.p. MTD by more than 3-fold, produced a different distribution in tissue concentrations, and displayed antitumor effects against M109 lung carcinoma similar to non-encapsulated cytochalasin B. These data show that cytochalasin B exploits unique chemotherapeutic mechanisms and is an effective antineoplastic agent in vivo in pre-clinical models, either in bolus form or after liposome encapsulation.
Chemotherapy with Cytochalasin Congeners in Vitro and in Vivo Against Murine Models Investigational New Drugs. Apr, 2015 | Pubmed ID: 25563824 Background Despite inherent differences between the cytoskeletal networks of malignant and normal cells, and the clinical antineoplastic activity of microtubule-directed agents, there has yet to be a microfilament-directed agent approved for clinical use. One of the most studied microfilament-directed agents has been cytochalasin B, a mycogenic toxin known to disrupt the formation of actin polymers. Therefore, this study sought to expand on our previous work with the microfilament-directed agent, along with other less studied cytochalasin congeners. Materials and Methods We determined whether cytochalasin B exerted significant cytotoxic effects in vitro on adherent M109 lung carcinoma and B16BL6 and B16F10 murine melanomas, or on suspension P388/ADR murine leukemia cells. We also examined whether cytochalasin B, its reduced congener 21, 22-dihydrocytochalasin B (DiHCB), or cytochalasin D could synergize with doxorubicin (ADR) against ADR-resistant P388/ADR leukemia cells, and produce significant cytotoxicity in vitro. For in vivo characterization, cytochalasins B and D were administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) to Balb/c mice challenged with drug sensitive P388-S or multidrug resistant P388/ADR leukemias. Results Cytochalasin B demonstrated higher cytotoxicity against adherent lung carcinoma and melanoma cells than against suspension P388/ADR leukemia cells, as assessed by comparative effects on cell growth, and IC₅₀ and IC₈₀ values. Isobolographic analysis indicated that both cytochalasin B and DiHCB demonstrate considerable drug synergy with ADR against ADR-resistant P388/ADR leukemia, while cytochalasin D exhibits only additivity with ADR against the same cell line. In vivo, cytochalasins B and D substantially increased the life expectancy of mice challenged with P388/S and P388/ADR leukemias, and in some cases, produced long-term survival. Conclusion Taken together, it appears that cytochalasins have unique antineoplastic activity that could potentiate a novel class of chemotherapeutic agents.