In JoVE (1)
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Articles by Dean Larner in JoVE
Adult and Embryonic Skeletal Muscle Microexplant Culture and Isolation of Skeletal Muscle Stem Cells Deborah Merrick1, Hung-Chih Chen1, Dean Larner1, Janet Smith1 1School of Biosciences, University of Birmingham The micro-dissected explants technique is a robust and reliable method for isolating proliferative skeletal muscle cells from juvenile, adult or embryonic muscles as a source of skeletal muscle stem cells. Uniquely, these cells have been clonally derived to produce skeletal muscle stem cell lines used for in vivo transplantation.
Other articles by Dean Larner on PubMed
Muscular Dystrophy Begins Early in Embryonic Development Deriving from Stem Cell Loss and Disrupted Skeletal Muscle Formation Disease Models & Mechanisms. Jul-Aug, 2009 | Pubmed ID: 19535499 Examination of embryonic myogenesis of two distinct, but functionally related, skeletal muscle dystrophy mutants (mdx and cav-3(-/-)) establishes for the first time that key elements of the pathology of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 1C (LGMD-1c) originate in the disruption of the embryonic cardiac and skeletal muscle patterning processes. Disruption of myogenesis occurs earlier in mdx mutants, which lack a functional form of dystrophin, than in cav-3(-/-) mutants, which lack the Cav3 gene that encodes the protein caveolin-3; this finding is consistent with the milder phenotype of LGMD-1c, a condition caused by mutations in Cav3, and the earlier [embryonic day (E)9.5] expression of dystrophin. Myogenesis is severely disrupted in mdx embryos, which display developmental delays; myotube morphology and displacement defects; and aberrant stem cell behaviour. In addition, the caveolin-3 protein is elevated in mdx embryos. Both cav-3(-/-) and mdx mutants (from E15.5 and E11.5, respectively) exhibit hyperproliferation and apoptosis of Myf5-positive embryonic myoblasts; attrition of Pax7-positive myoblasts in situ; and depletion of total Pax7 protein in late gestation. Furthermore, both cav-3(-/-) and mdx mutants have cardiac defects. In cav-3(-/-) mutants, there is a more restricted phenotype comprising hypaxial muscle defects, an excess of malformed hypertrophic myotubes, a twofold increase in myonuclei, and reduced fast myosin heavy chain (FMyHC) content. Several mdx mutant embryo pathologies, including myotube hypotrophy, reduced myotube numbers and increased FMyHC, have reciprocity with cav-3(-/-) mutants. In double mutant (mdxcav-3(+/-)) embryos that are deficient in dystrophin (mdx) and heterozygous for caveolin-3 (cav-3(+/-)), whereby caveolin-3 is reduced to 50% of wild-type (WT) levels, these phenotypes are severely exacerbated: intercostal muscle fibre density is reduced by 71%, and Pax7-positive cells are depleted entirely from the lower limbs and severely attenuated elsewhere; these data suggest a compensatory rather than a contributory role for the elevated caveolin-3 levels that are found in mdx embryos. These data establish a key role for dystrophin in early muscle formation and demonstrate that caveolin-3 and dystrophin are essential for correct fibre-type specification and emergent stem cell function. These data plug a significant gap in the natural history of muscular dystrophy and will be invaluable in establishing an earlier diagnosis for DMD/LGMD and in designing earlier treatment protocols, leading to better clinical outcome for these patients.