Articles by Diego Bertoli in JoVE
Simultaneous Quantification of T-Cell Receptor Excision Circles (TRECs) and K-Deleting Recombination Excision Circles (KRECs) by Real-time PCR Alessandra Sottini1, Federico Serana1, Diego Bertoli1, Marco Chiarini1, Monica Valotti1, Marion Vaglio Tessitore1, Luisa Imberti1 1CREA, Diagnostics Department, Spedali Civili di Brescia Here, we describe a method for simultaneous quantification of T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) and K-deleting recombination excision circles (KRECs). The TREC/KREC assay can be used as marker of thymic and bone marrow output.
Other articles by Diego Bertoli on PubMed
Use of V(D)J Recombination Excision Circles to Identify T- and B-cell Defects and to Monitor the Treatment in Primary and Acquired Immunodeficiencies Journal of Translational Medicine. 2013 | Pubmed ID: 23656963 T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) and kappa-deleting recombination excision circles (KRECs) are circular DNA segments generated in T and B cells during their maturation in the thymus and bone marrow. These circularized DNA elements persist in the cells, are unable to replicate, and are diluted as a result of cell division, thus are considered markers of new lymphocyte output. The quantification of TRECs and KRECs, which can be reliably performed using singleplex or duplex real-time quantitative PCR, provides novel information in the management of T- and B-cell immunity-related diseases. In primary immunodeficiencies, when combined with flow cytometric analysis of T- and B-cell subpopulations, the measure of TRECs and KRECs has contributed to an improved characterization of the diseases, to the identification of patients' subgroups, and to the monitoring of stem cell transplantation and enzyme replacement therapy. For the same diseases, the TREC and KREC assays, introduced in the newborn screening program, allow early disease identification and may lead to discovery of new genetic defects. TREC and KREC levels can also been used as a surrogate marker of lymphocyte output in acquired immunodeficiencies. The low number of TRECs, which has in fact been extensively documented in untreated HIV-infected subjects, has been shown to increase following antiretroviral therapy. Differently, KREC number, which is in the normal range in these patients, has been shown to decrease following long-lasting therapy. Whether changes of KREC levels have relevance in the biology and in the clinical aspects of primary and acquired immunodeficiencies remains to be firmly established.
T-cell Receptor and K-deleting Recombination Excision Circles in Newborn Screening of T- and B-cell Defects: Review of the Literature and Future Challenges Journal of Public Health Research. Apr, 2013 | Pubmed ID: 25170474 Since its introduction as a public health programme in the United States in the early 1960s, newborn blood screening (NBS) has evolved from the detection of phenylalanine levels on filter paper to the application of DNA-based technologies to identify T-cell lymphopenia in infants with severe combined immunodeficiency. This latter use of NBS has required the development of an assay for T-cell lymphopenia based on the quantification of T-cell receptor excision circles (TRECs) that could be performed on dried blood spots routinely collected from newborn infants. The TREC-based NBS was developed six years ago, and there have already been 7 successful pilot studies since then. Similarly, efforts are now being made to establish a screen for B-cell defects, in particular agammaglobulinaemia, taking advantage of the introduction of the method for the quantification of K-deleting recombination excision circles (KRECs). A further achievement of NBS could be the simultaneous recognition of T- and B-cell defects using the combined quantification of TRECs and KRECs from Guthrie card blood spots. This approach may help the early identification of infants with T- and B-cell deficiencies so that they can then be referred to specialised paediatric centres, where a precise diagnosis of severe combined immunodeficiency and agammaglobulinaemia can be performed, and where then they can immediately receive specific therapy. Simultaneous TREC and KREC quantification should also allow classification of patients into subgroups and help identify children with less serious primary immunodeficiencies. This would help avoid the opportunistic infections and frequent hospitalisations that result from a late or lack of diagnosis.
Modulation of Regulatory T-Cell Subsets in Very Long-Term Treated Aviremic HIV(+) Patients and Untreated Viremic Patients The Open AIDS Journal. 2014 | Pubmed ID: 24627733 Naïve, central- and effector-like memory regulatory T cells (Tregs) were evaluated in untreated and long-term antiretroviral-treated HIV(+) patients that showed comparable CD4(+) cell levels, while being, respectively, viremic and aviremic. In the untreated patients, the percentage of naïve-like Tregs was significantly increased to the detriment of central memory regulatory T cells. This redistribution of regulatory Treg subsets may contribute to explain the partially preserved CD4(+) cell counts seen in these patients despite the ongoing viremia. On the contrary, in the long-term treated patients, the percentages of Treg subsets were similar to those of healthy donors, demonstrating a restored Treg homeostasis. The characterization of Treg subsets, rather than an evaluation of the total Treg population, may lead to a deeper understanding of the Treg role in HIV infection and therapy.