In JoVE (1)

Other Publications (5)

Articles by Diogo M. Magnani in JoVE

Other articles by Diogo M. Magnani on PubMed

Evaluation of Recombinant Invasive, Non-pathogenic Eschericia Coli As a Vaccine Vector Against the Intracellular Pathogen, Brucella

Journal of Immune Based Therapies and Vaccines. 2009  |  Pubmed ID: 19126207


Discordant Brucella Melitensis Antigens Yield Cognate CD8+ T Cells in Vivo

Infection and Immunity. Jan, 2010  |  Pubmed ID: 19884330

Brucella spp. are intracellular bacteria that cause the most frequent zoonosis in the world. Although recent work has advanced the field of Brucella vaccine development, there remains no safe human vaccine. In order to produce a safe and effective human vaccine, the immune response to Brucella spp. requires greater understanding. Induction of Brucella-specific CD8+ T cells is considered an important aspect of the host response; however, the CD8+ T-cell response is not clearly defined. Discovering the epitope containing antigens recognized by Brucella-specific CD8+ T cells and correlating them with microarray data will aid in determining proteins critical for vaccine development that cover a kinetic continuum during infection. Developing tools to take advantage of the BALB/c mouse model of Brucella melitensis infection will help to clarify the correlates of immunity and improve the efficacy of this model. Two H-2(d) CD8+ T-cell epitopes have been characterized, and a group of immunogenic proteins have provoked gamma interferon production by CD8+ T cells. RYCINSASL and NGSSSMATV induced cognate CD8+ T cells after peptide immunization that showed specific killing in vivo. Importantly, we found by microarray analysis that the genes encoding these epitopes are differentially expressed following macrophage infection, further emphasizing that these discordant genes may play an important role in the pathogenesis of B. melitensis infection.

Osteoarticular Tissue Infection and Development of Skeletal Pathology in Murine Brucellosis

Disease Models & Mechanisms. May, 2013  |  Pubmed ID: 23519029

Brucellosis, a frequent bacterial zoonosis, can produce debilitating chronic disease with involvement of multiple organs in human patients. Whereas acute brucellosis is well studied using the murine animal model, long-term complications of host-pathogen interaction remain largely elusive. Human brucellosis frequently results in persistent, chronic osteoarticular system involvement, with complications such as arthritis, spondylitis and sacroiliitis. Here, we focused on identifying infectious sites in the mouse that parallel Brucella melitensis foci observed in patients. In vivo imaging showed rapid bacterial dispersal to multiple sites of the murine axial skeleton. In agreement with these findings, immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of bacteria in bones and limbs, and in the lower spine vertebrae of the axial skeleton where they were preferentially located in the bone marrow. Surprisingly, some animals developed arthritis in paws and spine after infection, but without obvious bacteria in these sites. The identification of Brucella in the bones of mice corroborates the findings in humans that these osteoarticular sites are important niches for the persistence of Brucella in the host, but the mechanisms that mediate pathological manifestations in these sites remain unclear. Future studies addressing the immune responses within osteoarticular tissue foci could elucidate important tissue injury mediators and Brucella survival strategies.

Vaccine-Induced Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Specific CD8+ T-Cell Responses Focused on a Single Nef Epitope Select for Escape Variants Shortly After Infection

Journal of Virology. Nov, 2015  |  Pubmed ID: 26292326

Certain major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) alleles (e.g., HLA-B*27) are enriched among human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals who suppress viremia without treatment (termed "elite controllers" [ECs]). Likewise, Mamu-B*08 expression also predisposes rhesus macaques to control simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replication. Given the similarities between Mamu-B*08 and HLA-B*27, SIV-infected Mamu-B*08(+) animals provide a model to investigate HLA-B*27-mediated elite control. We have recently shown that vaccination with three immunodominant Mamu-B*08-restricted epitopes (Vif RL8, Vif RL9, and Nef RL10) increased the incidence of elite control in Mamu-B*08(+) macaques after challenge with the pathogenic SIVmac239 clone. Furthermore, a correlate analysis revealed that CD8(+) T cells targeting Nef RL10 was correlated with improved outcome. Interestingly, this epitope is conserved between SIV and HIV-1 and exhibits a delayed and atypical escape pattern. These features led us to postulate that a monotypic vaccine-induced Nef RL10-specific CD8(+) T-cell response would facilitate the development of elite control in Mamu-B*08(+) animals following repeated intrarectal challenges with SIVmac239. To test this, we vaccinated Mamu-B*08(+) animals with nef inserts in which Nef RL10 was either left intact (group 1) or disrupted by mutations (group 2). Although monkeys in both groups mounted Nef-specific cellular responses, only those in group 1 developed Nef RL10-specific CD8(+) T cells. These vaccine-induced effector memory CD8(+) T cells did not prevent infection. Escape variants emerged rapidly in the group 1 vaccinees, and ultimately, the numbers of ECs were similar in groups 1 and 2. High-frequency vaccine-induced CD8(+) T cells focused on a single conserved epitope and therefore did not prevent infection or increase the incidence of elite control in Mamu-B*08(+) macaques.

Cellular Immune Responses Against Simian T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 Target Tax in Infected Baboons

Journal of Virology. Jun, 2016  |  Pubmed ID: 26984729

There are currently 5 million to 10 million human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-infected people, and many of them will develop severe complications resulting from this infection. A vaccine is urgently needed in areas where HTLV-1 is endemic. Many vaccines are best tested in nonhuman primate animal models. As a first step in designing an effective HTLV-1 vaccine, we defined the CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cell response against simian T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (STLV-1), a virus closely related to HTLV-1, in olive baboons (Papio anubis). Consistent with persistent antigenic exposure, we observed that STLV-1-specific CD8(+) T cells displayed an effector memory phenotype and usually expressed CD107a, gamma interferon (IFN-γ), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). To assess the viral targets of the cellular immune response in STLV-1-infected animals, we used intracellular cytokine staining to detect responses against overlapping peptides covering the entire STLV-1 proteome. Our results show that, similarly to humans, the baboon CD8(+) T cell response narrowly targeted the Tax protein. Our findings suggest that the STLV-1-infected baboon model may recapitulate some of the important aspects of the human response against HTLV-1 and could be an important tool for the development of immune-based therapy and prophylaxis.

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