Articles by Danielle L. Kopke in JoVE
FM Dye Cycling at the Synapse: Comparing High Potassium Depolarization, Electrical and Channelrhodopsin Stimulation Danielle L. Kopke1, Kendal Broadie2 1Department of Biological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, 2Departments of Biological Sciences, Pharmacology, Cell and Developmental Biology, Kennedy Center for Research on Human Development, Vanderbilt University and Medical Center Synaptic vesicle (SV) cycling is the core mechanism of intercellular communication at neuronal synapses. FM dye uptake and release are the primary means of quantitatively assaying SV endo- and exocytosis. Here, we compare all the stimulation methods to drive FM1-43 cycling at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ) model synapse.
Other articles by Danielle L. Kopke on PubMed
Coordinated Movement, Neuromuscular Synaptogenesis and Trans-synaptic Signaling Defects in Drosophila Galactosemia Models Human Molecular Genetics. | Pubmed ID: 27466186 The multiple galactosemia disease states manifest long-term neurological symptoms. Galactosemia I results from loss of galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT), which converts galactose-1-phosphate + UDP-glucose to glucose-1-phosphate + UDP-galactose. Galactosemia II results from loss of galactokinase (GALK), phosphorylating galactose to galactose-1-phosphate. Galactosemia III results from the loss of UDP-galactose 4'-epimerase (GALE), which interconverts UDP-galactose and UDP-glucose, as well as UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine. UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGP) alternatively makes UDP-galactose from uridine triphosphate and galactose-1-phosphate. All four UDP-sugars are essential donors for glycoprotein biosynthesis with critical roles at the developing neuromuscular synapse. Drosophila galactosemia I (dGALT) and II (dGALK) disease models genetically interact; manifesting deficits in coordinated movement, neuromuscular junction (NMJ) development, synaptic glycosylation, and Wnt trans-synaptic signalling. Similarly, dGALE and dUGP mutants display striking locomotor and NMJ formation defects, including expanded synaptic arbours, glycosylation losses, and differential changes in Wnt trans-synaptic signalling. In combination with dGALT loss, both dGALE and dUGP mutants compromise the synaptomatrix glycan environment that regulates Wnt trans-synaptic signalling that drives 1) presynaptic Futsch/MAP1b microtubule dynamics and 2) postsynaptic Frizzled nuclear import (FNI). Taken together, these findings indicate UDP-sugar balance is a key modifier of neurological outcomes in all three interacting galactosemia disease models, suggest that Futsch homolog MAP1B and the Wnt Frizzled receptor may be disease-relevant targets in epimerase and transferase galactosemias, and identify UGP as promising new potential therapeutic target for galactosemia neuropathology.
Notum Coordinates Synapse Development Via Extracellular Regulation of Wingless Trans-synaptic Signaling Development (Cambridge, England). | Pubmed ID: 28860114 Synaptogenesis requires orchestrated communication between pre- and postsynaptic cells via coordinated trans-synaptic signaling across the extracellular synaptomatrix. The first Wnt signaling ligand discovered, Wingless (Wg; Wnt1 in mammals), plays crucial roles in synaptic development, regulating synapse architecture as well as functional differentiation. Here, we investigate synaptogenic functions of the secreted extracellular deacylase Notum, which restricts Wg signaling by cleaving an essential palmitoleate moiety. At the glutamatergic neuromuscular junction (NMJ) synapse, we find that Notum secreted from the postsynaptic muscle acts to strongly modulate synapse growth, structural architecture, ultrastructural development and functional differentiation. In null flies, we find upregulated extracellular Wg ligand and nuclear trans-synaptic signal transduction, as well as downstream misregulation of both pre- and postsynaptic molecular assembly. Structural, functional and molecular synaptogenic defects are all phenocopied by Wg overexpression, suggesting that Notum acts solely by inhibiting Wg trans-synaptic signaling. Moreover, these synaptic development phenotypes are suppressed by genetically correcting Wg levels in null mutants, indicating that Notum normally functions to coordinate synaptic structural and functional differentiation via negative regulation of Wg trans-synaptic signaling in the extracellular synaptomatrix.