Articles by Dario Sacco in JoVE
Other articles by Dario Sacco on PubMed
Prediction of the Dry-milling Performance Of maize Hybrids Through Hardness-associated Properties Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. Apr, 2013 | Pubmed ID: 23139165 The hardness of kernels determines the dry-milling processing performance of maize hybrids. The identification of the best maize hybrids for the dry-milling process requires a limited number of simple, practical and reliable tests that are able to predict the potential grit yield.
Assessing Agro-environmental Performance of Dairy Farms in Northwest Italy Based on Aggregated Results from Indicators Journal of Environmental Management. Jul, 2014 | Pubmed ID: 24747935 Dairy farms control an important share of the agricultural area of Northern Italy. Zero grazing, large maize-cropped areas, high stocking densities, and high milk production make them intensive and prone to impact the environment. Currently, few published studies have proposed indicator sets able to describe the entire dairy farm system and their internal components. This work had four aims: i) to propose a list of agro-environmental indicators to assess dairy farms; ii) to understand which indicators classify farms best; iii) to evaluate the dairy farms based on the proposed indicator list; iv) to link farmer decisions to the consequent environmental pressures. Forty agro-environmental indicators selected for this study are described. Northern Italy dairy systems were analysed considering both farmer decision indicators (farm management) and the resulting pressure indicators that demonstrate environmental stress on the entire farming system, and its components: cropping system, livestock system, and milk production. The correlations among single indicators identified redundant indicators. Principal Components Analysis distinguished which indicators provided meaningful information about each pressure indicator group. Analysis of the communalities and the correlations among indicators identified those that best represented farm variability: Farm Gate N Balance, Greenhouse Gas Emission, and Net Energy of the farm system; Net Energy and Gross P Balance of the cropping system component; Energy Use Efficiency and Purchased Feed N Input of the livestock system component; N Eco-Efficiency of the milk production component. Farm evaluation, based on the complete list of selected indicators demonstrated organic farming resulted in uniformly high values, while farms with low milk-producing herds resulted in uniformly low values. Yet on other farms, the environmental quality varied greatly when different groups of pressure indicators were considered, which highlighted the importance of expanding environmental analysis to effects within the farm. Statistical analysis demonstrated positive correlations between all farmer decision and pressure group indicators. Consumption of mineral fertiliser and pesticide negatively influenced the cropping system. Furthermore, stocking rate was found to correlate positively with the milk production component and negatively with the farm system. This study provides baseline references for ex ante policy evaluation, and monitoring tools for analysis both in itinere and ex post environment policy implementation.
Transmission of Grapevine Virus A and Grapevine Leafroll-associated Virus 1 and 3 by Heliococcus Bohemicus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) Nymphs From Plants With Mixed Infections Journal of Economic Entomology. 08, 2016 | Pubmed ID: 27329628 Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) represent a serious threat for viticulture as vectors of phloem-restricted viruses associated with the grapevine rugose wood and leafroll diseases. Heliococcus bohemicus (Šulc) is known to be involved in the spread of these two viral diseases, being a vector of the Grapevine virus A (GVA) and the Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 1 and 3 (GLRaV-1 and GLRaV-3). This study investigated the acquisition and transmission efficiency of H. bohemicus fed on mixed-infected plants. Nymphs were field-collected onto GVA, GLRaV-1, and GLRaV-3 multiple-infected grapevines in two vineyards in North-Western Italy, and were used in transmission experiments under controlled conditions. Even if most of the collected nymphs were positive to at least one virus, transmission occurred only to a low number of test grapevines. The transmission frequency of GLRaV-3 was the highest, whereas GVA was transmitted to few test plants. The transmission of multiple viruses occurred at low rates, and nymphs that acquired all the three viruses then failed to transmit them together. Statistical analyses showed that the three viruses were independently acquired and transmitted by H. bohemicus and neither synergistic nor antagonistic interactions occurred among them. GVA and GLRaVs transmission efficiencies by H. bohemicus were lower than those reported for other mealybug vectors. This finding is consistent with the slow spread of leafroll and rugose wood diseases observed in Northern Italy, where H. bohemicus is the predominant vector species.
Acquisition of Flavescence Dorée Phytoplasma by Scaphoideus Titanus Ball from Different Grapevine Varieties International Journal of Molecular Sciences. Sep, 2016 | Pubmed ID: 27649162 Flavescence dorée (FD) is a threat for wine production in the vineyard landscape of Piemonte, Langhe-Roero and Monferrato, Italy. Spread of the disease is dependent on complex interactions between insect, plant and phytoplasma. In the Piemonte region, wine production is based on local cultivars. The role of six local grapevine varieties as a source of inoculum for the vector Scaphoideus titanus was investigated. FD phytoplasma (FDP) load was compared among red and white varieties with different susceptibility to FD. Laboratory-reared healthy S. titanus nymphs were caged for acquisition on infected plants to measure phytoplasma acquisition efficiency following feeding on different cultivars. FDP load for Arneis was significantly lower than for other varieties. Acquisition efficiency depended on grapevine variety and on FDP load in the source plants, and there was a positive interaction for acquisition between variety and phytoplasma load. S. titanus acquired FDP with high efficiency from the most susceptible varieties, suggesting that disease diffusion correlates more with vector acquisition efficiency than with FDP load in source grapevines. In conclusion, although acquisition efficiency depends on grapevine variety and on FDP load in the plant, even varieties supporting low FDP multiplication can be highly susceptible and good sources for vector infection, while poorly susceptible varieties may host high phytoplasma loads.