Articles by David J. Zielinski in JoVE
Human Fear Conditioning Conducted in Full Immersion 3-Dimensional Virtual Reality Nicole C. Huff1, David J. Zielinski2, Matthew E. Fecteau1, Rachael Brady2, Kevin S. LaBar1 1Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, Duke University, 2Pratt School of Engineering, Duke University Classical fear conditioning paradigm was adapted for human participants in a fully immersive virtual reality setting. Using a discrimination paradigm, conditioned fear, cue and context memory retention, and extinction was measured with skin conductance response to dynamic virtual snakes and spiders (the conditioned stimuli) in two distinct virtual contexts.
Other articles by David J. Zielinski on PubMed
KinImmerse: Macromolecular VR for NMR Ensembles Source Code for Biology and Medicine. 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19222844 In molecular applications, virtual reality (VR) and immersive virtual environments have generally been used and valued for the visual and interactive experience - to enhance intuition and communicate excitement - rather than as part of the actual research process. In contrast, this work develops a software infrastructure for research use and illustrates such use on a specific case.
Revealing Context-specific Conditioned Fear Memories with Full Immersion Virtual Reality Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience. 2011 | Pubmed ID: 22069384 The extinction of conditioned fear is known to be context-specific and is often considered more contextually bound than the fear memory itself (Bouton, 2004). Yet, recent findings in rodents have challenged the notion that contextual fear retention is initially generalized. The context-specificity of a cued fear memory to the learning context has not been addressed in the human literature largely due to limitations in methodology. Here we adapt a novel technology to test the context-specificity of cued fear conditioning using full immersion 3-D virtual reality (VR). During acquisition training, healthy participants navigated through virtual environments containing dynamic snake and spider conditioned stimuli (CSs), one of which was paired with electrical wrist stimulation. During a 24-h delayed retention test, one group returned to the same context as acquisition training whereas another group experienced the CSs in a novel context. Unconditioned stimulus expectancy ratings were assayed on-line during fear acquisition as an index of contingency awareness. Skin conductance responses time-locked to CS onset were the dependent measure of cued fear, and skin conductance levels during the interstimulus interval were an index of context fear. Findings indicate that early in acquisition training, participants express contingency awareness as well as differential contextual fear, whereas differential cued fear emerged later in acquisition. During the retention test, differential cued fear retention was enhanced in the group who returned to the same context as acquisition training relative to the context shift group. The results extend recent rodent work to illustrate differences in cued and context fear acquisition and the contextual specificity of recent fear memories. Findings support the use of full immersion VR as a novel tool in cognitive neuroscience to bridge rodent models of contextual phenomena underlying human clinical disorders.