In JoVE (1)

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Articles by David H. Wasserman in JoVE

 JoVE Medicine

Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic Clamps in Conscious, Unrestrained Mice

1Diabetes and Obesity Research Center, Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute at Lake Nona, 2Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 3Vanderbilt Mouse Metabolic Phenotyping Center, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, 4Department of Pediatrics and Cellular and Integrative Physiology, Indiana University School of Medicine


JoVE 3188

Other articles by David H. Wasserman on PubMed

Prior Exercise and the Response to Insulin-induced Hypoglycemia in the Dog

American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism. May, 2002  |  Pubmed ID: 11934679

To test whether hepatic insulin action and the response to an insulin-induced decrement in blood glucose are enhanced in the immediate postexercise state as they are during exercise, dogs had sampling (artery, portal vein, and hepatic vein) catheters and flow probes (portal vein and hepatic artery) implanted 16 days before a study. After 150 min of moderate treadmill exercise or rest, dogs were studied during a 150-min hyperinsulinemic (1 mU.kg(-1).min(-1)) euglycemic (n = 5 exercised and n = 9 sedentary) or hypoglycemic (65 mg/dl; n = 8 exercised and n = 9 sedentary) clamp. Net hepatic glucose output (NHGO) and endogenous glucose appearance (R(a)) and utilization (R(d)) were assessed with arteriovenous and isotopic ([3-(3)H]glucose) methods. Results show that, immediately after prolonged, moderate exercise, in relation to sedentary controls: 1) the glucose infusion rate required to maintain euglycemia, but not hypoglycemia, was higher; 2) R(d) was greater under euglycemic, but not hypoglycemic conditions; 3) NHGO, but not R(a), was suppressed more by a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp, suggesting that hepatic glucose uptake was increased; 4) a decrement in glucose completely reversed the enhanced suppression of NHGO by insulin that followed exercise; and 5) arterial glucagon and cortisol were transiently higher in the presence of a decrement in glucose. In summary, an increase in insulin action that was readily evident under euglycemic conditions after exercise was abolished by moderate hypoglycemia. The means by which the glucoregulatory system is able to overcome the increase in insulin action during moderate hypoglycemia is related not to an increase in R(a) but to a reduction in insulin-stimulated R(d). The primary site of this reduction is the liver.

Prevention of Overt Hypoglycemia During Exercise: Stimulation of Endogenous Glucose Production Independent of Hepatic Catecholamine Action and Changes in Pancreatic Hormone Concentration

Diabetes. May, 2002  |  Pubmed ID: 11978626

These studies were conducted to determine the magnitude and mechanism of compensation for impaired glucagon and insulin responses to exercise. For this purpose, dogs underwent surgery >16 days before experiments, at which time flow probes were implanted and silastic catheters were inserted. During experiments, glucagon and insulin were fixed at basal levels during rest and exercise using a pancreatic clamp with glucose clamped (PC/GC; n = 5), a pancreatic clamp with glucose unclamped (PC; n = 7), or a pancreatic clamp with glucose unclamped + intraportal propranolol and phentolamine hepatic alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptor blockade (PC/HAB; n = 6). Glucose production (R(a)) was measured isotopically. Plasma glucose was constant in PC/GC, but fell from basal to exercise in PC and PC/HAB. R(a) was unchanged with exercise in PC/GC, but was slightly increased during exercise in PC and PC/HAB. Despite minimal increases in epinephrine in PC/GC, epinephrine increased approximately sixfold in PC and PC/HAB during exercise. In summary, during moderate exercise, 1) the increase in R(a) is absent in PC/GC; 2) only a moderate fall in arterial glucose occurs in PC, due to a compensatory increase in R(a); and 3) the increase in R(a) is preserved in PC/HAB. In conclusion, stimulation of R(a) by a mechanism independent of pancreatic hormones and hepatic adrenergic stimulation is a primary defense against overt hypoglycemia.

Contrasting Effects of Exercise and NOS Inhibition on Tissue-specific Fatty Acid and Glucose Uptake in Mice

American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism. Jul, 2002  |  Pubmed ID: 12067851

Isotopic techniques were used to test the hypothesis that exercise and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition have distinct effects on tissue-specific fatty acid and glucose uptakes in a conscious, chronically catheterized mouse model. Uptakes were measured using the radioactive tracers (125)I-labeled beta-methyl-p-iodophenylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) and deoxy-[2-(3)H]glucose (DG) during treadmill exercise with and without inhibition of NOS. [(125)I]BMIPP uptake at rest differed substantially among tissues with the highest levels in heart. With exercise, [(125)I]BMIPP uptake increased in both heart and skeletal muscles. In sedentary mice, NOS inhibition induced by nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) feeding increased heart and soleus [(125)I]BMIPP uptake. In contrast, exercise, but not L-NAME feeding, resulted in increased heart and skeletal muscle [2-(3)H]DG uptake. Significant interactions were not observed in the effects of combined exercise and L-NAME feeding on [(125)I]BMIPP and [2-(3)H]DG uptakes. In the conscious mouse, exercise and NOS inhibition produce distinct patterns of tissue-specific fatty acid and glucose uptake; NOS is not required for important components of exercise-associated metabolic signaling, or other mechanisms compensate for the absence of this regulatory mechanism.

Transporter-mediated Absorption is the Primary Route of Entry and is Required for Passive Absorption of Intestinal Glucose into the Blood of Conscious Dogs

The Journal of Nutrition. Jul, 2002  |  Pubmed ID: 12097672

To determine the contributions of transporter-mediated and passive absorption during an intraduodenal glucose infusion in a large animal model, six mongrel dogs had sampling catheters (portal vein, femoral artery, duodenum), infusion catheters (vena cava, duodenum) and a portal vein flow probe implanted 17 d before an experiment. Protocols consisted of a basal (-30 to 0 min) and an experimental (0-90 min) period. An intraduodenal glucose infusion of 44 micromol/(kg. min) was initiated at t = 0 min. At t = 20 and 80 min, 3-O-[3H]methylglucose and L-[14C]glucose (L-Glc) were injected intraduodenally. Phloridzin, an inhibitor of the Na+/K+ ATP-dependent transporter (SGLT1), was infused from t = 60 to 90 min in the presence of a peripheral isoglycemic clamp. Net gut glucose output was 21.1 +/- 3.0 micromol/(kg. min) from t = 0 to 60 min. Transporter-mediated glucose absorption was calculated using three approaches, which involved either direct measurements or indirect estimates of duodenal glucose analog radioactivities, to account for the assumptions and difficulties inherent to duodenal sampling. Values were essentially the same regardless of calculations used because transporter-mediated absorption was 89 +/- 1%, 90 +/- 2% and 91 +/- 2% of net gut glucose output. Phloridzin-induced inhibition of transporter-mediated absorption completely abolished passive absorption of L-Glc. We conclude that in dogs, transporter-mediated glucose absorption constitutes the vast majority of glucose absorbed from the gut and is required for passive glucose absorption. The method described here is applicable to investigation of the mechanisms of gut glucose absorption under a variety of nutritional, physiologic and pathophysiologic conditions.

Fiber Type-specific Determinants of Vmax for Insulin-stimulated Muscle Glucose Uptake in Vivo

American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism. Mar, 2003  |  Pubmed ID: 12556351

The aim of this study was to determine barriers limiting muscle glucose uptake (MGU) during increased glucose flux created by raising blood glucose in the presence of fixed insulin. The determinants of the maximal velocity (V(max)) of MGU in muscles of different fiber types were defined. Conscious rats were studied during a 4 mU x kg(-1) x min(-1) insulin clamp with plasma glucose at 2.5, 5.5, and 8.5 mM. [U-(14)C]mannitol and 3-O-methyl-[(3)H]glucose ([(3)H]MG) were infused to steady-state levels (t = -180 to 0 min). These isotope infusions were continued from 0 to 40 min with the addition of a 2-deoxy-[(3)H]glucose ([(3)H]DG) infusion. Muscles were excised at t = 40 min. Glucose metabolic index (R(g)) was calculated from muscle-phosphorylated [(3)H]DG. [U-(14)C]mannitol was used to determine extracellular (EC) H(2)O. Glucose at the outer ([G](om)) and inner ([G](im)) sarcolemmal surfaces was determined by the ratio of [(3)H]MG in intracellular to EC H(2)O and muscle glucose. R(g) was comparable at the two higher glucose concentrations, suggesting that rates of uptake near V(max) were reached. In summary, by defining the relationship of arterial glucose to [G](om) and [G](im) in the presence of fixed hyperinsulinemia, it is concluded that 1) V(max) for MGU is limited by extracellular and intracellular barriers in type I fibers, as the sarcolemma is freely permeable to glucose; 2) V(max) is limited in muscles with predominantly type IIb fibers by extracellular resistance and transport resistance; and 3) limits to R(g) are determined by resistance at multiple steps and are better defined by distributed control rather than by a single rate-limiting step.

Prior Exercise Enhances Passive Absorption of Intraduodenal Glucose

Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985). Sep, 2003  |  Pubmed ID: 12740315

The purpose of this study was to assess whether a prior bout of exercise enhances passive gut glucose absorption. Mongrel dogs had sampling catheters, infusion catheters, and a portal vein flow probe implanted 17 days before an experiment. Protocols consisted of either 150 min of exercise (n = 8) or rest (n = 7) followed by basal (-30 to 0 min) and a primed (150 mg/kg) intraduodenal glucose infusion [8.0 mg x kg-1x min-1, time (t) = 0-90 min] periods. 3-O-[3H]methylglucose (absorbed actively, facilitatively, and passively) and l-[14C]glucose (absorbed passively) were injected into the duodenum at t = 20 and 80 min. Phloridzin, an inhibitor of the active sodium glucose cotransporter-1 (SGLT-1), was infused (0.1 mg x kg-1 x min-1) into the duodenum from t = 60-90 min with a peripheral venous isoglycemic clamp. Duodenal, arterial, and portal vein samples were taken every 10 min during the glucose infusion, as well as every minute after each tracer bolus injection. Net gut glucose output in exercised dogs increased compared with that in the sedentary group (5.34 +/- 0.47 and 4.02 +/- 0.53 mg x kg-1x min-1). Passive gut glucose absorption increased approximately 100% after exercise (0.93 +/- 0.06 and 0.45 +/- 0.07 mg x kg-1 x min-1). Transport-mediated glucose absorption increased by approximately 20%, but the change was not significant. The infusion of phloridzin eliminated the appearance of both glucose tracers in sedentary and exercised dogs, suggesting that passive transport required SGLT-1-mediated glucose uptake. This study shows 1). that prior exercise enhances passive absorption of intraduodenal glucose into the portal vein and 2). that basal and the added passive gut glucose absorption after exercise is dependent on initial transport of glucose via SGLT-1.

Effect of Antecedent Hypoglycemia on Counterregulatory Responses to Subsequent Euglycemic Exercise in Type 1 Diabetes

Diabetes. Jul, 2003  |  Pubmed ID: 12829644

Exercise-related hypoglycemia is common in intensively treated patients with type 1 diabetes. The underlying mechanisms are not clearly defined. In nondiabetic subjects, hypoglycemia blunts counterregulatory responses to subsequent exercise. It is unknown whether this also occurs in type 1 diabetes. Therefore, the goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that prior hypoglycemia could result in acute counterregulatory failure during subsequent exercise in type 1 diabetes. A total of 16 type 1 diabetic patients (8 men and 8 women, HbA(1c) 7.8 +/- 0.3%) were investigated during 90 min of euglycemic cycling exercise, following either two 2-h periods of previous-day hypoglycemia (2.9 mmol/l) or previous-day euglycemia. Patients' counterregulatory responses (circulating levels of counterregulatory hormones, intermediary metabolites, substrate flux via indirect calorimetry, tracer-determined glucose kinetics, and cardiovascular measurements) were comprehensively assessed during exercise. Identical euglycemia and basal insulin levels were successfully maintained during all exercise studies, regardless of blood glucose levels during the previous day. After resting euglycemia, patients displayed normal counterregulatory responses to exercise. Conversely, when identical exercise was repeated after hypoglycemia, the glucagon response to exercise was abolished, and the epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol, endogenous glucose production, and lipolytic responses were reduced by 40-80%. This resulted in a threefold increase in the amount of exogenous glucose needed to maintain euglycemia during exercise. Our results demonstrate that antecedent hypoglycemia, in type 1 diabetes, can produce acute counterregulatory failure during a subsequent episode of prolonged moderate-intensity exercise. The metabolic consequence of the blunted neuroendocrine and autonomic nervous system counterregulatory responses was an acute failure of endogenous glucose production to match the increased glucose requirements during exercise. These data indicate that counterregulatory failure may be a significant in vivo mechanism responsible for exercise-associated hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes.

Hexokinase II Partial Knockout Impairs Exercise-stimulated Glucose Uptake in Oxidative Muscles of Mice

American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism. Nov, 2003  |  Pubmed ID: 12865258

Muscle glucose uptake (MGU) is distributively controlled by three serial steps: delivery of glucose to the muscle membrane, transport across the muscle membrane, and intracellular phosphorylation to glucose 6-phosphate by hexokinase (HK). During states of high glucose fluxes such as moderate exercise, the HK activity is of increased importance, since augmented muscle perfusion increases glucose delivery, and increased GLUT4 at the cell membrane increases glucose transport. Because HK II overexpression augments exercise-stimulated MGU, it was hypothesized that a reduction in HK II activity would impair exercise-stimulated MGU and that the magnitude of this impairment would be greatest in tissues with the largest glucose requirement. To this end, mice with a HK II partial knockout (HK+/-) were compared with their wild-type control (WT) littermates during either sedentary or moderate exercise periods. Rg, an index of glucose metabolism, was measured using 2-deoxy-[3H]glucose. No differences in glucose metabolism were detected between sedentary groups. The increase in Rg due to exercise was impaired in the highly oxidative heart and soleus muscles of HK+/- compared with WT mice (7 +/- 10 vs. 29 +/- 9 and 8 +/- 3 vs. 25 +/- 7 micromol. 100 g-1. min-1, respectively). However, the increase in Rg due to exercise was not altered in gastrocnemius and superficial vastus lateralis muscles in HK+/- and WT mice (8 +/- 2 vs. 12 +/- 3 and 5 +/- 2 vs. 8 +/- 2 micromol. 100 g-1. min-1, respectively). In conclusion, MGU is impaired by reductions in HK activity during exercise, a physiological condition characterized by high glucose flux. This impairment is critically dependent on the tissue's glucose metabolic rate and correlates with tissue oxidative capacity.

Interaction of Insulin and Prior Exercise in Control of Hepatic Metabolism of a Glucose Load

Diabetes. Aug, 2003  |  Pubmed ID: 12882903

To determine if prior exercise enhances insulin-stimulated extraction of glucose by the liver, chronically catheterized dogs were submitted to 150 min of treadmill exercise or rest. After exercise or rest, dogs received portal glucose (18 micro mol x kg(-1) x min(-1)), peripheral somatostatin, and basal portal glucagon infusions from t = 0 to 150 min. A peripheral glucose infusion was used to clamp arterial blood glucose at 8.3 mmol/l. Insulin was infused into the portal vein to create either basal levels or mild hyperinsulinemia. Prior exercise did not increase whole-body glucose disposal in the presence of basal insulin (25.5 +/- 1.5 vs. 20.3 +/- 1.7 micro mol x kg(-1) x min(-1)), but resulted in a marked enhancement in the presence of elevated insulin (97.2 +/- 15.1 vs. 64.4 +/- 7.4 micro mol x kg(-1) x min(-1)). Prior exercise also increased net hepatic glucose uptake in the presence of both basal insulin (7.5 +/- 1.2 vs. 2.9 +/- 2.4 micro mol x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and elevated insulin (22.0 +/- 3.5 vs. 11.5 +/- 1.8 micro mol x kg(-1) x min(-1)). Likewise, net hepatic glucose fractional extraction was increased by prior exercise with both basal insulin (0.04 +/- 0.01 vs. 0.01 +/- 0.01 micro mol x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and elevated insulin (0.10 +/- 0.01 vs. 0.05 +/- 0.01). Hepatic glycogen synthesis was increased by elevated insulin, but was not enhanced by prior exercise. Although the increase in glucose extraction after exercise could be ascribed to increased insulin action, the increase in hepatic glycogen synthesis was independent of it.

Regulation of Hepatic and Peripheral Glucose Disposal

Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. Sep, 2003  |  Pubmed ID: 12962690

Precise regulation of hepatic and peripheral glucose uptake is essential to preserve glucose homeostasis. The liver extracts approximately 1/3 of an oral glucose load, skeletal muscle extracts approximately 1/3, and other tissues, particularly the central nervous system and the formed elements of the blood, take up the balance. The load of glucose reaching the liver, the insulin concentration, and the route of glucose delivery (the hepatic portal or a peripheral vein) are key determinants of the rate of net hepatic glucose uptake. Glucose uptake by muscle requires three steps: delivery of glucose from the blood to the muscle, transport of glucose across the muscle membrane, and phosphorylation of glucose, processes affected by glycaemia and insulinaemia. Exercise stimulates insulin-dependent and -independent muscle glucose uptake, as well as the liver's ability to take up glucose.

Quinides of Roasted Coffee Enhance Insulin Action in Conscious Rats

The Journal of Nutrition. Nov, 2003  |  Pubmed ID: 14608069

Consumption of large amounts of coffee has been shown to decrease the incidence of type 2 diabetes. However, the specific compounds and mechanisms responsible for this effect are not known. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a decaffeinated coffee extract and a synthetic quinide, representative of those found in roasted coffee, 3,4-diferuloyl-1,5-quinolactone, on insulin-stimulated glucose disposal and muscle glucose uptake. Experiments were performed on conscious rats during hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic clamps receiving gastric infusions of saline, a decaffeinated coffee extract (DECAF) (220 mg/kg), or 3,4-diferuloyl-1,5-quinide (DIFEQ) (110 mg/kg). Following treatment, rats received an intravenous bolus of deoxy-[2-3H] glucose to assess muscle glucose uptake (Rg, micromol x 100 g(-1) x min(-1)). Glucose infusions [mg/(kg x min)] required to maintain euglycemia during the tracer period were higher with DIFEQ (14.6 +/- 0.7) than with saline (10.8 +/- 0.7) and DECAF (11.5 +/- 1.1). Despite increased glucose requirements, Rg in skeletal (soleus, gastrocnemius, superficial vastus lateralis) and cardiac muscle were unchanged. DECAF or DIFEQ did not affect heart rate, blood pressure, plasma nonesterified fatty acids or liver aminotransferase activity. These results demonstrate that DIFEQ increases whole-body glucose disposal independently of skeletal muscle Rg.

Distributed Control of Glucose Uptake by Working Muscles of Conscious Mice: Roles of Transport and Phosphorylation

American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism. Jan, 2004  |  Pubmed ID: 13129858

Muscle glucose uptake (MGU) is determined by glucose delivery, transport, and phosphorylation. C57Bl/6J mice overexpressing GLUT4, hexokinase II (HK II), or both were used to determine the barriers to MGU. A carotid artery and jugular vein were catheterized for arterial blood sampling and venous infusions. Experiments were conducted in conscious mice approximately 7 days after surgery. 2-Deoxy-[3H]glucose was administered during rest or treadmill exercise to calculate glucose concentration-dependent (Rg) and -independent (Kg) indexes of MGU. Compared with wild-type controls, GLUT4-overexpressing mice had lowered fasting glycemia (165 +/- 6 vs. 115 +/- 6 mg/dl) and increased Rg by 230 and 166% in the gastrocnemius and superficial vastus lateralis (SVL) muscles under sedentary conditions. GLUT4 overexpression was not able to augment exercise-stimulated Rg or Kg. Whereas HK II overexpression had no effect on fasting glycemia (170 +/- 6 mg/dl) or sedentary Rg, it increased exercise-stimulated Rg by 82, 60, and 169% in soleus, gastrocnemius, and SVL muscles, respectively. Combined GLUT4 and HK II overexpression lowered fasting glycemia (106 +/- 6 mg/dl), increased nonesterified fatty acids, and increased sedentary Rg. Combined GLUT4 and HK II overexpression did not enhance exercise-stimulated Rg compared with HK II-overexpressing mice because of the reduced glucose concentration. GLUT4 combined with HK II overexpression resulted in a marked increase in exercise-stimulated Kg. In conclusion, control of MGU shifts from membrane transport at rest to phosphorylation during exercise. Glucose transport is not normally a significant barrier during exercise. However, when the phosphorylation barrier is lowered by HK II overexpression, glucose transport becomes a key site of control for regulating MGU during exercise.

Suppression of Endogenous Glucose Production by Mild Hyperinsulinemia During Exercise is Determined Predominantly by Portal Venous Insulin

Diabetes. Feb, 2004  |  Pubmed ID: 14747277

Hyperinsulinemia during exercise in people with diabetes requiring exogenous insulin is a major clinical problem. The aim of this study was to assess the significance of portal vein versus arterial insulin to hepatic effects of hyperinsulinemia during exercise. Dogs had sampling (artery, portal vein, and hepatic vein) and infusion (vena cava and portal vein) catheters and flow probes (hepatic artery and portal vein) implanted >16 days before a study. Protocols consisted of equilibration (-130 to -30 min), basal (-30 to 0 min), and treadmill exercise (0-150 min) periods. Somatostatin was infused and glucagon and insulin were replaced in the portal vein to achieve basal arterial and portal vein levels at rest and simulated levels during the first 60 min of exercise. From 60 to 150 min of exercise, the simulated insulin infusion was sustained (C; n = 7), modified to selectively create a physiologic increment in arterial insulin (Pe; n = 7), or altered to increase arterial insulin as in Pe but with a concomitant increase in portal insulin (PePo; n = 7). Euglycemic clamps were performed in all studies. Portal and arterial insulin were 15 +/- 2 and 4 +/- 1 micro U/ml (mean +/- SE of all groups), respectively, at t = 60 min in all groups. Insulin levels were unchanged for the remainder of the exercise period in C. Arterial insulin was increased from 3 +/- 1 to 14 +/- 2 micro U/ml, whereas portal insulin did not change in Pe after t = 60 min. Arterial insulin was increased from 3 +/- 1 to 15 +/- 2 micro U/ml, and portal insulin was increased from 16 +/- 3 to 33 +/- 3 micro U/ml in PePo after t = 60 min. Endogenous glucose production (R(a)) rose similarly from basal during the first 60 min of exercise in all groups (mean +/- SE of all groups was from 2.2 +/- 0.1 to 6.8 +/- 0.5 mg. kg(-1). min(-1)). The increase in R(a) was sustained for the remainder of the exercise period in C. R(a) was suppressed by approximately 40%, but only after 60 min of hyperinsulinemia, and by approximately 20% after 90 min of hyperinsulinemia in Pe. In contrast, the addition of portal venous hyperinsulinemia caused approximately 90% suppression of R(a) within 20 min and for the remainder of the experiment in PePo. Measurements of net hepatic glucose output were similar to R(a) responses in all groups. Arterial free fatty acids (FFAs), a stimulus of R(a), were increased to 1,255 +/- 258 micro mol/l in C but were only 459 +/- 67 and 312 +/- 42 micro mol/l in Pe and PePo, respectively, by 150 min of exercise. Thus, during exercise, the exquisite sensitivity of R(a) to hyperinsulinemia is due entirely to portal venous hyperinsulinemia during the first 60 min, after which peripheral hyperinsulinemia may control approximately 20-40%, possibly as a result of inhibition of the exercise-induced increase in FFA.

Hexokinase II Overexpression Improves Exercise-stimulated but Not Insulin-stimulated Muscle Glucose Uptake in High-fat-fed C57BL/6J Mice

Diabetes. Feb, 2004  |  Pubmed ID: 14747279

The aim of the present study was to determine the specific sites of impairment to muscle glucose uptake (MGU) in the insulin-resistant high-fat-fed, conscious C57BL/6J mouse. Wild type (WT) and hexokinase II overexpressing (HK(Tg)) mice were fed either a standard diet or high-fat diet and studied at 4 months of age. A carotid artery and jugular veins had catheters chronically implanted for sampling and infusions, respectively, and mice were allowed to recovery for at least 5 days. Mice were fasted for 5 h and underwent a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp or saline infusion for 120 min. Separate groups of mice were studied during 30-min sedentary or treadmill exercise periods. A bolus of 2-deoxy[(3)H]glucose was administered 25 min before the end of each study for determination of R(g), an index of tissue-specific glucose uptake. Fasting blood glucose was increased in high-fat compared with standard diet-fed WT (194 +/- 4 vs. 171 +/- 4 mg/dl) but not HK(Tg) (179 +/- 5 vs. 171 +/- 3 mg/dl) mice. High-fat feeding created hyperinsulinemia in both WT and HK(Tg) mice (58 +/- 8 and 77 +/- 15 micro U/ml) compared with standard diet-fed mice (21 +/- 2 and 20 +/- 1 micro U/ml). R(g) was not affected by genotype or diet during either saline infusion or sedentary conditions. HK II overexpression augmented insulin-stimulated R(g) in standard diet-fed but not high-fat-fed mice. Exercise-stimulated R(g) was impaired by high-fat feeding in WT mice, but this impairment was largely rectified in HK(Tg) mice. In conclusion, high-fat feeding impairs both insulin- and exercise-stimulated MGU, but only exercise-stimulated MGU was corrected by HK II overexpression.

Prevention of Obesity and Insulin Resistance in Mice Lacking Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1

Diabetes. Feb, 2004  |  Pubmed ID: 14747283

Increased plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) has been linked to not only thrombosis and fibrosis but also to obesity and insulin resistance. Increased PAI-1 levels have been presumed to be consequent to obesity. We investigated the interrelationships of PAI-1, obesity, and insulin resistance in a high-fat/high-carbohydrate (HF) diet-induced obesity model in wild-type (WT) and PAI-1-deficient mice (PAI-1(-/-)). Obesity and insulin resistance developing in WT mice on an HF diet were completely prevented in mice lacking PAI-1. PAI-1(-/-) mice on an HF diet had increased resting metabolic rates and total energy expenditure compared with WT mice, along with a marked increase in uncoupling protein 3 mRNA expression in skeletal muscle, likely mechanisms contributing to the prevention of obesity. In addition, insulin sensitivity was enhanced significantly in PAI-1(-/-) mice on an HF diet, as shown by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp studies. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma and adiponectin mRNA, key control molecules in lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity, were maintained in response to an HF diet in white adipose tissue in PAI-1(-/-) mice, contrasting with downregulation in WT mice. This maintenance of PPAR-gamma and adiponectin may also contribute to the observed maintenance of body weight and insulin sensitivity in PAI-1(-/-) mice. Treatment in WT mice on an HF diet with the angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonist to downregulate PAI-1 indeed inhibited PAI-1 increases and ameliorated diet-induced obesity, hyperglycemia, and hyperinsulinemia. PAI-1 deficiency also enhanced basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipose cells in vitro. Our data suggest that PAI-1 may not merely increase in response to obesity and insulin resistance, but may have a direct causal role in obesity and insulin resistance. Inhibition of PAI-1 might provide a novel anti-obesity and anti-insulin resistance treatment.

Effect of Sex on Counterregulatory Responses to Exercise After Antecedent Hypoglycemia in Type 1 Diabetes

American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism. Jul, 2004  |  Pubmed ID: 14998785

A marked sexual dimorphism exists in healthy individuals in the pattern of blunted neuroendocrine and metabolic responses following antecedent stress. It is unknown whether significant sex-related counterregulatory differences occur during prolonged moderate exercise after antecedent hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Fourteen patients with T1DM (7 women and 7 men) were studied during 90 min of euglycemic exercise at 50% maximal O(2) consumption after two 2-h episodes of previous-day euglycemia (5.0 mmol/l) or hypoglycemia of 2.9 mmol/l. Men and women were matched for age, glycemic control, duration of diabetes, and exercise fitness and had no history or evidence of autonomic neuropathy. Exercise was performed during constant "basal" intravenous infusion of regular insulin (1 U/h) and a 20% dextrose infusion, as needed to maintain euglycemia. Plasma glucose and insulin levels were equivalent in men and women during all exercise and glucose clamp studies. Antecedent hypoglycemia produced a relatively greater (P < 0.05) reduction of glucagon, epinephrine, norepinephrine, growth hormone, and metabolic (glucose kinetics) responses in men compared with women during next-day exercise. After antecedent hypoglycemia, endogenous glucose production (EGP) was significantly reduced in men only, paralleling a reduction in the glucagon-to-insulin ratio and catecholamine responses. In conclusion, a marked sexual dimorphism exists in a wide spectrum of blunted counterregulatory responses to exercise in T1DM after prior hypoglycemia. Key neuroendocrine (glucagon, catecholamines) and metabolic (EGP) homeostatic responses were better preserved during exercise in T1DM women after antecedent hypoglycemia. Preserved counterregulatory responses during exercise in T1DM women may confer greater protection against hypoglycemia than in men with T1DM.

Hepatic Glucose Autoregulation: Responses to Small, Non-insulin-induced Changes in Arterial Glucose

American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism. Aug, 2004  |  Pubmed ID: 15053988

The purpose of this study was to determine whether the sedentary dog is able to autoregulate glucose production (R(a)) in response to non-insulin-induced changes (<20 mg/dl) in arterial glucose. Dogs had catheters implanted >16 days before study. Protocols consisted of basal (-30 to 0 min) and bilateral renal arterial phloridzin infusion (0-180 min) periods. Somatostatin was infused, and glucagon and insulin were replaced to basal levels. In one protocol (Phl +/- Glc), glucose was allowed to fall from t = 0-90 min. This was followed by a period when glucose was infused to restore euglycemia (90-150 min) and a period when glucose was allowed to fall again (150-180 min). In a second protocol (EC), glucose was infused to compensate for the renal glucose loss due to phloridzin and maintain euglycemia from t = 0-180 min. Arterial insulin, glucagon, cortisol, and catecholamines remained at basal in both protocols. In Phl +/- Glc, glucose fell by approximately 20 mg/dl by t = 90 min with phloridzin infusion. R(a) did not change from basal in Phl +/- Glc despite the fall in glucose for the first 90 min. R(a) was significantly suppressed with restoration of euglycemia from t = 90-150 min (P < 0.05) and returned to basal when glucose was allowed to fall from t = 150-180 min. R(a) did not change from basal in EC. In conclusion, the liver autoregulates R(a) in response to small changes in glucose independently of changes in pancreatic hormones at rest. However, the liver of the resting dog is more sensitive to a small increment, rather than decrement, in arterial glucose.

AMP Kinase-induced Skeletal Muscle Glucose but Not Long-chain Fatty Acid Uptake is Dependent on Nitric Oxide

Diabetes. Jun, 2004  |  Pubmed ID: 15161745

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of AMP kinase (AMPK) activation on in vivo glucose and long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) uptake in skeletal muscle and to examine the nitric oxide (NO) dependence of any putative effects. Catheters were chronically implanted in the carotid artery and jugular vein of male Sprague-Dawley rats. After 4 days of recovery, rats were given either water or water containing 1 mg/ml nitro-l-arginine methylester (l-NAME) for 2.5 days. After an overnight fast, rats underwent one of five protocols: saline, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-B-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR) (10 mg. kg(-1). min(-1)), l-NAME, AICAR + l-NAME, or AICAR + Intralipid (20%, 0.02 ml. kg(-1). min(-1)). Glucose was clamped at approximately 6.5 mmol/l in all groups, and an intravenous bolus of 2-deoxy[(3)H]glucose and [(125)I]-15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-R,S-methylpentadecanoic acid was administered to obtain indexes of glucose (K(g)) and LCFA (K(f)) uptake and clearance. At 150 min, soleus, gastrocnemius, and superficial vastus lateralis were excised for tracer determination. Both K(g) and K(f) increased with AICAR in all muscles studied. K(g) decreased with increasing muscle composition of type 1 slow-twitch fibers, whereas K(f) increased. In addition, AICAR-induced increases in K(g) but not K(f) were abolished by l-NAME in the majority of muscles examined. This shows that the mechanisms by which AMPK stimulates glucose and LCFA uptake are distinct.

AMPK Stimulation Increases LCFA but Not Glucose Clearance in Cardiac Muscle in Vivo

American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism. Nov, 2004  |  Pubmed ID: 15265760

AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) independently increases glucose and long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) utilization in isolated cardiac muscle preparations. Recent studies indicate this may be due to AMPK-induced phosphorylation and activation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Given this, the aim of the present study was to assess the effects of AMPK stimulation by 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR; 10 mg.kg(-1).min(-1)) on glucose and LCFA utilization in cardiac muscle and to determine the NOS dependence of any observed effects. Catheters were chronically implanted in a carotid artery and jugular vein of Sprague-Dawley rats. After 4 days of recovery, conscious, unrestrained rats were given either water or water containing 1 mg/ml nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) for 2.5 days. After an overnight fast, rats underwent one of four protocols: saline, AICAR, AICAR + L-NAME, or AICAR + Intralipid (20%, 0.02 ml.kg(-1).min(-1)). Glucose was clamped at approximately 6.5 mM in all groups, and an intravenous bolus of 2-deoxy-[(3)H]glucose and [(125)I]-15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-R,S-methylpentadecanoic acid was administered to obtain indexes of glucose and LCFA uptake and clearance. Despite AMPK activation, as evidenced by acetyl-CoA carboxylase (Ser(221)) and AMPK phosphorylation (Thr(172)), AICAR increased cardiac LCFA but not glucose clearance. L-NAME + AICAR established that this effect was not due to NOS activation, and AICAR + Intralipid showed that increased cardiac LCFA clearance was not LCFA-concentration dependent. These results demonstrate that, in vivo, AMPK stimulation increases LCFA but not glucose clearance by a NOS-independent mechanism.

Regulation of Insulin-stimulated Muscle Glucose Uptake in the Conscious Mouse: Role of Glucose Transport is Dependent on Glucose Phosphorylation Capacity

Endocrinology. Nov, 2004  |  Pubmed ID: 15284204

Previous work suggests that normal GLUT4 content is sufficient for increases in muscle glucose uptake (MGU) during hyperinsulinemia, because glucose phosphorylation is the more formidable barrier to insulin-stimulated MGU. It was hypothesized that a partial ablation of GLUT4 would not impair insulin-stimulated MGU when glucose phosphorylation capacity is normal but would do so when glucose phosphorylation capacity is increased. Thus, chow-fed C57BL/6J mice with a GLUT4 partial knockout (GLUT4(+/-)), hexokinase II overexpression (HK(Tg)), or both (HK(Tg) + GLUT4(+/-)) and wild-type littermates were studied. Carotid artery and jugular vein catheters were implanted for sampling and infusions at 4 months of age. After a 5-d recovery, 5-h fasted mice (n = 8-11/group) underwent a 120-min saline infusion or insulin clamp (4 mU/kg.min insulin with glucose maintained at 165 mg/dl) and received a 2-deoxy[(3)H]glucose bolus to provide an index of MGU (R(g)) for the soleus, gastrocnemius, and superficial vastus lateralis. Basal R(g) from all muscles studied from saline-infused mice were not changed by any of the genetic modifications. HK(Tg) mice had augmented insulin-stimulated R(g) in all muscles studied compared with remaining genotypes. Insulin-stimulated R(g) was not impaired in any of the muscles studied from GLUT4(+/-) mice. However, the enhanced insulin-stimulated R(g) created by HK overexpression was ablated in HK(Tg) + GLUT4(+/-) mice. Thus, a 50% reduction of normal GLUT4 content in the presence of normal HK activity does not impair insulin-stimulated MGU. However, when the glucose phosphorylation barrier is lowered by HK overexpression, GLUT4 availability becomes a limitation to insulin-stimulated MGU.

Zonation of Labeling of Lipogenic Acetyl-CoA Across the Liver: Implications for Studies of Lipogenesis by Mass Isotopomer Analysis

The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Oct, 2004  |  Pubmed ID: 15284242

Measurement of fractional lipogenesis by condensation polymerization methods assumes constant enrichment of lipogenic acetyl-CoA in all hepatocytes. mass isotopomer distribution analysis (MIDA) and isotopomer spectral analysis (ISA) represent such methods and are based on the combinatorial analyses of mass isotopomer distributions (MIDs) of fatty acids and sterols. We previously showed that the concentration and enrichment of [13C]acetate decrease markedly across the dog liver because of the simultaneous uptake and production of acetate. To test for zonation of the enrichment of lipogenic acetyl-CoA, conscious dogs, prefitted with transhepatic catheters, were infused with glucose and [1,2-13C2]acetate in a branch of the portal vein. Analyses of MIDs of fatty acids and sterols isolated from liver, bile, and plasma very low density lipoprotein by a variant of ISA designed to detect gradients in precursor enrichment revealed marked zonation of enrichment of lipogenic acetyl-CoA. As control experiments where no zonation of acetyl-CoA enrichment would be expected, isolated rat livers were perfused with 10 mm [1,2-13C2]acetate. The ISA analyses of MIDs of fatty acids and sterols from liver and bile still revealed a zonation of acetyl-CoA enrichment. We conclude that zonation of hepatic acetyl-CoA enrichment occurs under a variety of animal models and physiological conditions. Failure to consider gradients of precursor enrichment can lead to underestimations of fractional lipogenesis calculated from the mass isotopomer distributions. The degree of such underestimation was modeled in vitro, and the data are reported in the companion paper (Bederman, I. R., Kasumov, T., Reszko, A. E., David, F., Brunengraber, H., and Kelleher, J. K. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 43217-43226).

Portal Venous Hyperinsulinemia Does Not Stimulate Gut Glucose Absorption in the Conscious Dog

Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental. Oct, 2004  |  Pubmed ID: 15375784

The purpose of the present study was to assess whether physiological portal vein hyperinsulinemia stimulates gut glucose absorption in vivo. Chronically catheterized (femoral artery, portal vein, inferior vena cava, and proximal and distal duodenum) and instrumented (Doppler flow probe on portal vein) insulin (INS, 2 mU.kg(-1).min(-1), n = 6) or saline (SAL, n = 5) infused dogs were studied during basal (30 minutes) and experimental (90 minutes) periods. Arterial and portal vein plasma insulin were 3.3- and 3.2-fold higher, respectively, throughout the study in INS compared to SAL. An intraduodenal glucose infusion of 8 mg.kg(-1).min(-1) was initiated at t = 0 minutes. At t = 20 and 80 minutes, a bolus of 3-O-[3H]methylglucose (MG) and L-[14C]glucose (L-GLC) was injected intraduodenally. Phloridzin, an inhibitor of the Na+ -dependent glucose transporter (SGLT1), was infused from t = 60 to 90 minutes in the presence of a peripheral isoglycemic clamp. Net gut glucose output (NGGO) was 5.2 +/- 0.6 and 4.6 +/- 0.8 mg.kg(-1).min(-1) in INS and SAL, respectively, from t = 20 to 60 minutes. Transporter-mediated absorption was 87% +/- 2% of NGGO in both INS and SAL. Passive gut glucose absorption was 13% +/- 2% of NGGO in both INS and SAL. Phloridzin-induced inhibition of transporter-mediated absorption completely abolished passive absorption of L-GLC in both groups. This study shows that under physiological conditions, a portal vein insulin infusion that results in circulating hyperinsulinemia does not increase either transporter-mediated or passive absorption of an intraduodenal glucose load.

Physical Activity/exercise and Type 2 Diabetes

Diabetes Care. Oct, 2004  |  Pubmed ID: 15451933

Control of Exercise-stimulated Muscle Glucose Uptake by GLUT4 is Dependent on Glucose Phosphorylation Capacity in the Conscious Mouse

The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Dec, 2004  |  Pubmed ID: 15456776

Previous work suggests that normal GLUT4 content is sufficient for increases in muscle glucose uptake (MGU) during exercise because GLUT4 overexpression does not increase exercise-stimulated MGU. Instead of glucose transport, glucose phosphorylation is a primary limitation of exercise-stimulated MGU. It was hypothesized that a partial ablation of GLUT4 would not impair exercise-stimulated MGU when glucose phosphorylation capacity is normal but would do so when glucose phosphorylation capacity was increased. Thus, C57BL/6J mice with hexokinase II (HKII) overexpression (HK(Tg)), a GLUT4 partial knock-out (G4(+/-)), or both (HK(Tg) + G4(+/-)) and wild-type (WT) littermates were implanted with carotid artery and jugular vein catheters for sampling and infusions at 4 months of age. After a 7-day recovery, 5-h fasted mice remained sedentary or ran on a treadmill at 0.6 mph for 30 min (n = 9-12 per group) and received a bolus of 2-deoxy[3H]glucose to provide an index of MGU (Rg). Arterial blood glucose and plasma insulin concentrations were similar in WT, G4(+/-), HKTg, and HKTg + G4(+/-) mice. Sedentary Rg values were the same in all genotypes in all muscles studied, confirming that glucose transport is a significant barrier to basal glucose uptake. Gastrocnemius and soleus Rg were greater in exercising compared with sedentary mice in all genotypes. During exercise, G4(+/-) mice had a marked increase in blood glucose that was corrected by the addition of HK II overexpression. Exercise Rg (micromol/100g/min) was not different between WT and G4(+/-) mice in the gastrocnemius (24 +/- 5 versus 21 +/- 2) or the soleus (54 +/- 6 versus 70 +/- 7). In contrast, the enhanced exercise Rg observed in HKTg mice compared with that in WT mice was absent in HKTg + G4(+/-) mice in both the gastrocnemius (39 +/- 7 versus 22 +/- 6) and the soleus (98 +/- 13 versus 65 +/- 13). Thus, glucose transport is not a significant barrier to exercise-stimulated MGU despite a 50% reduction in GLUT4 content when glucose phosphorylation capacity is normal. However, when glucose phosphorylation capacity is increased by HK II overexpression, GLUT4 availability becomes a marked limitation to exercise-stimulated MGU.

Portal Vein Caffeine Infusion Enhances Net Hepatic Glucose Uptake During a Glucose Load in Conscious Dogs

The Journal of Nutrition. Nov, 2004  |  Pubmed ID: 15514273

We determined whether intraportal caffeine infusion, at rates designed to create concentrations similar to that seen with normal dietary intake, would enhance net hepatic glucose uptake (NHGU) during a glucose load. Dogs (n = 15) were implanted with sampling and infusion catheters as well as flow probes >16 d before the studies. After a basal sampling period, dogs were administered a somatostatin infusion (0-150 min) as well as intraportal infusions of glucose [18 micromol/(kg . min)], basal glucagon [0.5 ng/(kg . min)], and insulin [8.3 pmol/(kg . min)] to establish mild hyperinsulinemia. Arterial glucose was clamped at 10 mmol/L with a peripheral glucose infusion. At 80 min, either saline (Control; n = 7) or caffeine [1.5 micromol/(kg . min); n = 8] was infused into the portal vein. Arterial insulin, glucagon, norepinephrine, and glucose did not differ between groups. In dogs infused with caffeine, NHGU was significantly higher than in controls [21.2 +/- 4.3 vs. 11.2 +/- 1.6 micromol/(kg . min)]. Caffeine increased net hepatic lactate output compared with controls [12.5 +/- 3.8 vs. 5.5 +/- 1.5 micromol/(kg . min)]. These findings indicate that physiologic circulating levels of caffeine can enhance NHGU during a glucose load, and the added glucose consumed by the liver is in part converted to lactate.

Exercise-induced Changes in Insulin and Glucagon Are Not Required for Enhanced Hepatic Glucose Uptake After Exercise but Influence the Fate of Glucose Within the Liver

Diabetes. Dec, 2004  |  Pubmed ID: 15561932

To test whether pancreatic hormonal changes that occur during exercise are necessary for the postexercise enhancement of insulin-stimulated net hepatic glucose uptake, chronically catheterized dogs were exercised on a treadmill or rested for 150 min. At the onset of exercise, somatostatin was infused into a peripheral vein, and insulin and glucagon were infused in the portal vein to maintain basal levels (EX-Basal) or simulate the response to exercise (EX-Sim). Glucose was infused as needed to maintain euglycemia during exercise. After exercise or rest, somatostatin infusion was continued in exercised dogs and initiated in dogs that had remained sedentary. In addition, basal glucagon, glucose, and insulin were infused in the portal vein for 150 min to create a hyperinsulinemic-hyperglycemic clamp in EX-Basal, EX-Sim, and sedentary dogs. Steady-state measurements were made during the final 50 min of the clamp. During exercise, net hepatic glucose output (mg x kg(-1) x min(-1)) rose in EX-Sim (7.6 +/- 2.8) but not EX-Basal (1.9 +/- 0.3) dogs. During the hyperinsulinemic-hyperglycemic clamp that followed either exercise or rest, net hepatic glucose uptake (mg x kg(-1) x min(-1)) was elevated in both EX-Basal (4.0 +/- 0.7) and EX-Sim (4.6 +/- 0.5) dogs compared with sedentary dogs (2.0 +/- 0.3). Despite this elevation in net hepatic glucose uptake after exercise, glucose incorporation into hepatic glycogen, determined using [3-3H]glucose, was not different in EX-Basal and sedentary dogs, but was 50 +/- 30% greater in EX-Sim dogs. Exercise-induced changes in insulin and glucagon, and consequent glycogen depletion, are not required for the increase in net hepatic glucose uptake after exercise but result in a greater fraction of the glucose consumed by the liver being directed to glycogen.

Heart-type Fatty Acid-binding Protein Reciprocally Regulates Glucose and Fatty Acid Utilization During Exercise

American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism. Feb, 2005  |  Pubmed ID: 15454399

The role of heart-type cytosolic fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) in mediating whole body and muscle-specific long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) and glucose utilization was examined using exercise as a phenotyping tool. Catheters were chronically implanted in a carotid artery and jugular vein of wild-type (WT, n = 8), heterozygous (H-FABP(+/-), n = 8), and null (H-FABP(-/-), n = 7) chow-fed C57BL/6J mice, and mice were allowed to recover for 7 days. After a 5-h fast, conscious, unrestrained mice were studied during 30 min of treadmill exercise (0.6 mph). A bolus of [(125)I]-15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-R,S-methylpentadecanoic acid and 2-deoxy-[(3)H]glucose was administered to obtain rates of whole body metabolic clearance (MCR) and indexes of muscle LCFA (R(f)) and glucose (R(g)) utilization. Fasting, nonesterified fatty acids (mM) were elevated in H-FABP(-/-) mice (2.2 +/- 0.9 vs. 1.3 +/- 0.1 and 1.3 +/- 0.2 for WT and H-FABP(+/-)). During exercise, blood glucose (mM) increased in WT (11.7 +/- 0.8) and H-FABP(+/-) (12.6 +/- 0.9) mice, whereas H-FABP(-/-) mice developed overt hypoglycemia (4.8 +/- 0.8). Examination of tissue-specific and whole body glucose and LCFA utilization demonstrated a dependency on H-FABP with exercise in all tissues examined. Reductions in H-FABP led to decreasing exercise-stimulated R(f) and increasing R(g) with the most pronounced effects in heart and soleus muscle. Similar results were seen for MCR with decreasing LCFA and increasing glucose clearance with declining levels of H-FABP. These results show that, in vivo, H-FABP has reciprocal effects on glucose and LCFA utilization and whole body fuel homeostasis when metabolic demands are elevated by exercise.

Control of Muscle Glucose Uptake: Test of the Rate-limiting Step Paradigm in Conscious, Unrestrained Mice

The Journal of Physiology. Feb, 2005  |  Pubmed ID: 15576451

The aim of this study was to test whether in fact glucose transport is rate-limiting in control of muscle glucose uptake (MGU) under physiological hyperinsulinaemic conditions in the conscious, unrestrained mouse. C57Bl/6J mice overexpressing GLUT4 (GLUT4(Tg)), hexokinase II (HK(Tg)), or both (GLUT4(Tg) + HK(Tg)), were compared to wild-type (WT) littermates. Catheters were implanted into a carotid artery and jugular vein for sampling and infusions at 4 month of age. After a 5-day recovery period, conscious mice underwent one of two protocols (n = 8-14/group) after a 5-h fast. Saline or insulin (4 mU kg(-1) min(-1)) was infused for 120 min. All mice received a bolus of 2-deoxy[(3)H]glucose (2-(3)HDG) at 95 min. Glucose was clamped at approximately 165 mg dl(-1) during insulin infusion and insulin levels reached approximately 80 microU ml(-1). The rate of disappearance of 2-(3)HDG from the blood provided an index of whole body glucose clearance. Gastrocnemius, superficial vastus lateralis and soleus muscles were excised at 120 min to determine 2-(3)HDG-6-phosphate levels and calculate an index of MGU (R(g)). Results show that whole body and tissue-specific indices of glucose utilization were: (1) augmented by GLUT4 overexpression, but not HKII overexpression, in the basal state; (2) enhanced by HKII overexpression in the presence of physiological hyperinsulinaemia; and (3) largely unaffected by GLUT4 overexpression during insulin clamps whether alone or combined with HKII overexpression. Therefore, while glucose transport is the primary barrier to MGU under basal conditions, glucose phosphorylation becomes a more important barrier during physiological hyperinsulinaemia in all muscles. The control of MGU is distributed rather than confined to a single rate-limiting step such as glucose transport as glucose transport and phosphorylation can both become barriers to skeletal muscle glucose influx.

Glucoregulation During and After Exercise in Health and Insulin-dependent Diabetes

Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews. Jan, 2005  |  Pubmed ID: 15640716

An elegant control system prevents hypoglycemia despite dramatic increments in glucose usage by working muscle. Insulin excess disrupts this control system, leading to hypoglycemia. Recent hypoglycemic episodes blunt the glucoregulatory response to subsequent exercise, and exercise blunts the glucoregulatory response to subsequent insulin excess. These mechanisms of glucoregulatory failure may cause hypoglycemia in insulin-dependent diabetics during and after exercise.

5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribofuranoside Causes Acute Hepatic Insulin Resistance in Vivo

Diabetes. Feb, 2005  |  Pubmed ID: 15677492

The infusion of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR) causes a rise in tissue concentrations of the AMP analog 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribofuranotide (ZMP), which mimics an elevation of cellular AMP levels. The purpose of this work was to determine the effect of raising hepatic ZMP levels on hepatic insulin action in vivo. Dogs had sampling and infusion catheters as well as flow probes implanted 16 days before an experiment. After an 18-h fast, blood glucose was 82 +/- 1 mg/dl and basal net hepatic glucose output 1.5 +/- 0.2 mg . kg(-1) . min(-1). Dogs received portal venous glucose (3.2 mg . kg(-1) . min(-1)), peripheral venous somatostatin, and basal portal venous glucagon infusions from -90 to 60 min. Physiological hyperinsulinemia was established with a portal insulin infusion (1.2 mU . kg(-1) . min(-1)). Peripheral venous glucose infusion was used to clamp arterial blood glucose at 150 mg/dl. Starting at t = 0 min, dogs received portal venous AICAR infusions of 0, 1, or 2 mg . kg(-1) . min(-1). Net hepatic glucose uptake was 2.4 +/- 0.5 mg . kg(-1) . min(-1) (mean of all groups) before t = 0 min. In the absence of AICAR, net hepatic glucose uptake was 1.9 +/- 0.4 mg . kg(-1) . min(-1) at t = 60 min. The lower-dose AICAR infusion caused a complete suppression of net hepatic glucose uptake (-1.0 +/- 1.7 mg . kg(-1) . min(-1) at t = 60 min). The higher AICAR dose resulted in a profound shift in hepatic glucose balance from net uptake to a marked net output (-6.1 +/- 1.9 mg . kg(-1) . min(-1) at t = 60 min), even in the face of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. These data show that elevations in hepatic ZMP concentrations, induced by portal venous AICAR infusion, cause acute hepatic insulin resistance. These findings have important implications for the targeting of AMP kinase for the treatment of insulin resistance, using AMP analogs.

Portal Venous 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribofuranoside Infusion Overcomes Hyperinsulinemic Suppression of Endogenous Glucose Output

Diabetes. Feb, 2005  |  Pubmed ID: 15677495

AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a key role in regulating metabolism, serving as a metabolic master switch. The aim of this study was to assess whether increased concentrations of the AMP analog, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribosyl-5-monophosphate, in the liver would create a metabolic response consistent with an increase in whole-body metabolic need. Dogs had sampling (artery, portal vein, hepatic vein) and infusion (vena cava, portal vein) catheters and flow probes (hepatic artery, portal vein) implanted >16 days before a study. Protocols consisted of equilibration (-130 to -30 min), basal (-30 to 0 min), and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic or -hypoglycemic clamp periods (0-150 min). At t = 0 min, somatostatin was infused and glucagon was replaced in the portal vein at basal rates. An intraportal hyperinsulinemic (2 mU . kg(-1) . min(-1)) infusion was also initiated at this time. Glucose was clamped at hypoglycemic or euglycemic levels in the presence (H-AIC, n = 6; E-AIC, n = 6) or absence (H-SAL, n = 6; E-SAL, n = 6) of a portal venous 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-ribofuranoside (AICAR) infusion (1 mg . kg(-1) . min(-1)) initiated at t = 60 min. In the presence of intraportal saline, glucose was infused into the vena cava to match glucose levels seen with intraportal AICAR. Glucagon remained fixed at basal levels, whereas insulin rose similarly in all groups. Glucose fell to 50 +/- 2 mg/dl by t = 60 min in hypoglycemic groups and remained at 105 +/- 3 mg/dl in euglycemic groups. Endogenous glucose production (R(a)) was similarly suppressed among groups in the presence of euglycemia or hypoglycemia before t = 60 min and remained suppressed in the H-SAL and E-SAL groups. However, intraportal AICAR infusion stimulated R(a) to increase by 2.5 +/- 1.0 and 3.4 +/- 0.4 mg . kg(-1) . min(-1) in the E-AIC and H-AIC groups, respectively. Arteriovenous measurement of net hepatic glucose output showed similar results. AICAR stimulated hepatic glycogen to decrease by 5 +/- 3 and 19 +/- 5 mg/g tissue (P < 0.05) in the presence of euglycemia and hypoglycemia, respectively. AICAR significantly increased net hepatic lactate output in the presence of hypoglycemia. Thus, intraportal AICAR infusion caused marked stimulation of both hepatic glucose output and net hepatic glycogenolysis, even in the presence of high levels of physiological insulin. This stimulation of glucose output by AICAR was equally marked in the presence of both euglycemia and hypoglycemia. However, hypoglycemia amplified the net hepatic glycogenolytic response to AICAR by approximately fourfold.

Interaction of Physiological Mechanisms in Control of Muscle Glucose Uptake

Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology. Apr, 2005  |  Pubmed ID: 15810999

1. Control of glucose uptake is distributed between three steps. These are the rate that glucose is delivered to cells, the rate of transport into cells, and the rate that glucose is phosphorylated within these same cells. The functional limitations to each one of these individual steps has been difficult to assess because they are so closely coupled to each other. Studies have been performed in recent years using complex isotopic techniques or transgenic mouse models to shed new light on the role that each step plays in overall control of muscle glucose uptake. 2. Membrane glucose transport is a major barrier and glucose delivery and glucose phosphorylation are minor barriers to muscle glucose uptake in the fasted, sedentary state. GLUT-4 is translocated to the muscle membrane during exercise and insulin-stimulation. The result of this is that it can become so permeable to glucose that it is only a minor barrier to glucose uptake. 3. In addition to increasing glucose transport, exercise and insulin-stimulation also increase muscle blood flow and capillary recruitment. This effectively increases muscle glucose delivery and by doing so, works to enhance muscle glucose uptake. 4. There is a growing body of data that suggests that insulin resistance to muscle glucose uptake can be because of impairments in any one or more of the three steps that comprise the process.

Hexokinase II Protein Content is a Determinant of Exercise Endurance Capacity in the Mouse

The Journal of Physiology. Jul, 2005  |  Pubmed ID: 15878951

Hexokinase (HK) II content is elevated in fatigue resistant muscle fibres and exercise trained muscle. The aim of this study was to determine if exercise capacity is dependent on muscle HK protein content. C57Bl/6 mice with a 50% HK knockout (HK+/-), no genetic manipulation (wild-type, WT) and an approximately 3-fold HK overexpression (HKTg) were tested. Mice (n = 12/group) completed both a maximal oxygen consumption test(VO2max) test and an endurance capacity test (run at approximately 75% VO2max) on an enclosed treadmill equipped to measure gas exchange. Arterial and venous catheters were surgically implanted into separate groups of mice (n = 9-11/group) in order to measure an index of muscle glucose uptake Rg during 30 min of treadmill exercise. Maximum work rate (0.95 +/- 0.05, 1.00 +/- 0.04 and 1.06 +/- 0.07 kg m min-1), (137 +/- 3, 141 +/- 4 and 141 +/- 5 ml kg-1 min-1) and maximal respiratory exchange ratio (1.04 +/- 0.02, 1.00 +/- 0.03 and 1.04 +/- 0.04) were similar in HK+/-, WT and HKTg, respectively. Exercise endurance capacity (measured as time to exhaustion) increased as HK content increased (55 +/- 11, 77 +/- 5 and 98 +/- 9 min) and this was related to Rg measured in mice during 30 min of exercise (13 +/- 2, 24 +/- 5 and 42 +/- 5 micromol (100 g)-1 min-1). Muscle glycogen in sedentary HK+/-mice and HK+/- mice following 30 min of exercise were significantly lower than in HKTg and WT mice. However, the net exercise-induced muscle glycogen breakdown was equal in the three genotypes. In summary, HK protein content within the range studied (a) was not associated with a difference in the capacity to perform maximal intensity exercise, (b) was a powerful determinant of the ability to sustain moderate intensity exercise, as reducing HK content impaired endurance and increasing HK content enhanced endurance, and (c) although directly related to exercise endurance, was not a determinant of net muscle glycogen usage during exercise. In conclusion, adaptations that increase HK protein content and/or functional activity such as regular exercise contribute to increased muscular endurance.

5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribofuranoside Renders Glucose Output by the Liver of the Dog Insensitive to a Pharmacological Increment in Insulin

American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism. Dec, 2005  |  Pubmed ID: 16046457

This study aimed to test whether stimulation of net hepatic glucose output (NHGO) by increased concentrations of the AMP analog, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-d-ribosyl-5-monophosphate, can be suppressed by pharmacological insulin levels. Dogs had sampling (artery, portal vein, hepatic vein) and infusion (vena cava, portal vein) catheters and flow probes (hepatic artery, portal vein) implanted >16 days before study. Protocols consisted of equilibration (-130 to -30 min), basal (-30 to 0 min), and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic (0-150 min) periods. At time (t) = 0 min, somatostatin was infused, and basal glucagon was replaced via the portal vein. Insulin was infused in the portal vein at either 2 (INS2) or 5 (INS5) mU.kg(-1).min(-1). At t = 60 min, 1 mg.kg(-1).min(-1) portal venous 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR) infusion was initiated. Arterial insulin rose approximately 9- and approximately 27-fold in INS2 and INS5, respectively. Glucagon, catecholamines, and cortisol did not change throughout the study. NHGO was completely suppressed before t = 60 min. Intraportal AICAR stimulated NHGO by 1.9 +/- 0.5 and 2.0 +/- 0.5 mg.kg(-1).min(-1) in INS2 and INS5, respectively. AICAR stimulated tracer-determined endogenous glucose production similarly in both groups. Intraportal AICAR infusion significantly increased hepatic acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC, Ser(79)) phosphorylation in INS2. Hepatic ACC (Ser(79)) phosphorylation, however, was not increased in INS5. Thus intraportal AICAR infusion renders hepatic glucose output insensitive to pharmacological insulin. The effectiveness of AICAR in countering the suppressive effect of pharmacological insulin on NHGO occurs even though AICAR-stimulated ACC phosphorylation is completely blocked.

Mobilization of Glucose from the Liver During Exercise and Replenishment Afterward

Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology = Revue Canadienne De Physiologie Appliquée. Jun, 2005  |  Pubmed ID: 16129894

The liver is anatomically well situated to regulate blood glucose. It is positioned downstream from the pancreas, which releases the key regulatory hormones glucagon and insulin. It is also just downstream from the gut, permitting efficient extraction of ingested glucose and preventing large excursions in systemic glucose after a glucose-rich meal. The position of the liver is not as well situated from the standpoint of experimentation and clinical assessment, as its primary blood supply is impossible to access in conscious human subjects. Over the last 20 years, to study hepatic glucose metabolism during and after exercise, we have utilized a conscious dog model which permits sampling of the blood that perfuses (portal vein, artery) and drains (hepatic vein) the liver. Our work has demonstrated the key role of exercise-induced changes in glucagon and insulin in stimulating hepatic glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis during exercise. Recently we showed that portal venous infusion of the pharmacological agent 5'-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribofuranoside leads to a marked increase in hepatic glucose production. Based on this, we propose that the concentration of AMP may be a component of a physiological pathway for stimulating hepatic glucose production during exercise. Insulin-stimulated hepatic glucose uptake is increased following exercise by an undefined mechanism that is independent of liver glycogen content. The fate of glucose taken up by the liver is critically dependent on hepatic glycogen stores, however, as glycogen deposition is greatly facilitated by prior glycogen depletion.

Partial Gene Deletion of Heart-type Fatty Acid-binding Protein Limits the Severity of Dietary-induced Insulin Resistance

Diabetes. Nov, 2005  |  Pubmed ID: 16249436

The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) to glucose and long-chain fatty acid (LCFA) utilization in dietary-induced insulin resistance. We tested the hypothesis that H-FABP facilitates increases in LCFA flux present in glucose-intolerant states and that a partial reduction in the amount of this protein would compensate for all or part of the impairment. Transgenic H-FABP heterozygotes (HET) and wild-type (WT) littermates were studied following chow diet (CHD) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. Catheters were surgically implanted in the carotid artery and jugular vein for sampling and infusions, respectively. Following 5 days of recovery, mice received either a saline infusion or underwent a euglycemic insulin clamp (4 mU x kg(-1) x min(-1)) for 120 min. At 90 min, a bolus of 2-deoxyglucose and [125I]-15-(rho-iodophenyl)-3-R,S-methylpentadecanoic acid were administered to obtain indexes of glucose and LCFA utilization. At 120 min, skeletal muscles were excised for tracer determination. All HFD mice were obese and hyperinsulinemic; however, only HFD-WT mice were hyperglycemic. Glucose infusion rates during insulin clamps were 49 +/- 4, 59 +/- 4, 16 +/- 4, and 33 +/- 4 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1) for CHD-WT, CHD-HET, HFD-WT, and HFD-HET mice, respectively, showing that HET limited the severity of whole-body insulin resistance with HFD. Insulin-stimulated muscle glucose utilization was attenuated in HFD-WT but unaffected in HFD-HET mice. Conversely, rates of LCFA clearance were increased with HFD feeding in HFD-WT but not in HFD-HET mice. In conclusion, a partial reduction in H-FABP protein normalizes fasting glucose levels and improves whole-body insulin sensitivity in HFD-fed mice despite obesity.

Individual Mice Can Be Distinguished by the Period of Their Islet Calcium Oscillations: is There an Intrinsic Islet Period That is Imprinted in Vivo?

Diabetes. Dec, 2005  |  Pubmed ID: 16306370

Pulsatile insulin secretion in vivo is believed to be derived, in part, from the intrinsic glucose-dependent intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) pulsatility of individual islets. In isolation, islets display fast, slow, or mixtures of fast and slow [Ca2+]i oscillations. We show that the period of islet [Ca2+]i oscillations is unique to each mouse, with the islets from an individual mouse demonstrating similar rhythms to one another. Based on their rhythmic period, mice were broadly classified as being either fast (0.65 +/- 0.1 min; n = 6 mice) or slow (4.7 +/- 0.2 min; n = 15 mice). To ensure this phenomenon was not an artifact of islet-to-islet communication, we confirmed that islets cultured in isolation (period: 2.9 +/- 0.1 min) were not statistically different from islets cultured together from the same mouse (3.1 +/- 0.1 min, P > 0.52, n = 5 mice). We also compared pulsatile insulin patterns measured in vivo with islet [Ca2+]i patterns measured in vitro from six mice. Mice with faster insulin pulse periods corresponded to faster islet [Ca2+]i patterns, whereas slower insulin patterns corresponded to slower [Ca2+]i patterns, suggesting that the insulin rhythm of each mouse is preserved to some degree by its islets in vitro. We propose that individual mice have characteristic oscillatory [Ca2+]i patterns, which are imprinted in vivo through an unknown mechanism.

Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Modulates Adipocyte Differentiation

American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism. Jan, 2006  |  Pubmed ID: 16144810

Increased plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is linked to obesity and insulin resistance. However, the functional role of PAI-1 in adipocytes is unknown. This study was designed to investigate effects and underlying mechanisms of PAI-1 on glucose uptake in adipocytes and on adipocyte differentiation. Using primary cultured adipocytes from PAI-1(+/+) and PAI-1(-/-) mice, we found that PAI-1 deficiency promoted adipocyte differentiation, enhanced basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, and protected against tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced adipocyte dedifferentiation and insulin resistance. These beneficial effects were associated with upregulated glucose transporter 4 at basal and insulin-stimulated states and upregulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) and adiponectin along with downregulated resistin mRNA in differentiated PAI-1(-/-) vs. PAI-1(+/+) adipocytes. Similarly, inhibition of PAI-1 with a neutralizing anti-PAI-1 antibody in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes further promoted adipocyte differentiation and glucose uptake, which was associated with increased expression of transcription factors PPARgamma, CCAAT enhancer-binding protein-alpha (C/EBPalpha), and the adipocyte-selective fatty acid-binding protein aP2, thus mimicking the phenotype in PAI-1(-/-) primary adipocytes. Conversely, overexpression of PAI-1 by adenovirus-mediated gene transfer in 3T3-L1 adipocytes inhibited differentiation and reduced PPARgamma, C/EBPalpha, and aP2 expression. This was also associated with a decrease in urokinase-type plasminogen activator mRNA expression, decreased plasmin activity, and increased collagen I mRNA expression. Collectively, these results indicate that absence or inhibition of PAI-1 in adipocytes protects against insulin resistance by promoting glucose uptake and adipocyte differentiation via increased PPARgamma expression. We postulate that these PAI-1 effects on adipocytes may, at least in part, be mediated via modulation of plasmin activity and extracellular matrix components.

Energy State of the Liver During Short-term and Exhaustive Exercise in C57BL/6J Mice

American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism. Mar, 2006  |  Pubmed ID: 16219665

A portal venous 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribofuranoside infusion that results in hepatic 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D-ribosyl-5-monophosphate (ZMP) concentrations of approximately 4 micromol/g liver increases hepatic glycogenolysis and glucose output. ZMP is an AMP analog that mimics the regulatory actions of this nucleotide. The aim of this study was to measure hepatic AMP concentrations in response to increasing energy requirements to test the hypothesis that AMP achieves concentrations during exercise, consistent with a role in stimulation of hepatic glucose metabolism. Male C57BL/6J mice (27.4+/- 0.4 g) were subjected to 35 min of rest [sedentary (SED), n=8], underwent short-term (ST, 35 min) moderate (20 m/min, 5% grade) exercise (n=8), or underwent treadmill exercise under similar conditions but until exhaustion (EXH, n=8). Hepatic AMP concentrations were 0.82+/- 0.05, 1.17+/- 0.11, and 2.52+/- 0.16 micromol/g liver in SED, ST, and EXH mice, respectively (P< 0.05). Hepatic energy charge was 0.66+/- 0.01, 0.58+/- 0.02, and 0.33+/- 0.22 in SED, ST, and EXH mice, respectively (P< 0.05). Hepatic glycogen was 11.6+/- 1.0, 8.8+/- 2.2, and 0.0+/- 0.1 mg/g liver in SED, ST, and EXH mice, respectively (P< 0.05). Hepatic AMPK (Thr(172)) phosphorylation was 1.00+/- 0.14, 1.96+/- 0.16, and 7.44+/- 0.63 arbitrary units in SED, ST, and EXH mice, respectively (P< 0.05). Thus exercise increases hepatic AMP concentrations. These data suggest that the liver is highly sensitive to metabolic demands, as evidenced by dramatic changes in cellular energy indicators (AMP) and sensors thereof (AMP-activated protein kinase). In conclusion, AMP is sensitively regulated, consistent with it having an important role in hepatic metabolism.

Insulin Secretion in the Conscious Mouse is Biphasic and Pulsatile

American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism. Mar, 2006  |  Pubmed ID: 16249252

Islets in most species respond to increased glucose with biphasic insulin secretion, marked by a sharp first-phase peak and a slowly rising second phase. Mouse islets in vitro, however, lack a robust second phase. To date, this observation has not been extended in vivo. We thus compared insulin secretion from conscious mice with isolated mouse islets in vitro. The arterial plasma insulin response to a hyperglycemic clamp was measured in conscious mice 1 wk after surgical implantation of carotid artery and jugular vein catheters. Mice were transfused using clamps with blood from a donor mouse to maintain blood volume, allowing frequent arterial sampling. When plasma glucose in vivo was raised from approximately 5 to approximately 13 mM, insulin rose to a first-phase peak of 403+/-73% above basal secretion (n=5), followed by a rising second phase of mean 289+/- 41%. In contrast, perifused mouse islets ( approximately 75 islets/trial) responded with a similar first phase of 508+/- 94% (n=4) but a smaller and virtually flat second phase of 169+/- 9% (n=4, P<0.05). Furthermore, the slope of the second-phase response differed significantly from zero in mice (2.63+/-0.39%/min, P<0.01), in contrast to perifused islets (0.18+/- 0.14%/min, P>0.30). Mice also displayed pulsatile patterns in insulin concentration (period: 4.2+/- 0.4 min, n=8). Conscious mice thus responded to increased glucose with biphasic and pulsatile insulin secretion, as in other species. The robust second phase observed in vivo suggests that the processes needed to generate second-phase insulin secretion may be abrogated by islet isolation.

Considerations in the Design of Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic Clamps in the Conscious Mouse

Diabetes. Feb, 2006  |  Pubmed ID: 16443772

Despite increased use of the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp to study insulin action in mice, the effects of experimental parameters on the results obtained have not been addressed. In our studies, we determined the influences of sampling sites, fasting duration, and insulin delivery on results obtained from clamps in conscious mice. Carotid artery and jugular vein catheters were implanted in C57BL/6J mice (n = 6-10/group) fed a normal diet for sampling and infusions. After a 5-day recovery period, mice underwent a 120-min clamp (2.5-mU . kg(-1) . min(-1) insulin infusion; approximately 120-130 mg/dl glucose) while receiving [3-(3)H]glucose to determine glucose appearance (endoR(a)) and disappearance (R(d)). Sampling large volumes (approximately 100 mul) from the cut tail resulted in elevated catecholamines and basal glucose compared with artery sampling. Catecholamines were not elevated when taking small samples ( approximately 5 mul) from the cut tail. Overnight (18-h) fasting resulted in greater loss of total body, lean, and fat masses and hepatic glycogen but resulted in enhanced insulin sensitivity compared with 5-h fasting. Compared with a 16-mU/kg insulin prime, a 300-mU/kg prime resulted in hepatic insulin resistance and slower acquisition of steady-state glucose infusion rates (GIR) after a 5-h fast. The steady-state GIR was expedited after the 300-mU/kg prime in 18-h-fasted mice. The GIR and R(d) rose with increasing insulin infusions (0.8, 2.5, 4, and 20 mU . kg(-1) . min(-1)), but endoR(a) was fully suppressed with doses higher than 0.8 mU . kg(-1) . min(-1). Thus, common variations in experimental factors yield different results and should be considered in designing and interpreting clamps.

Physical Activity/exercise and Type 2 Diabetes: a Consensus Statement from the American Diabetes Association

Diabetes Care. Jun, 2006  |  Pubmed ID: 16732040

Point-Counterpoint: Glucose Phosphorylation Is/is Not a Significant Barrier to Muscle Glucose Uptake by the Working Muscle

Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985). Dec, 2006  |  Pubmed ID: 17106068

Chronic Treatment with Sildenafil Improves Energy Balance and Insulin Action in High Fat-fed Conscious Mice

Diabetes. Apr, 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 17229936

Stimulation of nitric oxide-cGMP signaling results in vascular relaxation and increased muscle glucose uptake. We show that chronically inhibiting cGMP hydrolysis with the phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor sildenafil improves energy balance and enhances in vivo insulin action in a mouse model of diet-induced insulin resistance. High-fat-fed mice treated with sildenafil plus L-arginine or sildenafil alone for 12 weeks had reduced weight and fat mass due to increased energy expenditure. However, uncoupling protein-1 levels were not increased in sildenafil-treated mice. Chronic treatment with sildenafil plus L-arginine or sildenafil alone increased arterial cGMP levels but did not adversely affect blood pressure or cardiac morphology. Sildenafil treatment, with or without l-arginine, resulted in lower fasting insulin and glucose levels and enhanced rates of glucose infusion, disappearance, and muscle glucose uptake during a hyperinsulinemic (4 mU x kg(-1) x min(-1))-euglycemic clamp in conscious mice. These effects occurred without an increase in activation of muscle insulin signaling. An acute treatment of high fat-fed mice with sildenafil plus l-arginine did not improve insulin action. These results show that phosphodiesterase-5 is a potential target for therapies aimed at preventing diet-induced energy imbalance and insulin resistance.

Glucose Kinetics and Exercise Tolerance in Mice Lacking the GLUT4 Glucose Transporter

The Journal of Physiology. Jul, 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 17495042

The absence of GLUT4 severely impairs basal glucose uptake in vivo, but does not alter glucose homeostasis or circulating insulin. Glucose uptake in isolated contracting skeletal muscle (MGU) is also impaired by the absence of GLUT4, and onset of muscle fatigue is hastened. Whether the body can compensate and preserve glucose homeostasis during exercise, as it does in the basal state, is unknown. One aim was to test the effectiveness of glucoregulatory compensation for the absence of GLUT4 in vivo. The absence of GLUT4 was also used to further define the role of hexokinase (HK) II, which catalyses glucose phosphorylation after it is transported in the cell. HK II increases MGU during exercise, as well as exercise endurance. In the absence of GLUT4, HK II expression will not affect MGU. A second aim was to test whether, in the absence of GLUT4, HK II retains its ability to increase exercise endurance. Wild-type (WT), GLUT4 null (GLUT4(-/-)), and GLUT4 null overexpressing HK II (GLUT4(-/-)HK(Tg)) mice were studied using a catheterized mouse model that allows blood sampling and isotope infusions during treadmill exercise. The impaired capacity of working muscle to take up glucose in GLUT4(-/-) is partially offset by an exaggerated increase in the glucagon: insulin ratio, increased liver glucose production, hyperglycaemia, and a greater capillary density in order to increase the delivery of glucose to the exercising muscle of GLUT4(-/-). Hearts of GLUT4(-/-) also exhibited a compensatory increase in HK II expression and a paradoxical increase in glucose uptake. Exercise tolerance was reduced in GLUT4(-/-) compared to WT. As expected, MGU in GLUT4(-/-)HK(Tg) was the same as in GLUT4(-/-). However, HK II overexpression retained its ability to increase exercise endurance. In conclusion, unlike the basal state where glucose homeostasis is preserved, hyperglycaemia results during exercise in GLUT4(-/-) due to a robust stimulation of liver glucose release in the face of severe impairments in MGU. Finally, studies in GLUT4(-/-)HK(Tg) show that HK II improves exercise tolerance, independent of its effects on MGU.

Phosphorylation Barriers to Skeletal and Cardiac Muscle Glucose Uptakes in High-fat Fed Mice: Studies in Mice with a 50% Reduction of Hexokinase II

Diabetes. Oct, 2007  |  Pubmed ID: 17639019

Muscle glucose uptake (MGU) is regulated by glucose delivery to, transport into, and phosphorylation within muscle. The aim of this study was to determine the role of limitations in glucose phosphorylation in the control of MGU during either physiological insulin stimulation (4 mU x kg(-1) x min(-1)) or exercise with chow or high-fat feeding.

Insulin Action in the Double Incretin Receptor Knockout Mouse

Diabetes. Feb, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 17977951

The incretins glucagon-like peptide 1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide have been postulated to play a role in regulating insulin action, although the mechanisms behind this relationship remain obscure. We used the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp to determine sites where insulin action may be modulated in double incretin receptor knockout (DIRKO) mice, which lack endogenous incretin action.

Glucose Metabolism in Vivo in Four Commonly Used Inbred Mouse Strains

Diabetes. Jul, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18398139

To characterize differences in whole-body glucose metabolism between commonly used inbred mouse strains.

Long Chain Fatty Acid Uptake in Vivo: Comparison of [125I]-BMIPP and [3H]-bromopalmitate

Lipids. Aug, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18481132

Insulin resistance is characterized by increased metabolic uptake of fatty acids. Accordingly, techniques to examine in vivo shifts in fatty acid metabolism are of value in both clinical and experimental settings. Partially metabolizable long chain fatty acid (LCFA) tracers have been recently developed and employed for this purpose: [9,10-3H]-(R)-2-bromopalmitate ([3H]-BROMO) and [125I]-15-(rho-iodophenyl)-3-R,S-methylpentadecanoic acid ([125I]-BMIPP). These analogues are taken up like native fatty acids, but once inside the cell do not directly enter beta-oxidation. Rather, they become trapped in the slower processes of omega and alpha-oxidation. Study aims were to (1) simultaneously assess and compare [3H]-BROMO and [125I]-BMIPP and (2) determine if tracer breakdown is affected by elevated metabolic demands. Catheters were implanted in a carotid artery and jugular vein of Sprague-Dawley rats. Following 5 days recovery, fasted animals (5 h) underwent a rest (n = 8) or exercise (n = 8) (0.6 mi/h) protocol. An instantaneous bolus containing both [3H]-BROMO and [125I]-BMIPP was administered to determine LCFA uptake. No significant difference between [125I]-BMIPP and [3H]-BROMO uptake was found in cardiac or skeletal muscle during rest or exercise. In liver, rates of uptake were more than doubled with [3H]-BROMO compared to [125I]-BMIPP. Analysis of tracer conversion by TLC demonstrated no difference at rest. Exercise resulted in greater metabolism and excretion of tracers with approximately 37% and approximately 53% of [125I]-BMIPP and [3H]-BROMO present in conversion products at 40 min. In conclusion, [3H]-BROMO and [125I]-BMIPP are indistinguishable for the determination of tissue kinetics at rest in skeletal and cardiac muscle. Exercise preferentially exacerbates the breakdown of [3H]-BROMO, making [125I]-BMIPP the analogue of choice for prolonged (>30 min) experimental protocols with elevated metabolic demands.

Markers of Glycemic Control in the Mouse: Comparisons of 6-h- and Overnight-fasted Blood Glucoses to Hb A1c

American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism. Oct, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18664598

The present studies examined the relationship between fasting blood glucose and Hb A(1c) in C57BL/6J, DBA/2J, and KK/HlJ mice with and without diabetes mellitus. Daily averaged blood glucose levels based on continuous glucose monitoring and effects of 6-h vs. overnight fasting on blood glucose were determined. Daily averaged blood glucose levels were highly correlated with Hb A(1c), as determined with a hand-held automated device using an immunodetection method. R(2) values were 0.90, 0.95, and 0.99 in KK/HIJ, C57BL/6J, and DBA/2J, respectively. Six-hour fasting blood glucose correlated more closely with the level of daily averaged blood glucose and with Hb A(1c) than did blood glucose following an overnight fast. To validate the immunoassay-determined Hb A(1c), we also measured total glycosylated hemoglobin using boronate HPLC. Hb A(1c) values correlated well with total glycosylated hemoglobin in all three strains but were relatively lower than total glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetic DBA/2J mice. These results show that 6-h fasting glucose provides a superior index of glycemic control and correlates more closely with Hb A(1c) than overnight-fasted blood glucose in these strains of mice.

Metabolic Implications of Reduced Heart-type Fatty Acid Binding Protein in Insulin Resistant Cardiac Muscle

Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta. Oct, 2008  |  Pubmed ID: 18692568

Insulin resistance is characterized by elevated rates of cardiac fatty acid utilization resulting in reduced efficiency and cardiomyopathy. One potential therapeutic approach is to limit the uptake and oxidation of fatty acids. The aims of this study were to determine whether a quantitative reduction in heart-type fatty acid binding protein (FABP3) normalizes cardiac substrate utilization without altering cardiac function. Transgenic (FABP3(+/-)) and wild-type (WT) littermates were studied following low fat (LF) or high fat (HF) diets, with HF resulting in obese, insulin-resistant mice. Cardiovascular function (systolic blood pressure, % fractional shortening) and heart dimension were measured at weaning and every month afterward for 3 mo. During this period cardiovascular function was the same independent of genotype and diet. Catheters were surgically implanted in the carotid artery and jugular vein for sampling and infusions in mice at 4 mo of age. Following 5 d recovery, mice underwent either a saline infusion or a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (4 mU kg(-1) min(-1)). Indices of long chain fatty acid and glucose utilization (R(f), R(g); mumol g wet weight(-1) min(-1)) were obtained using 2-deoxy[(3)H]glucose and [(125)I]-15-rho-iodophenyl)-3-R,S-methylpentadecanoic acid. FABP3(+/-) had enhanced cardiac R(g) compared with WT during saline infusion in both LF and HF. FABP3(+/-) abrogated the HF-induced decrement in insulin-stimulated cardiac R(g). On a HF diet, FABP(+/-) but not WT had an increased reliance on fatty acids (R(f)) during insulin stimulation. In conclusion, cardiac insulin resistance and glucose uptake is largely corrected by a reduction in FABP3 in vivo without contemporaneous deleterious effects on cardiac function.

Four Grams of Glucose

American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism. Jan, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 18840763

Four grams of glucose circulates in the blood of a person weighing 70 kg. This glucose is critical for normal function in many cell types. In accordance with the importance of these 4 g of glucose, a sophisticated control system is in place to maintain blood glucose constant. Our focus has been on the mechanisms by which the flux of glucose from liver to blood and from blood to skeletal muscle is regulated. The body has a remarkable capacity to satisfy the nutritional need for glucose, while still maintaining blood glucose homeostasis. The essential role of glucagon and insulin and the importance of distributed control of glucose fluxes are highlighted in this review. With regard to the latter, studies are presented that show how regulation of muscle glucose uptake is regulated by glucose delivery to muscle, glucose transport into muscle, and glucose phosphorylation within muscle.

The Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Receptor Regulates Endogenous Glucose Production and Muscle Glucose Uptake Independent of Its Incretin Action

Endocrinology. Mar, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19008308

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) diminishes postmeal glucose excursions by enhancing insulin secretion via activation of the beta-cell GLP-1 receptor (Glp1r). GLP-1 may also control glucose levels through mechanisms that are independent of this incretin effect. The hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (insulin clamp) and exercise were used to examine the incretin-independent glucoregulatory properties of the Glp1r because both perturbations stimulate glucose flux independent of insulin secretion. Chow-fed mice with a functional disruption of the Glp1r (Glp1r(-/-)) were compared with wild-type littermates (Glp1r(+/+)). Studies were performed on 5-h-fasted mice implanted with arterial and venous catheters for sampling and infusions, respectively. During insulin clamps, [3-(3)H]glucose and 2[(14)C]deoxyglucose were used to determine whole-body glucose turnover and glucose metabolic index (R(g)), an indicator of glucose uptake. R(g) in sedentary and treadmill exercised mice was determined using 2[(3)H]deoxyglucose. Glp1r(-/-) mice exhibited increased glucose disappearance, muscle R(g), and muscle glycogen levels during insulin clamps. This was not associated with enhanced muscle insulin signaling. Glp1r(-/-) mice exhibited impaired suppression of endogenous glucose production and hepatic glycogen accumulation during insulin clamps. This was associated with impaired liver insulin signaling. Glp1r(-/-) mice became significantly hyperglycemic during exercise. Muscle R(g) was normal in exercised Glp1r(-/-) mice, suggesting that hyperglycemia resulted from an added drive to stimulate glucose production. Muscle AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation was higher in exercised Glp1r(-/-) mice. This was associated with increased relative exercise intensity and decreased exercise endurance. In conclusion, these results show that the endogenous Glp1r regulates hepatic and muscle glucose flux independent of its ability to enhance insulin secretion.

Mitochondrial H2O2 Emission and Cellular Redox State Link Excess Fat Intake to Insulin Resistance in Both Rodents and Humans

The Journal of Clinical Investigation. Mar, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19188683

High dietary fat intake leads to insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, and this represents a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress have been implicated in the disease process, but the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. Here we show that in skeletal muscle of both rodents and humans, a diet high in fat increases the H(2)O(2)-emitting potential of mitochondria, shifts the cellular redox environment to a more oxidized state, and decreases the redox-buffering capacity in the absence of any change in mitochondrial respiratory function. Furthermore, we show that attenuating mitochondrial H(2)O(2) emission, either by treating rats with a mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant or by genetically engineering the overexpression of catalase in mitochondria of muscle in mice, completely preserves insulin sensitivity despite a high-fat diet. These findings place the etiology of insulin resistance in the context of mitochondrial bioenergetics by demonstrating that mitochondrial H(2)O(2) emission serves as both a gauge of energy balance and a regulator of cellular redox environment, linking intracellular metabolic balance to the control of insulin sensitivity.

Fibroblast Growth Factor 21 Controls Glycemia Via Regulation of Hepatic Glucose Flux and Insulin Sensitivity

Endocrinology. Sep, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19470704

Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a novel metabolic regulator shown to improve glycemic control. However, the molecular and functional mechanisms underlying FGF21-mediated improvements in glycemic control are not completely understood. We examined FGF21 effects on insulin sensitivity and glucose fluxes upon chronic (daily injection for 8 d) and acute (6 h infusion) administration in ob/+ and ob/ob mice. Results show that chronic FGF21 ameliorated fasting hyperglycemia in ob/ob mice via increased glucose disposal and improved hepatic insulin sensitivity. Acute FGF21 suppressed hepatic glucose production, increased liver glycogen, lowered glucagon, and improved glucose clearance in ob/+ mice. These effects were blunted in ob/ob mice. Neither chronic nor acute FGF21 altered skeletal muscle or adipose tissue glucose uptake in either genotype. In conclusion, FGF21 has potent glycemic effects caused by hepatic changes in glucose flux and improved insulin sensitivity. Thus, these studies define mechanisms underlying anti-hyperglycemic actions of FGF21 and support its therapeutic potential.

Skeletal Muscle AMP-activated Protein Kinase is Essential for the Metabolic Response to Exercise in Vivo

The Journal of Biological Chemistry. Sep, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19525228

AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) has been postulated as a super-metabolic regulator, thought to exert numerous effects on skeletal muscle function, metabolism, and enzymatic signaling. Despite these assertions, little is known regarding the direct role(s) of AMPK in vivo, and results obtained in vitro or in situ are conflicting. Using a chronically catheterized mouse model (carotid artery and jugular vein), we show that AMPK regulates skeletal muscle metabolism in vivo at several levels, with the result that a deficit in AMPK activity markedly impairs exercise tolerance. Compared with wild-type littermates at the same relative exercise capacity, vascular glucose delivery and skeletal muscle glucose uptake were impaired; skeletal muscle ATP degradation was accelerated, and arterial lactate concentrations were increased in mice expressing a kinase-dead AMPKalpha2 subunit (alpha2-KD) in skeletal muscle. Nitric-oxide synthase (NOS) activity was significantly impaired at rest and in response to exercise in alpha2-KD mice; expression of neuronal NOS (NOSmicro) was also reduced. Moreover, complex I and IV activities of the electron transport chain were impaired 32 +/- 8 and 50 +/- 7%, respectively, in skeletal muscle of alpha2-KD mice (p < 0.05 versus wild type), indicative of impaired mitochondrial function. Thus, AMPK regulates neuronal NOSmicro expression, NOS activity, and mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle. In addition, these results clarify the role of AMPK in the control of muscle glucose uptake during exercise. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that AMPK is central to substrate metabolism in vivo, which has important implications for exercise tolerance in health and certain disease states characterized by impaired AMPK activation in skeletal muscle.

NIH Experiment in Centralized Mouse Phenotyping: the Vanderbilt Experience and Recommendations for Evaluating Glucose Homeostasis in the Mouse

American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism. Oct, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19638507

This article addresses two topics. We provide an overview of the National Institutes of Health Mouse Metabolic Phenotyping Center (MMPC) Program. We then discuss some observations we have made during the first eight years of the Vanderbilt MMPC regarding common phenotyping practices. We include specific recommendations to improve phenotyping practices for tests of glucose tolerance and insulin action. We recommend that methods for experiments in vivo be described in manuscripts. We make specific recommendations for data presentation, interpretation, and experimental design for each test. To facilitate and maximize the exchange of scientific information, we suggest that guidelines be developed for methods used to assess glucose tolerance and insulin action in vivo.

Hepatic Energy State is Regulated by Glucagon Receptor Signaling in Mice

The Journal of Clinical Investigation. Aug, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19662685

The hepatic energy state, defined by adenine nucleotide levels, couples metabolic pathways with energy requirements. This coupling is fundamental in the adaptive response to many conditions and is impaired in metabolic disease. We have found that the hepatic energy state is substantially reduced following exercise, fasting, and exposure to other metabolic stressors in C57BL/6 mice. Glucagon receptor signaling was hypothesized to mediate this reduction because increased plasma levels of glucagon are characteristic of metabolic stress and because this hormone stimulates energy consumption linked to increased gluconeogenic flux through cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-C) and associated pathways. We developed what we believe to be a novel hyperglucagonemic-euglycemic clamp to isolate an increment in glucagon levels while maintaining fasting glucose and insulin. Metabolic stress and a physiological rise in glucagon lowered the hepatic energy state and amplified AMP-activated protein kinase signaling in control mice, but these changes were abolished in glucagon receptor- null mice and mice with liver-specific PEPCK-C deletion. 129X1/Sv mice, which do not mount a glucagon response to hypoglycemia, displayed an increased hepatic energy state compared with C57BL/6 mice in which glucagon was elevated. Taken together, these data demonstrate in vivo that the hepatic energy state is sensitive to glucagon receptor activation and requires PEPCK-C, thus providing new insights into liver metabolism.

Lost in Translation

Diabetes. Sep, 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19720822

Circadian Clock Gene Bmal1 is Not Essential; Functional Replacement with Its Paralog, Bmal2

Current Biology : CB. Feb, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20153195

Most of the central circadian clock genes in the mouse exist as paralog pairs (Per1 and Per2, Cry1 and Cry2, Clock and Npas2) in which each gene of the pair must be knocked out to confer arrhythmicity. The only exception to this pattern is Bmal1 (also known as Mop3), the single knockout of which confers arrhythmicity, despite the presence of its paralog, Bmal2 (also known as Mop9). The knockout of Bmal1 also has significant effects on longevity, metabolism, etc. These results have led to the conclusion that Bmal1 is a singularly essential clock gene and that Bmal2 has a minimal role in the clock system. In contrast, we find that expression of Bmal2 from a constitutively expressed promoter can rescue the clock and metabolic phenotypes of Bmal1-knockout mice, including rhythmic locomotor activity, rhythmic metabolism, low body weight, and enhanced fat deposition. Combined with the data of Bunger and colleagues, who reported that knockout of Bmal1 downregulates Bmal2, we conclude that Bmal1 and Bmal2 form a circadian paralog pair that is functionally redundant and that, in the mouse, Bmal2 is regulated by Bmal1 such that knockout of Bmal1 alone results in a functionally double Bmal1 and Bmal2 knockout. Therefore, the role(s) of Bmal2 may be more important than has been appreciated heretofore.

Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase is Central to Skeletal Muscle Metabolic Regulation and Enzymatic Signaling During Exercise in Vivo

American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology. May, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20200137

Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is associated with a number of physiological functions involved in the regulation of metabolism; however, the functional role of eNOS is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that eNOS is critical to muscle cell signaling and fuel usage during exercise in vivo, using 16-wk-old catheterized (carotid artery and jugular vein) C57BL/6J mice with wild-type (WT), partial (+/-), or no expression (-/-) of eNOS. Quantitative reductions in eNOS expression ( approximately 40%) elicited many of the phenotypic effects observed in enos(-/-) mice under fasted, sedentary conditions, with expression of oxidative phosphorylation complexes I to V and ATP levels being decreased, and total NOS activity and Ca(2+)/CaM kinase II Thr(286) phosphorylation being increased in skeletal muscle. Despite these alterations, exercise tolerance was markedly impaired in enos(-/-) mice during an acute 30-min bout of exercise. An eNOS-dependent effect was observed with regard to AMP-activated protein kinase signaling and muscle perfusion. Muscle glucose and long-chain fatty acid uptake, and hepatic and skeletal muscle glycogenolysis during the exercise bout was markedly accelerated in enos(-/-) mice compared with enos(+/-) and WT mice. Correspondingly, enos(-/-) mice exhibited hypoglycemia during exercise. Thus, the ablation of eNOS alters a number of physiological processes that result in impaired exercise capacity in vivo. The finding that a partial reduction in eNOS expression is sufficient to induce many of the changes associated with ablation of eNOS has implications for chronic metabolic diseases, such as obesity and insulin resistance, which are associated with reduced eNOS expression.

Glucagon and Lipid Interactions in the Regulation of Hepatic AMPK Signaling and Expression of PPARalpha and FGF21 Transcripts in Vivo

American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism. Oct, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20663988

Hepatic glucagon action increases in response to accelerated metabolic demands and is associated with increased whole body substrate availability, including circulating lipids. The hypothesis that increases in hepatic glucagon action stimulate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) expression in a manner modulated by fatty acids was tested in vivo. Wild-type (gcgr(+/+)) and glucagon receptor-null (gcgr(-/-)) littermate mice were studied using an 18-h fast, exercise, and hyperglucagonemic-euglycemic clamps plus or minus increased circulating lipids. Fasting and exercise in gcgr(+/+), but not gcgr(-/-) mice, increased hepatic phosphorylated AMPKα at threonine 172 (p-AMPK(Thr(172))) and PPARα and FGF21 mRNA. Clamp results in gcgr(+/+) mice demonstrate that hyperlipidemia does not independently impact or modify glucagon-stimulated increases in hepatic AMP/ATP, p-AMPK(Thr(172)), or PPARα and FGF21 mRNA. It blunted glucagon-stimulated acetyl-CoA carboxylase phosphorylation, a downstream target of AMPK, and accentuated PPARα and FGF21 expression. All effects were absent in gcgr(-/-) mice. These findings demonstrate that glucagon exerts a critical regulatory role in liver to stimulate pathways linked to lipid metabolism in vivo and shows for the first time that effects of glucagon on PPARα and FGF21 expression are amplified by a physiological increase in circulating lipids.

Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Receptor Knockout Mice Are Protected from High-fat Diet-induced Insulin Resistance

Endocrinology. Oct, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20685876

Glucagon-like peptide-1 augments nutrient-stimulated insulin secretion. Chow-fed mice lacking the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (Glp1r) exhibit enhanced insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake but impaired suppression of endogenous glucose appearance (endoRa). This proposes a novel role for the Glp1r to regulate the balance of glucose disposal in muscle and liver by modulating insulin action. Whether this is maintained in an insulin-resistant state is unknown. The present studies tested the hypothesis that disruption of Glp1r expression overcomes high-fat (HF) diet-induced muscle insulin resistance and exacerbates HF diet-induced hepatic insulin resistance. Mice with a functional disruption of the Glp1r (Glp1r-/-) were compared with wild-type littermates (Glp1r+/+) after 12 wk on a regular chow diet or a HF diet. Arterial and venous catheters were implanted for sampling and infusions. Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps were performed on weight-matched male mice. [3-(3)H]glucose was used to determine glucose turnover, and 2[14C]deoxyglucose was used to measure the glucose metabolic index, an indicator of glucose uptake. Glp1r-/- mice exhibited increased glucose disappearance and muscle glucose metabolic index on either diet. This was associated with enhanced activation of muscle Akt and AMP-activated protein kinase and reduced muscle triglycerides in HF-fed Glp1r-/- mice. Chow-fed Glp1r-/- mice exhibited impaired suppression of endoRa and hepatic insulin signaling. In contrast, HF-fed Glp1r-/- mice exhibited improved suppression of endoRa and hepatic Akt activation. This was associated with decreased hepatic triglycerides and impaired activation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1. These results show that mice lacking the Glp1r are protected from HF diet-induced muscle and hepatic insulin resistance independent of effects on total fat mass.

Standard Operating Procedures for Describing and Performing Metabolic Tests of Glucose Homeostasis in Mice

Disease Models & Mechanisms. Sep-Oct, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 20713647

The Mouse Metabolic Phenotyping Center (MMPC) Consortium was established to address the need to characterize the growing number of mouse models of metabolic diseases, particularly diabetes and obesity. A goal of the MMPC Consortium is to propose standard methods for assessing metabolic phenotypes in mice. In this article, we discuss issues pertaining to the design and performance of various tests of glucose metabolism. We also propose guidelines for the description of methods, presentation of data and interpretation of results. The recommendations presented in this article are based on the experience of the MMPC Consortium and other investigators.

The Physiological Regulation of Glucose Flux into Muscle in Vivo

The Journal of Experimental Biology. Jan, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21177945

Skeletal muscle glucose uptake increases dramatically in response to physical exercise. Moreover, skeletal muscle comprises the vast majority of insulin-sensitive tissue and is a site of dysregulation in the insulin-resistant state. The biochemical and histological composition of the muscle is well defined in a variety of species. However, the functional consequences of muscle biochemical and histological adaptations to physiological and pathophysiological conditions are not well understood. The physiological regulation of muscle glucose uptake is complex. Sites involved in the regulation of muscle glucose uptake are defined by a three-step process consisting of: (1) delivery of glucose to muscle, (2) transport of glucose into the muscle by GLUT4 and (3) phosphorylation of glucose within the muscle by a hexokinase (HK). Muscle blood flow, capillary recruitment and extracellular matrix characteristics determine glucose movement from the blood to the interstitium. Plasma membrane GLUT4 content determines glucose transport into the cell. Muscle HK activity, cellular HK compartmentalization and the concentration of the HK inhibitor glucose 6-phosphate determine the capacity to phosphorylate glucose. Phosphorylation of glucose is irreversible in muscle; therefore, with this reaction, glucose is trapped and the uptake process is complete. Emphasis has been placed on the role of the glucose transport step for glucose influx into muscle with the past assertion that membrane transport is rate limiting. More recent research definitively shows that the distributed control paradigm more accurately defines the regulation of muscle glucose uptake as each of the three steps that define this process are important sites of flux control.

Mice with AS160/TBC1D4-Thr649Ala Knockin Mutation Are Glucose Intolerant with Reduced Insulin Sensitivity and Altered GLUT4 Trafficking

Cell Metabolism. Jan, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21195350

AS160 has emerged as a key player in insulin-mediated glucose transport through controlling GLUT4 trafficking, which is thought to be regulated by insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of sites including the 14-3-3 binding phospho-Thr649 (equivalent to Thr642 in human AS160). To define physiological roles of AS160-Thr649 phosphorylation and 14-3-3 binding in glucose homeostasis, we substituted this residue by a nonphosphorylatable alanine by knockin mutation in mice. The mutant protein was expressed at normal levels, while insulin-stimulated AS160 binding to 14-3-3s was abolished in homozygous knockin mice. These animals displayed impaired glucose disposal and insulin sensitivity, which were associated with decreased glucose uptake in vivo. Insulin-stimulated glucose transport and cell surface GLUT4 content were reduced in isolated muscles, but not in adipocytes. These results provide genetic evidence that insulin-induced AS160-Thr649 phosphorylation and/or its binding to 14-3-3 play an important role in regulating whole-body glucose homeostasis, at least in part through regulating GLUT4 trafficking in muscle.

Role of TAPP1 and TAPP2 Adaptor Binding to PtdIns(3,4)P2 in Regulating Insulin Sensitivity Defined by Knock-in Analysis

The Biochemical Journal. Mar, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21204784

Insulin sensitivity is critically dependent on the activity of PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) and generation of the PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) second messenger. PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) can be broken down to PtdIns(3,4)P(2) through the action of the SHIPs (Src-homology-2-domain-containing inositol phosphatases). As PtdIns(3,4)P(2) levels peak after those of PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3), it has been proposed that PtdIns(3,4)P(2) controls a negative-feedback loop that down-regulates the insulin and PI3K network. Previously, we identified two related adaptor proteins termed TAPP [tandem PH (pleckstrin homology)-domain-containing protein] 1 and TAPP2 that specifically bind to PtdIns(3,4)P(2) through their C-terminal PH domain. To determine whether TAPP1 and TAPP2 play a role in regulating insulin sensitivity, we generated knock-in mice that express normal endogenous levels of mutant TAPP1 and TAPP2 that are incapable of binding PtdIns(3,4)P(2). These homozygous TAPP1(R211L/R211L) TAPP2(R218L/R218L) double knock-in mice are viable and exhibit significantly enhanced activation of Akt, a key downstream mediator of insulin signalling. Consistent with increased PI3K and Akt activity, the double knock-in mice display enhanced whole body insulin sensitivity and disposal of glucose uptake into muscle tissues. We also generated wild-type and double TAPP1(R211L/R211L) TAPP2(R218L/R218L) knock-in embryonic fibroblasts and found that insulin triggered enhanced production of PtdIns(3,4,5)P(3) and Akt activity in the double knock-in fibroblasts. These observations provide the first genetic evidence to support the notion that binding of TAPP1 and TAPP2 adap-tors to PtdIns(3,4)P(2) function as negative regulators of the insulin and PI3K signalling pathways.

Diet-induced Muscle Insulin Resistance is Associated with Extracellular Matrix Remodeling and Interaction with Integrin Alpha2beta1 in Mice

Diabetes. Feb, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21270253

The hypothesis that high-fat (HF) feeding causes skeletal muscle extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling in C57BL/6J mice and that this remodeling contributes to diet-induced muscle insulin resistance (IR) through the collagen receptor integrin α(2)β(1) was tested.

Assessment of Different Bariatric Surgeries in the Treatment of Obesity and Insulin Resistance in Mice

Annals of Surgery. Jul, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21522012

To assess the effects of different bariatric surgical procedures on the treatment of obesity and insulin resistance in high fat diet-induced obese (DIO) mice.

Hepatic Glucagon Action is Essential for Exercise-induced Reversal of Mouse Fatty Liver

Diabetes. Nov, 2011  |  Pubmed ID: 21885872

Exercise is an effective intervention to treat fatty liver. However, the mechanism(s) that underlie exercise-induced reductions in fatty liver are unclear. Here we tested the hypothesis that exercise requires hepatic glucagon action to reduce fatty liver.

Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation for the Infarcted Heart: a Role in Minimizing Abnormalities in Cardiac-specific Energy Metabolism

American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism. Jan, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 21971524

Intense interest has been focused on cell-based therapy for the infarcted heart given that stem cells have exhibited the ability to reduce infarct size and mitigate cardiac dysfunction. Despite this, it is unknown whether mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy can prevent metabolic remodeling following a myocardial infarction (MI). This study examines the ability of MSCs to rescue the infarcted heart from perturbed substrate uptake in vivo. C57BL/6 mice underwent chronic ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery to induce a MI. Echocardiography was performed on conscious mice at baseline as well as 7 and 23 days post-MI. Twenty-eight days following the ligation procedure, hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamps assessed in vivo insulin sensitivity. Isotopic tracer administration evaluated whole body, peripheral tissue, and cardiac-specific glucose and fatty acid utilization. To gain insight into the mechanisms by which MSCs modulate metabolism, mitochondrial function was assessed by high-resolution respirometry using permeabilized cardiac fibers. Data show that MSC transplantation preserves insulin-stimulated fatty acid uptake in the peri-infarct region (4.25 ± 0.64 vs. 2.57 ± 0.34 vs. 3.89 ± 0.54 μmol·100 g(-1)·min(-1), SHAM vs. MI + PBS vs. MI + MSC; P < 0.05) and prevents increases in glucose uptake in the remote left ventricle (3.11 ± 0.43 vs. 3.81 ± 0.79 vs. 6.36 ± 1.08 μmol·100 g(-1)·min(-1), SHAM vs. MI + PBS vs. MI + MSC; P < 0.05). This was associated with an enhanced efficiency of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation with a respiratory control ratio of 3.36 ± 0.18 in MSC-treated cardiac fibers vs. 2.57 ± 0.14 in the infarct-only fibers (P < 0.05). In conclusion, MSC therapy exhibits the potential to rescue the heart from metabolic aberrations following a MI. Restoration of metabolic flexibility is important given the metabolic demands of the heart and the role of energetics in the progression to heart failure.

Overproduction of Angiotensinogen from Adipose Tissue Induces Adipose Inflammation, Glucose Intolerance, and Insulin Resistance

Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.). Jan, 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 21979391

Although obesity is associated with overactivation of the white adipose tissue (WAT) renin-angiotensin system (RAS), a causal link between the latter and systemic insulin resistance is not established. We tested the hypothesis that overexpression of angiotensinogen (Agt) from WAT causes systemic insulin resistance via modulation of adipose inflammation. Glucose tolerance, systemic insulin sensitivity, and WAT inflammatory markers were analyzed in mice overexpressing Agt in the WAT (aP2-Agt mice). Proteomic studies and in vitro studies using 3T3-L1 adipocytes were performed to build a mechanistic framework. Male aP2-Agt mice exhibited glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and lower insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by the skeletal muscle. The difference in glucose tolerance between genotypes was normalized by high-fat (HF) feeding, and was significantly improved by treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor captopril. aP2-Agt mice also had higher monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and lower interleukin-10 (IL-10) in the WAT, indicating adipose inflammation. Proteomic studies in WAT showed that they also had higher monoglyceride lipase (MGL) and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase levels. Treatment with angiotensin II (Ang II) increased MCP-1 and resistin secretion from adipocytes, which was prevented by cotreating with inhibitors of the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway or nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase. In conclusion, we show for the first time that adipose RAS overactivation causes glucose intolerance and systemic insulin resistance. The mechanisms appear to be via reduced skeletal muscle glucose uptake, at least in part due to Ang II-induced, NADPH oxidase and NFκB-dependent increases in WAT inflammation.

Disassociation of Muscle Insulin Signaling and Insulin-Stimulated Glucose Uptake During Endotoxemia

PloS One. 2012  |  Pubmed ID: 22276152

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) elicits a strong immune response, which leads to the release of inflammatory cytokines. Increased cytokine production has been shown to impair insulin-mediated glucose disposal. LPS can alter other factors, such as muscle blood flow and insulin signaling in the myocyte,that can influence glucose disposal. We hypothesize that LPS induced impairments in cardiovascular function contribute to the associated impairments in insulin action in vivo. Male wild-type C57BL/6J mice had a catheter implanted in the jugular vein for infusions and the carotid artery for sampling 5 days prior to the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Mice were treated with vehicle, low-(1 ug/gBW) or high-dose (10 ug/gBW) LPS 4 hours prior to the clamp. Muscle glucose uptake (MGU) was assessed using [2-(14)C] deoxyglucose. While both low- and high-dose LPS inhibited insulin-stimulated MGU compared to vehicle-treated mice, the impairment was more significant with the high-dose treatment (∼25% in soleus and ∼70% in both gastrocnemius and vastus lateralis). Interestingly, insulin signaling through the PI3-kinase pathway in the muscle was not affected by this treatment suggesting that the decrease in MGU is not directly due to impairments in muscle insulin action. Echocardiography demonstrated that high-dose LPS treatment significantly decreased stroke volume (∼30%), heart rate (∼35%), and cardiac output (∼50%). These observations were not seen with vehicle or low-dose LPS treatment. High-dose LPS treatment also significantly decreased muscle blood flow (∼70%) and whole body oxygen consumption (∼50%). Thus, in vivo acute endotoxemia does not impair insulin signaling through the PI3-kinase pathway in skeletal muscle and decreased tissue blood flow likely plays a central role in the impairment of glucose uptake in the muscle.

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