Articles by David Kitzenberg in JoVE
Forward Genetic Approach to Uncover Stress Resistance Genes in Mice — A High-throughput Screen in ES Cells Michael Ludwig1, David Kitzenberg1, Wallace S. Chick1 1Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Colorado Denver Stress resistance is one of the hallmarks for longevity and is known to be genetically governed. Here, we developed an unbiased high-throughput method to screen for mutations that confer stress resistance in ES cells with which to develop mouse models for longevity studies.
Other articles by David Kitzenberg on PubMed
Dietary Restriction in C. Elegans: Recent Advances Experimental Gerontology. Oct, 2013 | Pubmed ID: 23462461 The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans continues to serve as a useful model of life extension caused by dietary restriction. Using this model, downstream effectors of dietary restriction-induced longevity have been elucidated, including neuropeptides and cell-surface receptors. Although it remains possible that different forms of dietary restriction may utilize both specific and overlapping mechanisms to promote longevity, the nematode model has revealed roles for autophagy, metabolic energy-sensing and the hypoxic response. The nematode has also been used to identify specific tissues required for life extension via DR, including coelomocytes, intestine, and neurons.
Screening for Stress-resistance Mutations in the Mouse Frontiers in Genetics. 2014 | Pubmed ID: 25250048 Longevity is correlated with stress resistance in many animal models. However, previous efforts through the boosting of the antioxidant defense system did not extend life span, suggesting that longevity related stress resistance is mediated by other uncharacterized pathways. We have developed a high-throughput platform for screening and rapid identification of novel genetic mutants in the mouse that are stress resistant. Selection for resistance to stressors occurs in mutagenized mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, which are carefully treated so as to maintain pluripotency for mouse production. Initial characterization of these mutant ES cells revealed mutations in Pigl, Tiam1, and Rffl, among others. These genes are implicated in glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosynthesis, NADPH oxidase function, and inflammation. These mutants: (1) are resistant to two different oxidative stressors, paraquat and the omission of 2-mercaptoethanol, (2) have reduced levels of endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS), (3) are capable of generating live mice, and (4) transmit the stress resistance phenotype to the mice. This strategy offers an efficient way to select for new mutants expressing a stress resistance phenotype, to rapidly identify the causative genes, and to develop mice for in vivo studies.
HIF-dependent Regulation of Claudin-1 is Central to Intestinal Epithelial Tight Junction Integrity Molecular Biology of the Cell. Jun, 2015 | Pubmed ID: 25904334 Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) are exposed to profound fluctuations in oxygen tension and have evolved adaptive transcriptional responses to a low-oxygen environment. These adaptations are mediated primarily through the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) complex. Given the central role of the IEC in barrier function, we sought to determine whether HIF influenced epithelial tight junction (TJ) structure and function. Initial studies revealed that short hairpin RNA-mediated depletion of the HIF1β in T84 cells resulted in profound defects in barrier and nonuniform, undulating TJ morphology. Global HIF1α chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis identified claudin-1 (CLDN1) as a prominent HIF target gene. Analysis of HIF1β-deficient IEC revealed significantly reduced levels of CLDN1. Overexpression of CLDN1 in HIF1β-deficient cells resulted in resolution of morphological abnormalities and restoration of barrier function. ChIP and site-directed mutagenesis revealed prominent hypoxia response elements in the CLDN1 promoter region. Subsequent in vivo analysis revealed the importance of HIF-mediated CLDN1 expression during experimental colitis. These results identify a critical link between HIF and specific tight junction function, providing important insight into mechanisms of HIF-regulated epithelial homeostasis.