Articles by Darren Wong in JoVE
سير عمل شامل للتعرف على نطاق الجينوم والتحليل التلوي التعبير الأسرة الجينات ATL E3 Ubiquitin ليجاسى في الكرمة Pietro Ariani*1, Elodie Vandelle*1, Darren Wong2, Alejandro Giorgetti1, Andrea Porceddu3, Salvatore Camiolo3, Annalisa Polverari1 1Dipartimento di Biotecnologie, Università degli Studi di Verona, 2Ecology and Evolution, Research School of Biology, The Australian National University, 3Dipartimento di Agraria, SACEG, Università degli Studi di Sassari توضح هذه المقالة الإجراء لتحديد وتوصيف لأسرة جين في الكرمة ينطبق على الأسرة من نبات Tóxicos في ليفدورا (ATL) E3 أوبيكويتين ليجاسيس.
Other articles by Darren Wong on PubMed
Complex Sexual Deception in an Orchid Is Achieved by Co-opting Two Independent Biosynthetic Pathways for Pollinator Attraction Current Biology : CB. | Pubmed ID: 28625782 Sexually deceptive orchids lure their specific male pollinators using volatile semiochemicals that mimic female sex pheromones. To date, the semiochemicals known to be involved consist of blends of chemically and biosynthetically related compounds. In contrast, we report that (S)-β-citronellol and 2-hydroxy-6-methylacetophenone, two biosynthetically distinct compounds, are the active semiochemicals in Caladenia plicata, which is pollinated by male Zeleboria sp. thynnine wasps. They are also sex pheromone components of the female Zeleboria. A 1:4 blend elicits a high rate of attempted copulation (∼70%) in bioassays, equivalent to rates observed at orchid flowers. Whereas β-citronellol is well known, 2-hydroxy-6-methylacetophenone appears to be previously unknown as a floral volatile. Production of the two compounds is restricted to glandular sepal tips; thus, differential expression analysis of contrasting floral tissue transcriptomes was employed to illuminate the biosynthesis. As expected, production of (S)-β-citronellol commences with the terpene synthase GES1 catalyzing the irreversible conversion of geranyl diphosphate (GPP) to geraniol. Contrary to prediction, biosynthesis subsequently proceeds in three steps, commencing with the oxidation of geraniol to geranial by alcohol dehydrogenase ADH3, followed by the enantioselective reduction of a double bond in geranial by geranial reductase GER1 to give (S)-β-citronellal. Finally, ADH3-catalyzed reduction of (S)-β-citronellal results in (S)-β-citronellol. In line with previous work on insects showing that 2-hydroxy-6-methylacetophenone is derived from a polyketide pathway, we report a differentially expressed polyketide synthase (PKS) gene candidate. Thus, in this unique example of sexual deception, pollination is achieved by co-opting and regulating two independent biosynthetic pathways of floral volatile compounds. VIDEO ABSTRACT.
Tissue-Specific Floral Transcriptome Analysis of the Sexually Deceptive Orchid Chiloglottis Trapeziformis Provides Insights into the Biosynthesis and Regulation of Its Unique UV-B Dependent Floral Volatile, Chiloglottone 1 Frontiers in Plant Science. | Pubmed ID: 28769963 The Australian sexually deceptive orchid, Chiloglottis trapeziformis, employs a unique UV-B-dependent floral volatile, chiloglottone 1, for specific male wasp pollinator attraction. Chiloglottone 1 and related variants (2,5-dialkylcyclohexane-1,3-diones), represent a unique class of specialized metabolites presumed to be the product of cyclization between two fatty acid (FA) precursors. However, the genes involved in the biosynthesis of precursors, intermediates, and transcriptional regulation remains to be discovered. Chiloglottone 1 production occurs in the aggregation of calli (callus) on the labellum under continuous UV-B light. Therefore, deep sequencing, transcriptome assembly, and differential expression (DE) analysis were performed across different tissue types and UV-B treatments. Transcripts expressed in the callus and labellum (∼23,000 transcripts) were highly specialized and enriched for a diversity of known and novel metabolic pathways. DE analysis between chiloglottone-emitting callus versus the remainder of the labellum showed strong coordinated induction of entire FA biosynthesis and β-oxidation pathways including genes encoding Ketoacyl-ACP Synthase, Acyl-CoA Oxidase, and Multifunctional Protein. Phylogenetic analysis revealed potential gene duplicates with tissue-specific differential regulation including two Acyl-ACP Thioesterase B and a Ketoacyl-ACP Synthase genes. UV-B treatment induced the activation of UVR8-mediated signaling and large-scale transcriptome changes in both tissues, however, neither FA biosynthesis/β-oxidation nor other lipid metabolic pathways showed clear indications of concerted DE. Gene co-expression network analysis identified three callus-specific modules enriched with various lipid metabolism categories. These networks also highlight promising candidates involved in the cyclization of chiloglottone 1 intermediates (e.g., Bet v I and dimeric α,β barrel proteins) and orchestrating regulation of precursor pathways (e.g., AP2/ERF) given a strong co-regulation with FA biosynthesis/β-oxidation genes. Possible alternative biosynthetic routes for precursors (e.g., aldehyde dehydrogenases) were also indicated. Our comprehensive study constitutes the first step toward understanding the biosynthetic pathways involved in chiloglottone 1 production in Chiloglottis trapeziformis - supporting the roles of FA metabolism in planta, gene duplication as a potential source of new genes, and co-regulation of novel pathway genes in a tissue-specific manner. This study also provides a new and valuable resource for future discovery and comparative studies in plant specialized metabolism of other orchids and non-model plants.
The Biosynthesis of Unusual Floral Volatiles and Blends Involved in Orchid Pollination by Deception: Current Progress and Future Prospects Frontiers in Plant Science. | Pubmed ID: 29181016 Flowers have evolved diverse strategies to attract animal pollinators, with visual and olfactory floral cues often crucial for pollinator attraction. While most plants provide reward (e.g., nectar, pollen) in return for the service of pollination, 1000s of plant species, particularly in the orchid family, offer no apparent reward. Instead, they exploit their often specific pollinators (one or few) by mimicking signals of female insects, food source, and oviposition sites, among others. A full understanding of how these deceptive pollination strategies evolve and persist remains an open question. Nonetheless, there is growing evidence that unique blends that often contain unusual compounds in floral volatile constituents are often employed to secure pollination by deception. Thus, the ability of plants to rapidly evolve new pathways for synthesizing floral volatiles may hold the key to the widespread evolution of deceptive pollination. Yet, until now the biosynthesis of these volatile compounds has been largely neglected. While elucidating the biosynthesis in non-model systems is challenging, nonetheless, these cases may also offer untapped potential for biosynthetic breakthroughs given that some of the compounds can be exclusive or dominant components of the floral scent and production is often tissue-specific. In this perspective article, we first highlight the chemical diversity underpinning some of the more widespread deceptive orchid pollination strategies. Next, we explore the potential metabolic pathways and biosynthetic steps that might be involved. Finally, we offer recommendations to accelerate the discovery of the biochemical pathways in these challenging but intriguing systems.